MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1- Explain the process of communication. How does it influence the process of sending a message and receiving the feedback?
Ans- Process of communication – communication is one of the most integral parts of any individual or an organisation. There is a specific way to communicate effectively.
Therefore, it is important for us to understand the process of human communication so as to avoid the common errors which take place in a communication. This unit discusses different models of communication to understand the process.
There can be a one way communication and a two way communication. We will discuss different models to help us develop an understanding of how communication flows
LINEAR CONCEPT OF COMMUNICATION-
The following five fundamental questions are asked in the early stages of communication:
What is said?
Where is it said?
To whom it is said?
With what effect it is said?
The transmission of information from a sender to a recipient is considered to be a one-way process of communication.
A receiver passively receives the message and acts as directed or requested by the sender, according to the linear perspective. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
The goal of communication is to manipulate or control the receiver. It is assumed that the message reaches the receiver intact and unchanged as it travels through the medium chosen by the sender. below gives the Linear View of communication.
Sender > Message > Media > Message > Receiver > Action
SHANNON -WEAVER MODEL OF COMMUNICATION :
C.E. Shannon and W. Weaver were among the first to point out that messages may be altered or blocked in the process of communication.
Shannon’s communication model is based on a mathematical or mechanical understanding of the communication process, with the fundamental issue being that the message received does not equal the message sent.
Noise, he said, was to blame for the gap. Later in 1949, the Shannon model was published in a mathematical theory of communication co-authored by Weaver. Weaver pioneered the use of feedback as a noise reduction technique.
The Shannon-Weaver model, on the other hand, did not consider feedback to be an essential component since it saw communication as a linear process with feedback as a separate act of communication. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Therefore, in the Shannon-Weaver model, a dotted line is used to represent feedback
The concept is predicated on the notion that communication takes place only after the message has been received, and that it should be received as intact as possible. Of course, this is a theoretical notion of perfect communication.
In real life, filters in both the sender’s and receiver’s minds influence the meaning of the message.
Feedback, to some extent, corrects any distortions and tends to complete the communication cycle. The below picture shows the Shannon weaver model of communication.
Source of Information (ideation) : The information source is the first step in the communication process. The sender has some unprocessed data.
His/her goal is to turn the data into a message that can be shared. The information source of the communication process is the source of a message.
Encoding : The sender composes the message after giving it some thought (verbal symbols or any other symbolic form of expression). Encoding is the term for this procedure.
Channel of Transmission : A channel is a suitable medium for sending a message, such as orally, in writing, electronically, in code, or via a signaling system.
Decoding: Decoding involves receiving, comprehending, and interpreting the message. This is how a recipient receives the message.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Acting : The communication process comes to a close when the receiver acts on an interpreted message, just as the sender intended.
As a result, we can observe that communication completes a full circle, bringing the sender and receiver together as two sides of the same coin.
Modern management considers communication to be a vital ability for successful managers because of its uniting process and role.
Noise : This mechanism is susceptible to noise, which can obstructor distort communication, preventing the message from being sent from the transmitter to the receiver.
Noise, according to certain communication theorists, refers to extrinsic disturbances in the physical environment around the act of communication, such as poor audio quality, phone dropouts, bad printouts, or unreadable writing.
Filters : Filters are responsible for communication distortion induced by subjective elements such as the sender’s and receiver’s attitudes. These are psychological in nature.
Attitudes, beliefs, experiences, self-awareness, and the ability to think coherently are among them. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
As the sender’s communication travels through the receiver’s filters, which are made up of his/her experience, knowledge, and sentiments, misinterpretations and other issues may occur.
Influence the process of sending a message and receiving the feedback
Feedback is the final link in the chain of the communication process. After receiving a message, the receiver responds in some way and signals that response to the sender.
The signal may take the form of a spoken comment, a long sigh, a written message, a smile, or some other action.
“Even a lack of response, is in a sense, a form of response” (Bovee & Thill, 1992). Without feedback, the sender cannot confirm that the receiver has interpreted the message correctly.
