Information System For Managers
MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2022
Q1- “The IT has been used in every business and for every function of a business.” Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. Also explain application of IT in business?
Ans- With more innovation in technology, new businesses are created. With more business, technology comes to the rescue by making things easier.
The two exist in something of a symbiotic relationship that ensures they will always coexist. Business has been around since prehistoric times.
It may have begun with nothing more than barter trade, if the history books are to be believed, but it has since morphed into something far more complex, and none of that would have been possible without technology.
The major industries of the world would collapse, if the existence and use of information technology were to be snatched suddenly from businesses.
That’s because most business transactions and operations cannot be conducted in the 21st century without technology.
The IT has been used in every business and for every function of a businessThe impact of IT on a business has been tremendous.
One of the advantages of IT systems for a business is the cost-performance ratio, which is better in case of computers. The labor cost increases every year but the cost of computer does not increase. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
A better and more powerful computer can be bought for the same price after a year.
It is better to use computers for routine jobs as far as possible. The IT has been used in every business and for every function of a business.
Some of the applications are as follows.
Finance and accounting – IT has been used for forecasting revenues, determining the best sources and uses of funds and managing cash and other financial resources.
It has also been used to analyze investments and perform audits.
Sales and marketing – IT has been used to develop new services, which may not exist without IT.
IT has helped management of various organizations to determine the best location for production and distribution facilities.
The operational data has been analyzed using IT to determine the best advertising and sales approaches.
The product prices have been set using IT to get the highest total revenues. In other words, IT has been used for product analysis and price analysis.
Manufacturing – IT has been extensively used for processing customer orders, controlling inventory levels, developing production schedules and for monitoring product quality.
A whole new discipline computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing has evolved due to application of IT to design and manufacturing.
Manufacturing is not what is used to be due to the use of computers, Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) dominates the manufacturing sector.
Use of robots is increasing not only in manufacturing plants but also in other sectors such as healthcare, laboratories, defense sector etc.
Human Resource Management – Companies are using IT systems for screening applicants and conducting various tests.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Project Management – A range of software packages are available in the market for managing projects.
These software products let the management set the schedules, milestones, facilitate communication among group members, and monitor the project progress. These products help in document and report preparation.
Data Analysis – Investment firms heavily use information systems to analyze stocks, bonds and options to provide better service to their clients.
With the internet connectivity this application is high in demand even by other firms dealing with large data. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Application of IT in business :-
Today’s businesses rely more heavily on technology than ever before.
From improved telecommunications to online payment options, most modern businesses could not function as effectively or efficiently without technology.
Even the ability to accept credit or debit card payments at retail stores requires a complex system of bank exchanges and telecommunications in order to operate smoothly and reliably.
The application of information technology in management provides opportunities to work outside the office and have increased access to important information regardless of location.
The existing business processes have been thoroughly redesigned to take advantage of IT. A workflow system has reduced the time drastically.
There is no paper movement and everybody can work on an application in parallel.
A company can use global data along with its operational data to respond to changes in the market place.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
A company works with much less inventory as it may easily co-ordinate production activities in the light of the orders.MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
The products can be customized. The customization is done to cater to the needs a very small comment is referred to as micro marketing
The Internet has also been used for electronic commerce. In Electronic Commerce (EC), business transactions take place via telecommunication networks.
Business transactions may take place between an organization and consumers or between two businesses or organizations.
The major benefits to the company include reduced cost, reduced cycle time, and improved customer service.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Following is a list of benefits to an organization using electronic commerce.
(1-EC decreases the cost of creating, processing, distributing, storing, and reliving information.
(2-EC allows reduced inventories and overheads.
(3-EC reduces the time between the payments and receipts of goods and services.
EC enables an organization to operate in the areas much beyond their physical location.
It is the process of buying and selling goods and services electronically using Internet.
The activities such as marketing, advertising, customer support, delivery, and payments are also done electronically.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
An e-business is supported by the Internet within the organization.
