STATE, SOCIETY AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment jan 2022
Q. 1. Briefly discuss the different perspectives on the State.
Ans. Changing Perspectives on the Nature of State: A state is a historical institution. It is an outcome of an evolutionary process. Various essential elements have contributed to the development of the state.
The nature of state keeps on changing with the passage of time. It changes according to social, economic and political situations. The nature of state can be studied in light of the following perspectives:
Liberal Perspective :
Liberalism is an important political ideology. It was started in 16th century. Economists like Adam Smith and Ricardo have contributed a lot to promote this ideology.
Early liberals like Hobbes. Locke, Benthan and J.S. Mill amongst others have also contributed a lotito spread this ideology.
The origin and development of this ideology cannot be related with any one political thinker. It advocates freedom of the people. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
The prominent features of this ideology are representative democracy, rule of law, human rights, secularism and struggle for political power. The liberal perspective is still developing further.
In liberalism, man is core focus in any social set-up. It focuses on maximum freedom of the people. It also emphasizes minimum control and interference of state in the lives of people.
It supports capitalism and also favours that state should not interfere in the economic activities of the people i.e., policy of ‘Laissez-faire’.
There should be free and open competition. Liberals believe that state is a necessary evil because its rules and regulations infringe on the freedom of people.
But it is also necessary as it performs some unique functions that no other institution can perform. It works for the welfare and development of the people wherein the state accomplishes most of their needs.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
According to early liberals like James Mill and Benthan, state is not a necessary evil but it is a social and ethical institution.
Rule of law and societal peace can only be established when there is interference of state in different spheres of people’s lives. It develops such circumstances that are vital for the development of people.
According to Marxists, a state is not an ethical or social institution. It does not represent people’s needs and will.
State is an invention of that class of society that owns the means of production. It is a political invention for the protection of interests of this strong economic class.
State is an outcome of historical development. It has originated due to class distinction in the society.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Industrial development led to feudalism and capitalist economy. This strengthened the class distinction and hence class distinction became the main reason of state’s origin.
According to some Marxist views, state and its bureaucratic institutions are working independently as an autonomous body.
State is also working according to various sections of society. As per today’s Marxist approach, state works for its own interests and for other powerful pressure groups.
In a nutshell, Marxists believe that state protects the interest of the ruling class, whatever it may be in any form.
The base of this perspective is public choice or public agent theory. This theory assumes that state works for the interest and welfare of special groups.
State uses its authority to fix economic transactions for their benefit. It advocates market model and competitive elements like marketisation.
It assumes that government is the best which rules the least’. It favours that market is superior over the state. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
There is a need to cut down the size of administrative machinery and more active participation of non-governmental agencies.
For this, it promotes privatization. It works to widen the gap between politics and administration and on the other hand, bringing public administration close to private administration.
So the main focus is on management and managerialism’. This perspective supports that state should play a minimum role in the economy but in developing countries/ economies, state has to interfere in various aspects of peoples lives as significant number of them are poor, deprived and disadvantaged.
So here, state becomes a prime institution as it performs the functions of defence, security welfare, infrastructure development, social justice and economic growth.
Q. 2. Trace the evolution of Neo-liberalism.
Ans. Neo-liberalism: Emergence: As mentioned earlier, during mid 1970s to 1980s, in liberal capitalist emocracies, dissatisfaction of a welfare state and its citizens with each other led to the birth of new thought with respect to a state-called Neo-liberalism.
It was also known as neo-right paradigm.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Trio of Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozik and Milton Friedman
Neo-right philosophy as a version of Neo-liberalism emerged in the late 1970s in the UK, under the Prime Ministership of Mrs. Margaret Thatcher.
The 1970s were characterized by economic crisis calling for bold measures of administrative rebuilding and reform in advanced as well as developing economies.
The term Neo-right was first coined by a group of monetarists from Chicago University who were inspired by the writings of three eminent economic and political thinkers – Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozik and Milton Friedman.
Friedrich von Hayek:
Hayek was an anti-modernist who criticized planning and collectivism in his famous work-The Road to Serfdom (1944). His work is based on the following four core ideas:
Wrongness of planning: Hayek argued that centralised planning by the government lessens individual and group liberty, upsets the balance between political institutions by making the executive too strong, undermining the rule of law.