Feedback is a key component in the communication process because it allows the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of the message.
Feedback ultimately provides an opportunity for the sender to take corrective action to clarify a misunderstood message. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
“Feedback plays an important role by indicating significant communication barriers: differences in background, different interpretations of words, and differing emotional reactions” (Bovee & Thill, 1992).
The communication process is the perfect guide toward achieving effective communication. When followed properly, the process can usually assure that the sender’s message will be understood by the receiver.
Although the communication process seems simple, it in essence is not. Certain barriers present themselves throughout the process. Those barriers are factors that have a negative impact on the communication process.
Some common barriers include the use of an inappropriate medium (channel), incorrect grammar, inflammatory words, words that conflict with body language, and technical jargon. Noise is also another common barrier.
Noise can occur during any stage of the process. Noise essentially is anything that distorts a message by interfering with the communication process.
Noise can take many forms, including a radio playing in the background, another person trying to enter your conversation, and any other distractions that prevent the receiver from paying attention.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Successful and effective communication within an organization stems from the implementation of the communication process.
All members within an organization will improve their communication skills if they follow the communication process, and stay away from the different barriers.
It has been proven that individuals that understand the communication process will blossom into more effective communicators, and effective communicators have a greater opportunity for becoming a success.
Q2- Differentiate between Upward Communication and Downward communication. Illustrate your answer with the help of examples.
Ans- Upward Communication- Upward communication is defined as a communication process in which the managers, supervisors, directors receive information and messages from the lower level employees regarding works or other things.
In this form of formal communication at the workplace, the flow of information is from bottom to top. It follows a chain of hierarchy from subordinate levels to superior levels.
It normally consists of requests, work reports, complaints from base level employees to managerial and/or above levels.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
This type of communication is essential to keep the management informed about the viewpoints of employees, the state of morale at junior levels, to receive the reactions of employees on various policies and procedures etc.
This form of communication takes place in group meetings, reporting to supervisors, filing complaint or suggestion forms and dropping in the designated boxes or through email requesting to redress a grievance, etc
|Downward Communication||Upward Communication|
|. It is a process of communication from a superior level to a subordinate level.||. It is a process of communication from a subordinate level to a superior level.|
|It is authoritarian in nature. The employee at the superior or management levels needs to exert authority while giving instructions for daily business purposes.||. It is democratic in nature. Employees at the subordinate levels do not need to exert any authority while sending work reports, making requests or giving feedback.|
|The frequency of downward communication is high because it involves important daily business instructions, orders, advice etc.||. The frequency of this type of communication is very low. It only occurs when there is a need to communicate with the superior level.|
|. The purpose of this form of communication is to keep the subordinate informed with the necessary information.||. The purpose of this form of communication is to give feedback or make requests to the management.|
|. Initiatives are taken by higher management to make the communication.||. Employees at subordinate levels can only take initiatives to establish relationships.|
Downward Communication : Downward communication is the procedure in which information or chain of command circulates from an organization’s upper level of hierarchy to the lower level.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
It occurs when information and messages flow down by using the formal chain of command or hierarchical structure of an organization. This is the most common form of formal communication at a workplace.
The information flows from higher managerial levels to lower levels. It follows a chain of commands from a superior level to a subordinate level.
They are mostly job instructions, policy documents, official announcements, production reports, procedure manuals or any other information essential for functioning of the business processes conveyed to the employees through email, letters, brochures, pamphlets, etc.
In level management of communication downward, messages and orders start from the top-level management of the company and move down toward the lower-level employees.
The superiors responsible for upper management like managers, directors, or CEOs convey organizational goals, procedures, policies, orders, decisions, instructions, etc., to their subordinates through downward communication.
Q3 What is the role of Interpersonal Communication in business organisations? Explain giving examples.
Ans- Interpersonal Communication : Interpersonal communication is all about the exchange of thoughts and ideas between individuals using a variety of methods, including words, tonal variation, facial expressions, gestures, and body language.