One must keep in mind that e-commerce is a whole new business paradigm which needs fresh thinking.
Just creating a website doesn’t guarantee success. Many people started e-businesses and failed. A sound e-business model is required.
Some of the Internet business models are as follow: Virtual storefront is an e-business where physical goods or services are sold online instead of an actual retail outlet.
Some of the examples are www.amazon.com, www.bigbasket.com, grofers.com, www.swiggy.com which sells so many items online. A customer can select an item from their web site and place an electronic order.
Payment can be made online through credit/debit card, net-banking and through other mode of online payments like UPI (Unified Payments Interface), QR (Quick Response) scanning, and Apps like PayTm, GooglePay etc. and then the company delivers goods to the delivery location using traditional means.
There are e-businesses whose prime business is to sell items where prices are not fixed. The prices are decided by the customers through auction.
There are e-businesses who are content provider and manager.
The companies where core competence is not IT hire an IT company to create web sites and databases for them. Almost all companies provide portals for making business.
A portal is a web site, as given above, that provides an initial entry point to the web site of the company or other respective services.
Information technology refers to tools or machines that make work easier including the use of computers and other technical equipment to store, retrieve, and transmit data.
The success of any business depends on several important factors, and choosing the right information technology is one of them.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
As we all know, companies investing in technology will choose the right future.
Your vision is to become a market leader and profitable.Information technology is the only technology that can analyse user data and plan future business trips accordingly.
We have brought together nine top uses of information technology in businesses and organizations
Q2- What are the technology related challenges that are invisible to your organization? Highlight the pitfalls? How integrated software applications can help in this?
Ans-Technology related challenges that are invisible to your organization-There are many challenges in my organization related to Financial Accounting (FI) Controlling (CO) Sales and Distribution (SD) Materials Management (MM) Production Planning (PP) Quality Management (QM) Plant Maintenance (PM) Customer Service (CS) Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Supply Chain Management etc.
that all have been full fill by Microsoft Business Solutions.
Integrated software applications can help in this
Microsoft Business Solutions offers integrated business applications. It creates applications and services for retailers, manufacturers, wholesale distributors, and service companies like the other two players covered in earlier Sections.
The Microsoft product which provides integrated business solutions is known today as Microsoft Dynamics 365. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
With Dynamics 365, customers have the only portfolio of intelligent business applications that empowers everyone to deliver operational excellence and create more engaging customer experiences.
Dynamics 365 applications can be easily connected with the systems and tools which are already in use by customers.
to add and extend capabilities for the existing capabilities in order to accelerate the business growth with optimized operations connecting with every customer in more innovative way with mixed reality and Internet of Things (IoT).
MS Dynamics 365 has about 12 standard application modules which can be integrated as one software solution.
Based on the requirements customers can select one, some, or all application modules for the business growth.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The modules are Finance and Operations, Retail, Human Resource, Sales, Customer Service, Project Service Automation, Field Service, Marketing, Supply Chain Management, Artificial Intelligence(AI) for Sales/Customer Service/Market Insight, Mixed Reality for Remote Assistance and Layout, Business Central as ERP for SMBs i.e. for Small and Middle level Businesses.
Apart it has eCommerce module for online shopping, marketing, and eCommerce activities.
Microsoft itself uses the Customer Service module to manage the process of updating Windows operating systems and other software resources, provided by them, to the latest versions.
Further, MS Dynamics eShop Sales Portal is fully-integrated with a simple user interface built for inhouse sales representatives.
With eshop, sales team is sufficiently equipped with all what they need to maximize sales and provide great customer order management.
Global view of different application software modules of Microsoft Dynamics 365 in organization.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Marketing – To create connected customer experiences, find and nurture new customers, stay on top of the market trends, strengthen relationships and earn loyalty, help with compliance requirements and protect customer data.
Easily customize and connect with tools you already use. Personalize customer experiences with Al.