He criticized planning on the basis that it was both politically dangerous and economically inefficient.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Society’s complexity: He strongly opposed the state’s intervention in various measures of social development.
He supported that it would upset the ‘spontaneous natural order’ that existed in the society which was the result of human behaviour.
Primacy of the market: Hayek gave importance to the markets and prices for the allocation of resources.
He believed that the spontaneous interaction of buyers and sellers was more efficient than the activities of the planners.
A framework for socio-economic activity and upholding the rule of law-Hayek emphasized that government had an important but limited role to play.
He favoured the rule of law as it develops such conditions necessary for the growth and prosperity of the market.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Robert Nozik was a leading American intellectual and one of the late 20th century’s most influential thinkers.
He advocated the concepts of minimal state and low tax threshold that appeared to directly attack on issues like social democracy, welfarism, collectivism, social justice and big government’.
He felt that the rights of the individuals were primary and there should be a minimal state, just enough to ensure protection against violence and theft and ensure enforcement of contracts.
This also implied that an exchange of goods was just as long as it was carried out by free, consenting individuals, even if these activities led to inequalities.
Nozik’s political and economic philosophy comprised of the following elements:
• Entitlement theory: It concentrated on regulation of free market exchange as it respected people as equals. Nozik supported that even if a free market did not produce the base-rall well-being it would be justified.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
• The self-ownership argument: This emphasized that every human being is unique and an end in himself i.e., he or she cannot be treated as a means to some other end.
He has the complete capacity to choose rationally what he does. This also implies that people are different from commodities or animal.
• The absolute property rights and self-ownership: He believed that if people own themselves absolutely, then they own what they produce absolutely.
• The Lockean Proviso: This is an intellectual device by Nozik that supported the legitimacy of initial acquisition made by a person.
The Proviso means that natural resources such as land, came to be rightfully owned by first person to appropriate it, as long as it was left ‘enough and as good’ for others.
• Beyond self ownership: This meant that what further sorts of arguments are there for unrestricted property rights that go beyond mere self-ownership’.
Milton Friedman :MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Milton Friedman has been a great advocator of economic freedom and free enterprise. He is popular for his contribution in the free market economy.
He stressed on the benefits of low taxes, privatization and deregulation of industry and services.
He also advocated abolition of rent controls, minimum wages, regional and industrial subsidies and employment legislation. All these were seen as obstacles in the efficient working of a market economy.
He also suggested that government should play a limited role as a provider of law and order, defence and other essential services.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
There is a need for voluntary interaction between buyers and sellers of goods and services i.e., capitalism. It creates economic freedom that is further essential for political freedom.
Friedman was in favour of limited government. He, like Thomas Jefferson, also believed that government that governs the least is the best.
Each government should ideally perform three main functions, as follows:
- Country’s defence
- Enforcing contracts between individuals
- Protecting citizens against crimes against themselves or their property.
According to Friedman, When a government intentionally tries to do some good for the citizens like to rearrange the economy, legislate morality or to help weaker sections it brings inefficiency, lack of innovation and loss of freedom.
The government should act as a referee and not as an active player.
Thus, the trio of Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozik and Milton Friedman are regarded as providing the basis for the intellectual growth of new right ideas.
Thatcherism:MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Neo-liberalism that emerged in the UK under its conservative P.M. Margaret Thatcher came to be known as “Thatcherism’.
It advocated state’s withdrawal from both the economy and the society. It also attacked big and heavy welfare, uneconomic and over bureaucratised state.
It stressed on the privatization of the enterprise and reformed the public sector through managerialism.
The promoters of Thatcherism tried to create an enabling state’ which could help in the prosperity of the business and simultaneously protect the rights of the consumer against the demand of the producer. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
It attacked the then prevailing socio-economic structures and the state apparatus. It favoured the regulation of free market economy that is now popular as liberalization and globalization.
Before Margaret Thatcher’s ‘Thatcherism’, it was P.M. Edward Heath of the Conservative Party who promised less goverment interference in the economy, less taxation, cutting down on public expenditure and reducing subsidies.