Interpersonal communication and the skills to relate with others aren’t just important for an individual, but they happen to be at the core of the success of an organization.
When interpersonal communication in the workplace is effective, it makes operations more efficient and teamwork not only possible but also easier.
ROLE OF INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION: Human evolution relied heavily on interpersonal contact. According to previous studies, early humans who lived in communities rather than alone were more likely to survive.
The findings also suggest that those who have strong interpersonal ties are more likely to transmit these traits down to the next generation
Interpersonal abilities have a wide range of applications in the real world. They have a measurable effect on mental and physical well-being.
People with superior interpersonal communication abilities are less anxious, have better stress management skills, and are happier in their personal and professional connections.
Contrary to this, prolonged isolation and lack of interpersonal skills result in damages to the well-being of humans. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Other than making relationships and health better, interpersonal communication skills are highly sought after by potential employers.
All these examples show how interpersonal communication meets our basic needs as humans for security in our social bonds, health, and careers
INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION MODELS : Models are the diagrams that are useful in analyzing the process of communication. These models help one who is trying to understand, diagnose and perhaps repair a communication process.
In this section, we will discuss five models that can help us to understand interpersonal communication in a better way.
The case situation given in activity 2 highlights the problem in an effective communication process. After studying this section, suggest ways in which Mr. X and Mr. Y can improve their communication effectiveness.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
ONE WAY MODEL: This is perhaps the oldest model of communication. It is based on Aristotle’s Rhetoric. Theories revolving around this framework are termed the Classical Rhetoric and built around theories of argumentation as well as persuasion.
The model emphasizes the sender’s need to consider the right techniques to present the right message to the right audience
An example of a one-way communication model would be listening to TV or radio broadcasts where a message is communicated from the sender to receiver in one direction.
Sender -----> Receiver
Though the model is simple it provides a theory of composition and communication for both oral and written discourse with an emphasis on persuasion.
Despite limitations, it serves as a useful diagnostic tool. The major strength of this tool is that it emphasizes the significance of the receiver.
Interaction Model : The model was given by Wilbur Schramm in the year 1997 and builds upon the linear model of communication which we discussed in Unit 2.
Combining the ideas of several communication theorists, the interaction model was an upgradation of the one-way model. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
The model included four more concepts to the existing model: (1) channel, (2) encoding and decoding, (3) noise, and (4) feedback. Figure 2 represents the Interaction model (Schramm’s model) of communication.
The participants take turns being the sender and receiver. They create meaning by sending and receiving messages in both physical and psychological settings.
The approach rejects communication as a one-way, linear process and instead adds feedback, making communication more interactive and a two-way process. In this model, the channel represents the source through which the message is sent.
It can be verbal and non-verbal. Media represents various tools such as letters, memos, mobile phones, televisions and social media websites.
Feedback includes a return loop by which the sender receives reactions. It answers various questions that occur in the speaker’s mind like ‘Is my audience happy with my speech? ‘Are my customers convinced with the product details I shared with them?’, etc.
The inclusion of a feedback loop allows a more complex understanding of the roles of participants in a communication encounter. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
However, sometimes excess feedback may also harm the communication process. In some instances, a sender has to think through, encode and send the information without being distracted by the feedback.
Hence, though feedback can be used as an aid to understanding the impact of the communication process, one needs to use other concepts included in the model as well.
As the name suggests, the interaction model of communication is more interaction-focused. It does not judge communication as effective or ineffective rather acknowledges that communication is nuanced and complex.
It encourages the speaker to use feedback for simulating further questions like ‘Why is my boss not replying to my email?’, ‘Why is my audience not looking interested?’ etc.
This helps in improving the effectiveness of an overall communication process. Though the interaction model came up as a major improvement over the oneway communication model,
it did not consider a few significant observations which are: (1) communication process does not happen sequentially, i.e. one step at a time as highlighted in the prior communication models,MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
(2) in the step at a time as highlighted in the prior communication models, (2) in the process of communication, the participants act both as sender and receiver simultaneously,
(3) role of self and others perception, and (4) communication context. The other models were later developed to fill these gaps.