Customer Service – To deliver positive customer experiences faster, optimize resources and help technicians to be more efficient, reduce operational costs, quickly address and resolve issues using Alpowered virtual agents, freeing agents to handle more complex matters.
To deliver immediate access to the right content at the right time, collaborate, share tips, and leverage rich insights from experts and external users.
Finance – To automate finance management processes to increase efficiency, decrease operational expenses and financial complexities, improve financial controls, and make timely decisions to drive agility and growth using comprehensive, realtime financial reporting, embedded analytics, and
Al driven insights, minimize costs and optimize spending across business geographies with process automation, budget control, and financial planning and analysis.
Supply Chain Management – To connect operations across small or medium-sized business, predict disruptions and respond fast by digitizing the supply chain, enhancing visibility, improving planning, and maximizing asset productivity.
Quality Management (QM-)– The QM component extensively integrates with procurement, production, sales, and equipment maintenance processes.
It can be used to manage complete internal or external audit’s business processes.
It can also assist in finding root causes of a product’s failure to ensure ongoing quality improvements to a company’s business processes.
Sales and Distribution (SD)- The SD component manages major processes of sales and distribution. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This includes selling products or services in national and international markets through direct sales to customers or through distribution networks.
It also handles customer’s returns, along with billing and credit issuance
So, you can see that there is a solution for virtually every thing that your business needs.
For all type of business i.e. Small, Medium, or Large, integrated application solution is available worldwide with state-of-the-art technologies.
It is up to the business houses to select the right solution for the respective requirements.
Employees slowed by inefficient and disconnected processes cannot perform optimally.
Manually transferring client data from one system to others can raise errors, distract employees from vital activities, and impair overall company agility.
Rather than entering the same data many times in different software programs, the main advantages of integrated software applications enable data entered once and then synchronized across all other applications.
Redundant jobs exacerbate errors and divert time away from more critical core responsibilities.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Integrating your applications can help you eliminate duplicate, labour-intensive, and manual operations and provide a competitive edge.
In the case of several siloed systems and overlapping databases, businesses will never be able to see a complete spectacle of their operations in real-time.
The inability to make timely, correct business decisions stops businesses from remaining adaptable in a competitive environment.
Real-time visibility is one of the advantages of integrated software applications that can assist you to save endless hours spent attempting to link together information that is prone to errors and out-ofdate.
It provides you with real-time visibility into your company’s operations.
The ability to provide a superior customer experience is critical for retaining your existing customer base.
It is also one of the most significant advantages of integrated software applications that are tightly connected. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The use of an integrated software system ensures that clients can access their data from any location and that their issues are answered swiftly.
It also helps to eliminate inventory sync issues. Your consumers will be happier as a result, and they will be more likely to purchase from you in the future.
one of the advantages of integrated software applications is that daily users can utilize their functional expertise to modify processes and applications in a way that increases performance because process modifications may be made fast.
Mean while, IT is free to devote its resources to strategic initiatives that might bring value to the bottom line through the development of creating value-added products.
Q3 “The goal of the information system life cycle is to keep the project under control and assure that the system produced satisfies the requirements.” Explain, in view of the statement, the phases of system development life cycle?
Ans. The goal of the information system life cycle is to keep the project under control and assure that the system produced satisfies the requirements – SDLC is also known as the lifecycle of application development, or Software Development Life Cycle.
It’s a process for planning, developing, testing, and implementing certain information systems.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
For years now, the Software Development Life Cycle, or SDLC for short, has cemented itself as the de-facto process to help build information systems, systems engineering, and software engineering from the ground up by encompassing key phases that can be grouped in planning, implementation, and maintenance of the system solution.
The SDLC has grown to be critical thanks to its standardized phases that manage a balancing act between costs, quality, and time to meet modern business demands, urgency, complexity,and to top it off, with tight budgets.