However, unfortunately, there was a collapse in economic growth which resulted in the increase of unemployment.
The Heath adopted some ideas of New Right’s policy. In 1975, Thatcher became the leader of the opposition, monetarist, and New Right thinking, had a much more impact in party policy. It was also read as a response to the failure of the Heath era.
Besides focusing on the free market economy, Thatcherism also emphasized on state reforms, especially Civil Service reforms. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
For this, they initiated more privatization to increase the role and impact of markets, to de-layer management and increase the role of target selling and auditing.
A particular belief about civil service reforms was that officials spent longer time on policy-making, much to the detriment of efficient management. Pay reforms were also initiated for them namely:
(b) The financial management initiative.
(c) The next step reforms of 1988.
Thus, Thatcherism of the Conservative Party, first under Margaret Thatcher and then under John Major, gives a good insight into the Neo-liberal view of the state.
Q. 4. Describe the concept and role of social equity in public administration.
Ans. Concept of Social Equity: The norm of social equity is relatively new and although it is generally understood as equality, its meaning now has being specifically understood in the context of social justice.
It is also called social engineering in the present context. With changing context, the norm has incorporated newer inputs and witnessed a broadening of its scope.
For instance, earlier social equity usually focused on caste reform and removal of untouchability etc. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
However, in the current context, its sphere is much wider as it also includes issues like making the society more equitable in terms of social and human resources, gender equality, educational awareness, demographic composition etc.
Besides, it also includes factors of common good, community services, cultural freedom human rights etc.
With the world globalizing rapidly and becoming like one big global village, people are migrating in numbers to economically better regions and states.
This has led to many countries witnessing a change in their demographics, having a mix of people from different backgrounds and ethnicity.
This new influx of people is also contributing economically to their new societies. This has trend has made it vital for countries to further tune their administrative structures to maintain social harmony and cultural freedom.
Similar trend can also be witnessed in India as people move and settle from their native state to another state for better prospects.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
With democracy and human rights finding increasing acceptance amongst the people, social equity would be difficult to realize if the state and the society does not respect their social diversity and maintain harmony.
Some theorists have also illustrated social equity as a principle that every citizen has the right to equal treatment by the politicalsystent pastateis public administration system only focusses on efficiency and economy, then it is bound to disregard the aspect of social equity.
According to George Frederickson, social equity implies a combination of three types of equalities.
• Individual equality: Implies and class of equals like one-perserir one-vote. .
• Segmented Equality: Stems from categories of work classes in a society. While equality might be there in a particular segment of a society, there might be differences of treatment amongst different social segments, e.g. Laws of professional conduct for practicing lawyers may be quite different from that of medical professionals like doctors.
• Block Equality: It stands for equality within a group like women army officers seeking equal remuneration as their male counterparts in the army.
He also indicated that each of the above equalities is limited to its domain and cannot be applied outside of it.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL EQUITY IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATIVE STUDIES:
Public administration systems usually focus at delivering their services efficiently and economically.
It covers all necessary areas that they need to focus on quick decision-making, analysis, research on operations and management.
Therefore, public administrators have not been focusing on the other important issue of social equality and justice, allowing inequalities and injustice to persist.
First, it is essential to understand the meaning of social equity in the context of public administration. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Social equity emerged as rival concept to the concepts of efficiency and economy as guiding principles of public administration.
It took on a much broader meaning with the passage of time. At present, it incorporates a range of values, organisational design choices and choices of different management styles.
It focuses on equality in government services, responsibility for decision-making and implementing programmes on public officers, a change in the perspective of public administration towards responding to citizen’s needs rather than the needs of public bodies amongst others.
Over time, theorists and thinkers contributed several perspectives to the sphere of social equity.
The concept of equity was included in the first adopted principles of the American Society of Public Administration (ASPA), later becoming the code of ethics.
Efficiency and economy have been the main theories of management while social equity has been a theory of government. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Bringing these two approaches together brings about the larger approach to public administration. In the early years of modern public administration in the United States, these two approaches remained balanced.
However, during 1950s, the country became dominated by management theories and issues. The issue of equity and fairness took a backseat.