Phases of system development life cycle – The goal of the information system life cycle is to keep the project under control and assure that the system produced satisfies the requirements.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The systems life cycle is the oldest method for building information systems and is still used today for complex, medium or large systems projects.
This methodology assumes that an information system has a life cycle similar to that of any living organism, with a beginning, middle, and an end. This is known as the systems development life cycle (SDLC).
The traditional system life cycle divides the project mainly into four steps, each of which has distinct deliverables, such as computer programs, standard operating procedures (SOPs), or design documents.
The deliverables are related because each subsequent step builds on the conclusions of previous steps.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The four steps in traditional SDLC are – Initiation, Development, Implementation, and Operations & Maintenance.
Some deliverables are oriented toward the technical staff, whereas others are directed toward or produced by users and managers.
The latter ensure that users and their management are included in the system development process.
The traditional system life cycle is a tightly controlled approach designed to reduce the likelihood of mistakes or omissions. Despite its compelling logic, it has both advantages and disadvantages.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Adherence to fixed deliverables and signoffs improves control but guarantees a lengthy process. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
Having specific deliverables due at specific times makes the schedule of deliverables.
When merely going through the motions of producing deliverables on schedule, participants may be tempted sometimes to turn in work that is incomplete and to approve documents they do not truly understand.
However, the traditional SDLC is the standard against which other approaches are compared.
Project managers who want to bypass some of its steps still need a way to deal with the issues they raise.
SDLC is a standard methodology for the development of Information System. Traditional SDLC was strictly sequential.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The software developers had to first complete the previous phase then start the next phase.
But now concept of Repository is introduced in SDLC and it is known as Fast SDLC methodology where work is done across shared repository.
It means that all the inputs and outputs of phases must be stored in the repository.
At any time developers can backtrack to previous phase and they can also work on two phases simultaneously. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
Repository is thus defined as data store of accumulated system knowledge i.e. system models, detailed specifications, and any other documentation that has been accumulated during and Design development.
This knowledge is reusable and critical to the production system’s on going support.
The repository is implemented with various automated tools and it is often centralized as an enterprise business and IT resource.
In SDLC, it is also possible to complete some activities in one phase in parallel with some other activities of another phase.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Sometimes, life cycle is iterative; that is, phases are repeated as required until a satisfactory and acceptable system is found.
Some people consider life cycle to be spiral, in which we constantly cycle through the phases at different levels of detail.
The life cycle can also be thought of a circular process in which the end of the useful life of one system leads to the beginning of another project that will develop a new version or replace an existing system altogether.
Every custom software producer will have its own specific detailed life cycle or system development methodology.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Even if a particular methodology does not look like cycle, you will discover that many of SDLC steps are performed; SDLC techniques and tools are used.
In order to make this unit generic, we follow a rather general life cycle model, as described in
Within that context, the SDLC helps the system come to fruition. Some may wonder why it’s so important to develop and operate information systems in a cyclical fashion and to that,
we can find the answer as it’s traced back to the constant changes in conditions in which the information system is located that influence the outcome of the system.
Q4 “Artificial intelligence is employed in virtually every branch of science today.” Explain, in the view of the statement, the application of artificial intelligence?
Ans- Artificial intelligence is employed in virtually every branch of science todayBefore examining how Al technologies are impacting the business world, it’s important to define the term. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
“Artificial intelligence” is a broad term that refers to any type of computer software that engages in humanlike activities – including learning, planning and problem-solving.
Calling specific applications “artificial intelligence” is like calling a car a “vehicle” – it’s technically correct, but it doesn’t cover any of the specifics.
To understand what type of Al is predominant in business, we have to dig deeper.
The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in fact took place when the first modern computer emerged in the middle of last century.
Frankly, what a computer does is that it simulates collective thinking of several humans to process high volumes of data at a high speed and accuracy.
We are witnessing a shrink in the size and cost of the computer, but there is growth in its capability.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The growth in capabilities actually means that computers are becoming more and more competent of delivering more than the human abilities.
These enhanced competencies are then used to deliver more power in business activities.
The goal of the Al scientists had always been to develop a thinking machine that solves problems in a way that would be considered “intelligent” if done by a human. This forms the basis of our definition to artificial intelligence.
Oxford dictionary defines the two terms as “artificial” means not natural or imitating nature and “intelligence” as quickness in understanding the information.
The term Al was first introduced by McCarthy, “Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in the world”.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) thus can be defined as a field that focuses on building techniques to enable computer systems to perform activities that are quick and are above human intelligence. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Patterson defined artificial intelligence, as “Al is a branch of computer science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems that exhibit some form of intelligence: systems that learn new concepts and tasks,
systems that can reason and draw useful conclusions about the world around us, systems that can understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene, and systems that perform other types of feats that require human types of intelligence”.
Konar defined Al as “the simulation of human intelligence on a machine, so as to make the machine efficient to identify and use the right piece of knowledge’ at a given step of solving a problem” MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Al is employed in virtually every branch of science today. But before going into the details of applications where Al plays a significant role,
we will go back to how computers were developed and what were their capabilities at different point of times.
One can see that there is a growth in the capabilities of the computers as they move from one generation to the other.
In fact, this is addition of more and more intelligence in the systems that are doing wonderful works presently and are poised to do even better in the future.
Application of artificial intelligence We can find a lot of varied applications of Al.
It has been applied in game playing, automated grammar checking, speech recognition, vision systems, and expert systems like weather forecasting, diagnostic systems, financial decision making and classification systems,
computer simulated natural processes, mathematical theorem proving, natural language understanding, intelligent control and scheduling & planning.
Let us consider some of the examples of these applications:
(1. Al in Game Playing: Chess is one such game for which many programs are created using artificial intelligence. Chess has about 10120 states in a typical game.
Many of such programs have done remarkably well like getting a grand-master status or getting a high ELO rating etc.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Most of these programs were capable of thinking move up to five to six levels ahead.
Feeding all possible moves into the computer and making it capable to search the best possible move according to the situation was the strategy of these programs.
You make like to recall that Deep Blue Chess program beat world champion Gary Kasparov.
(2. Al in Automated Grammar Checking: You must have used a wordprocessor and used its spelling and grammar-checking feature.
While spelling checker module works well, there is lot that has to done for the grammar-checking module.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The features available in current software are far less than satisfactory. These software fumbles at using proper pronouns, gender or giving proper meaning etc.
For an efficient program of this kind, it has to be given “intelligence” about knowledge from the real world.
(3. Al in Speech Recognition: You must have seen the software that types the words as one speaks. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
These are called phonetic typewriters. Speech understanding has found good commercial value in the recent times e.g. speech recognition systems are used in reservation through telephone.
Dragon Naturally speak, …… are a few software that needs a mention.
(4. Al in Natural Language Understanding: To understand a natural language like English one has to understand the syntactic (analysis of grammar, compilation) and semantic (meaning of sentences from association of words) interpretation of words.
Robots have been designed that understands few instructions, but days are not far when a robot will fully understand a speech in the natural language.
There have been examples where full document have been translated in many different languages.
Site’s http://babelfish.altavista.com/translation of web pages, is also based on natural language processing.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(5. Al in Vision Systems: Any image is a two-dimensional array of pixels. In vision systems, image is processed for noise and partitioned into objects of interest.
These objects are recognized and finally the image is interpreted. Many banks uses face recognition programs.
There are systems like “intelligent character readers” which recognizes handwriting. Computer vision has many other applications too such as baggage inspection, manufacturing inspection etc. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
(6. Al in Expert Systems: An expert system consists of a knowledge base, database and an inference engine for interpreting the database using the knowledge embedded in the knowledge base.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
There is sound reasoning process that has to build in order to create an expert system.