Although public administration remainedaccepted as a part of the political process, specifics were not developed with respect to the ends where public administration could be applied.
During the same period, as it was also understood that public administration was neutral and not fully involved in formulating policies, it ended up ignoring the issue of social equity.
However, in the later years as public administration became an integral part of policy process, the concept of social equity also gained in importance as a guiding principle for administrative activities, alongside the existing concepts of efficiency and economy.
It is interesting to note that although ‘equality’ is a simple idea but is also quite abstract i.e. it has no clear boundaries. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
On the other hand, administrative practices are defined and complex. Thus, how equality as a norm can be incorporated with the concept of public administration and its processes continues to pose challenges.
Q. 6. Discuss the role of bureaucracyIndia.
Ans. Role of Bureaucracy in India: Bureaucracy is any country is never a closed concept and it continues to be influenced by several factors like liberalization, globalization, privatisation, societal changes and trends, technology trends and developments and many others.
In India too, the bureaucracy is affected by these and many other factors.
Our bureaucracy has several characteristic features like a strong binding character, giving non-partisan advice to politicians, ability to manage and administer, leadership, multi-agency coordination and others.
In this chapter, we would specially understand role of bureaucracy with respect to delegated legislation’ and ‘administrative adjudication’.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Delegated legislation implies the use of legislative powers by a sub-ordinate authority. Although theoretically, bureaucracy does not have any legislative function but in reality, it does carry out some legislative work as a result of the authority delegated to it by the legislature.
This function primarily concerns with furnishing all the details while making policies, giving them depth of meaning and clarity the legislature is unable to do this task due to the constraints of time, resources, abilities and knowledge.
This function of delegated legislation has been on the rise over time.
However, it is making the bureaucracy even more powerful and influential then it already is. This is now becoming a cause of concern as many feel that the bureaucrats may begin acting on their own whims and dictates, overlooking the citizen’s interests and focusing on their own.
The objectives of social justice, fairness and equity may be compromised while making rules and regulations.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
An important method to control this delegated legislative authority is through ‘Administrative Adjudication’.
Administrative adjudication is a power similar to ‘delegated authority’, vested with the judiciary to specifically check the abuse of delegated legislative powers of the bureaucracy.
There are no defined legal rules for conduct that form any guide for administrative adjudication. The adjudicator is guided by statutory standards of common good and public interest.
Here again, arbitrary authority of the administrative adjudicator is kept in check by the judiciary through judicial review.
Besides courts, there are other administrative bodies too that carry out adjudication and ensure that citizens get justice.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
In India, administrative adjudication consists of the following:
(1) Administrative Tribunals: These bodies operate to maintain a balance between personal rights and public welfare.
They provide the common man with impartial and fair hearing when faced with administrative malpractices and misuse of power.
They provide quick justice but have only been successful in a few areas of economic administration.
(ii) Publicity and Consultation: While making rules, the public and other affected parties should be consulted with.
This can be done by sending draft rules to the affected parties, holding meetingsa nd providing public hearings to any interested party who wishes to testify.
(iii) Parliamentary Scrutiny: Delegated legislation can also be scrutinized by Parliamentary committees like Parlia-mentary counts committee, Estimate committee etc
(iv) Judicial Review: Is another process by which bureaucracy’s delegated legislative authority is kept in check by the judiciary. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Here the courts can observe whether the delegated authority is within the limits of the Constitutional provisions and her legal boundaries.
In case it exceeds, the courts can then step in and declare offending rules and regulations as null and void.
Q. 7. Write a note on impact of globalisation on public administration.
Ans. Impact of Globalization on Public Administration: As mentioned earlier, globalization is leading to various changes in the nature of states and their systems of governance.
As globalization is primarily driven by market forces, it has promoted market values and subsequently diluted the role of the state in the economy.
Economies and states are now shifting from being centrally planned to being driven by market forces. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
This is due to the fact that in order to participate and compete in the global markets and trade, various nation states are under pressure to integrate their markets with the global economy.
With the states witnessing these changes, their administrative systems and functions are also being affected. These affects are occurring across several facets and in many dimensions.