Al techniques have played significant role in creation of expert systems for weather forecasting; diagnostic systems such as medical diagnosis systems, pathology diagnosis system & customer assistance systems etc.;
financial decision making systems like fraud detection systems used in credit card companies & systems that expedite financial transactions and classification systems like financial decision making systems & NASA’s galaxy-classification system.
(7. Al in Computer Simulated Natural Processes: Applications of Al are not limited to human and natural processes, it is extended to other processes too.
A model based on Al tools predicts the walk of a cockroach and its basic behaviors. The model correctly predicted many of behavioral processes pertaining to cockroach.
(8. Al in Mathematical Theorem Proving: There had been many attempts of proving mathematical theorems with the help of Al tools. Inference methods are used to prove new theorems.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(9. Al in Intelligent Control: firstly an expert controller sets a set of rules. The rule whose premise matches the dynamic plant parameter response is selected and implemented.
Fuzzy logic is also used in such cases in many industrial plants e.g. the power control in a nuclear reactor. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
(10. Al in Scheduling & Planning: You must be aware of the importance of planning a time schedule of a set of events to improve the efficiency. Artificial neural nets and ge employed to solve these problems.
Typical examples of these applications are classroutine scheduling problem, Automatic scheduling for manufacturing and rerouting scheduler for airlines etc.
Operation Desert Storm used these systems for planning logistics of people and supplies
(11. Al in Astronomy: Artificial Intelligence can be very useful to solve complex universe problems. Al technology can be helpful for understanding the universe such as how it works, origin, etc.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(12. Al in Healthcare: Healthcare Industries are applying Al to make a better and faster diagnosis than humans.
Al can help doctors with diagnoses and can inform when patients are worsening so that medical help can reach to the patient before hospitalization.
(13- Al in Finance: Al and finance industries are the best matches for each other. The finance industry is implementing automation, chatbot, adaptive intelligence, algorithm trading, and machine learning into financial processes.
(14- Al in Social Media: Social Media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Snapchat contain billions of user profiles, which need to be stored and managed in a very efficient way. Al can organize and manage massive amounts of data.
Al can analyze lots of data to identify the latest trends, hashtag, and requirement of different users.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(15- Al in Automotive Industry:Some Automotive industries are using Al to provide virtual assistant to their user for better performance. Such as Tesla has introduced TeslaBot, an intelligent virtual assistant. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
Various Industries are currently working for developing self-driven cars which can make your journey more safe and secure.
(16- Al in Data Security: The security of data is crucial for every company and cyber-attacks are growing very rapidly in the digital world. Al can be used to make your data more safe and secure.
Some examples such as AEG bot, A12 Platform, are used to determine software bug and cyber-attacks in a better way.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
(17- Al in Robotics: Artificial Intelligence has a remarkable role in Robotics. Usually, general robots are programmed such that they can perform some repetitive task, but with the help of Al,
we can create intelligent robots which can perform tasks with their own experiences without preprogrammed.
Humanoid Robots are best examples for Al in robotics, recently the intelligent Humanoid robot named as Erica and Sophia has been developed which can talk and behave like humans. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Al has taken off from there and what we are getting today is an improved build-up on the older system but with more and more applications because of constant developments in the tools required for deploying such Al based systems.
With machine Learning, Deep Learning, NLPs we have come across many such uses of Al in almost every field – from R&D, Healthcare, Industry to Agriculture, Retailing, and eCommerce.
Expert systems emerged as a consequence of the developments in the artificial intelligence field. They started as problem solvers using specialized domain knowledge.
As the time passed by these systems kept building on themselves and what we are getting today is much better versions of their predecessors.
More and more algorithms and methods were developed to solve problems more efficiently. Some of these include artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms.
Q 5 Write the short note on any three of the following ?
(a) Smart Devices
Ans- A smart device, as the name suggests, is an electronic gadget that is able to connect, share and interact with its user and other smart devices.
Although usually small in size, smart devices typically have the computing power of a few gigabytes.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Smart devices are interactive electronic gadgets that understand simple commands sent by users and help in daily activities.
Some of the most commonly used smart devices are smartphones, tablets, phablets, smartwatches, smart glasses and other handheld personal electronics items.
With the digitalization in practice almost in every field such devices are very commonly seen everywhere.
A smart device is able to connect, share and interact with its user and other smart devices.
Although usually small in size, smart devices typically have the computing power of a few gigabytes.
Such devices are very common these days in information gathering and further dissemination.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
They are all of the everyday objects made intelligent with advance computing including artificial intelligent and machine learning. They are networked to form the internet of things (IoT).
These small devices are powerful enough to process data. They range from sensors to refrigerators and wearable to container transportation, capable of running autonomous workloads. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
(B)Transaction Processing System
ANS- A Transaction Processing System is a set of information that processes the data operation in a database system that controls transaction programs.
The method of breaking down transactions using a simpler and unified method is called transaction processing.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Management information system, in general, consists of all business transactions of the organization.
Every information system has many subsystems like transaction processing system, decision support system, office automation system etc, to have a larger utility of database created for business analysis.
The decision makers do retrieval of information from the master data through a set of well-defined tools.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
For example, to calculate the net salary of an employee, we need to supply different inputs like basic salary, number of days present, existing DA, and HRA levels.
Accounts department uses this information to calculate the final receivable salary of an employee. MMPC 08 Free Solved Assignment
This process is called transaction process of the data for payroll calculation. As this is a part of the information system, it can be called as a subsystem.
Preparation of transaction documents such as pay slips, invoices, and receipts is important and routine task performed in managerial functions. The general view of transaction processing System is
Data manipulation to get the desired information through the specific tools of management is called transaction process.
As applicable in other cases, different areas of management like HRM, Finance, Operations, and Marketing have various business transaction processing systems and hence the sub systems to generate required output are needed.
We will discuss some examples of such sub systems for transaction processing. A transaction program runs by managing already stored data.
When a problem occurs during the processing of a transaction, the incomplete transaction must be rerun by the TPS.MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Although the Transaction processing system is not limited to application programs, it plays a very important role when accessed by multiple users simultaneously.
Users of TPS may range from one at a time, groups or thousands of users simultaneously.
(d) Data Warehousing
ANS- Data warehousing is the secure electronic storage of information by a business or other organization.
The goal of data warehousing is to create a trove of historical data that can be retrieved and analyzed to provide useful insight into the organization’s operations.
The need to warehouse data evolved as businesses began relying on computer systems to create, file, and retrieve important business documents.
The concept of data warehousing was introduced in 1988 by IBM researchers Barry Devlin and Paul Murphy. Data warehousing is designed to enable the analysis of historical data.
Comparing data consolidated from multiple heterogeneous sources can provide insight into the performance of a company. MMPC 8 Solved Free Assignment 2022
A data warehouse is designed to allow its users to run queries and analyses on historical data derived from transactional sources.Data added to the warehouse do not change and cannot be altered.
The warehouse is the source that is used to run analytics on past events, with a focus on changes over time.
Warehoused data must be stored in a manner that is secure, reliable, easy to retrieve, and easy to manage.
We have understood the need and importance of data warehouse to facilitate strategic decision-making.
The concept of a data warehouse given by Bill Inmon, the father of data warehousing, is depicted in
Data warehouse data of an organization are arranged and optimized to provide answers to questions coming from diverse functional area within a company.
Therefore, the data warehouse contains data organized and summarized by meta data and keywords i.e. by topic, such as sales, marketing, finance, distribution, transportation etc.
For each one of these topics the data warehouse contains specific subjects of interest – products, customers, departments, regions, promotions, and so on.
Note that this form of data organization is quite different from the more functional or process-oriented organization of typical transaction systems.
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