The ways in which that state been affected is described across the following dimensions:
Changing Role of the State
Most states across the world have been modeled on the concept of a “welfare state’ wherein the state itself is mainly responsible for ensuring the basic welfare of its people.
However, globalization is also affecting changes across this particular role of the state. A new ‘competition state’ has emerged that promotes public choice initiatives, privatization and deregulation in the economy. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Public administration and services have been infused with newer, market-based reforms alongwith privatization.
The new political economy of development highlights the ‘market’ as the primary factor and not the ‘state’.
The main argument favouring this trend believes that the market is more efficient in providing services to citizens than the state.
Driven by competition and profits, market entities use the available resources far more efficiently than state agencies.
Besides, they also provide the citizen with a choice of services based on his economic capacity whereas, the state provides a comparatively less choice.
Responsiveness of State Institutions:MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
Since globalization is mainly market-driven, it promotes policies that usually neglect the poor and disadvantaged sections of the society or in other words, people who do not have the resources to compete in the globalised markets and reap the benefits.
Developing states and societies mostly face this issue as they have a significant number of disadvantaged people.
As a result these states become more sensitive to the welfare of its disadvantaged people by making their administrative and welfare delivery systems i.e., the state institutions much stronger and responsive.
Only by making the state institutions more responsive and sensitive to the development needs of its disadvantaged people can a state effectively fill the social gap that globalization cannot.
Management Orientation in Public Administration:
Another aspect where globalization has affected a state’s public administrative systems is in its operating orientation.MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
It has affected changes in the administrative systems that make it more efficient, performance and service-oriented and objective driven.
The earlier approach in these systems was more bureaucratic and process oriented in nature.
The traditional approach was not really promoting overall public interest but rather the interests of the bureaucrats and government servants. It was slow, unresponsive and not representative in its functioning.
The advent of globalization and its effects on states, societies and markets has also indirectly led to changes in a state’s administrative systems-making them more oriented towards managing their functions in an efficient and effective manner and using the available resources efficiently.
The administrative systems have also become more goal-oriented rather than simply following policies and procedures. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
The New Public Management (NPM) approach in public administration is an important example in this regard.
The era of globalization has accorded significant importance to markets’ as an enabler of positive changes in the society.
However, the importance of state’ and its institutions has not diminished. Now, there is unanimity in the belief that these two main components i.e., the state and market can and should co-operate and work together for societal development.
As the state is the constituent in which the market operates, it can co-operate with the market in three ways-functional, institutional and strategic.
Functionally, a state can intervene in case of market failures in terms of controlling prices, especially that of essential commodities. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
State institutions can intervene in the market by laying down rules and regulations for governance and control of various players in a market.
Strategically, the state can guide the market through defined strategic guidelines/ approaches so that broader, long-term objectives of social development can be achieved.
A moral aspect to this cooperation can be highlighted in the fact that a state is morally accountable to its citizens but the market is not. Civil Society as a Supplementary
With the emergence and advance of globalization, the civil society has also developed and emerged as a viable force in a state.
This collective group includes NGOs, social and other non-state organisations that together keep a watch on the progress of the state and its constituents, with an overall objective of protecting citizens’ interests. MPA 11 Free Solved Assignment
In today’s society, the profit-driven globalized markets do not assure all-round development and with several state institutions stuck in inefficiencies and unresponsiveness, the civil society has gained importance due to its participatory, inclusive, citizen-friendly and non-bureaucratic approach.
It has also emerged as an important link between the state and the market. The democratic setup in a state is supplemented by the power and efforts of civil society organisations to collectively monitor and control social decline and disorder.
Hence, civil society emerges as a supplementary democratic model in a state that helps in reviving community level participation and strengthening it.
The ‘Bhagidhari’ initiative promoted by the Delhi Government is an example that involves city’s various Resident Welfare Associations along with the government in a joint effort to tackle various issues faced by the citizens at the grassroots and community levels.
As globalization affects various communities and the level of their participation in managing their affairs, the administration is faced with the responsibility of strengthening the institutions and processes of governance and also ensuring the participation of common citizens in development, making it inclusive in nature.
It is here that the role of civil society becomes significant as it emerges as a supplementary force for citizens’ participation in ensuring participative, equitable development.
MPA 16 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022