Two-Person Relationship Model : Although the interaction model was a major improvement over a one-way model, it had its own drawbacks. In terms of the communication process the points this model ignored were:
1) Communication process does not happen sequentially, i.e. one step at a
time as highlighted in the prior communication models;
2) In the process of communication, the participants act both as sender and
3) It excluded sender’s and receiver’s perceptions of each other and
4) The wider social and organisational settings in which the communication
takes place.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
According to the two-person relationship model, the communication process is reciprocal: the sender’s views of, and behaviour towards the receiver are simultaneously affecting and being affected by the receiver as represented below
Using this model as a diagnostic tool, we will be able to understand how the communication process is related to human behaviour. In general, human beings tend to reach cause and effect conclusions.
For example, “Mr. A has slowed down on the project work because his project leader was not open to taking his recommendations.” This is the most convenient one-way cause and effect explanation.
However, in doing this we ignore the possibility of Mr. A as not looking any more inspiring to the project leader.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
This could be because Mr. A’s lagging enthusiasm and output make him assume that his suggestions do not deserve much attention.
The two-person relationship model suggests that we must look not only at the explicit behaviour but also at how each perceives the other.
According to this model, people tend to behave in ways that confirm their self-perceptions. The model illustrates the strong influence of self-perception on behaviour.
Hence self-perception, the perceptual point of view, and the inter-dependence of two on each other constitute the key ideas in this model.
Q4 Why is writing considered to be an important part of Business communication? Explain.
Ans- Business communication – Communication is an essential element in the success of any business. The process of transferring information from one person to another, within and outside the business environment, is termed as ‘Business Communication.’
The term ‘Business Communication’ is derived from general communication which is associated with business activities.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
In other terms, communication between business parties or people for business-related tasks is considered as ‘Business Communication.’
According to Ricks and Gow defined Business Communication as a system that is responsible to affect change throughout the whole organization.
Effective business communication is the way employees and management communicate to achieve organizational goals.
The objective is to improve organizational efficiency by reducing mistakes. Business Communication includes different aspects like marketing, public relations, customer relations, corporate and interpersonal communication, etc.
Considered to be an important part of Business communication: As human beings, we observe and process a vast amount of information that we get from the world around us.
We react to what we see, and these reactions make us unique individuals. If we document these reactions and observations regularly, we create records of our personal history. Writing is thus an important tool for documentation.
In recent times, however, writing has expanded to become an important professional skill. Since we are connected by online networks which demand constant communication, we are expected to write concise and clear texts. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
All professional workplaces now demand strong writing skills from their employees and it is an important ingredient for upward mobility.
Beyond these obvious and practical functions, we write for the following reasons:
Write to experience: People who take photographs have often talked about the importance of capturing the beauty of a moment. In a similar way, writing can motivate or demotivate the employees of an organisation.
If you have a unique moment that is worth sharing in your workplace then that can be done through the writing. Either way, writing provides you with a medium to share your ideas and experiences.
Write to think: As humans, we are constantly inundated with thoughts about our daily lives, ambitions, and insecurities.
To make careful choices and decisions, we must express what we think. Writing gives us an opportunity to articulate our complex thoughts.MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Write to create: Words have the power to carry inspiring messages. There is a reason why we remember great novelists, thinkers and scientists and find wisdom in what they say. To write well is to create a piece of art that stands the test of time.
Write to learn: Writing can help us remember what we read and study. When we take notes, we learn to record and analyse information. Thisvisdows one of the important parts for the businesses.
FEATURES OF WRITTEN COMMUNICATION :
Many people believe that people who are good at writing do not need to spend a lot of time learning to write – they are born writers. Writing comes naturally to them. However, this is not true.
Writing research shows that all good writers also keep learning how to write and they constantly practice their skills.
So, learning to write is essential for developing writing skills. To be an effective communicator one must adhere to the following characteristics of writing:
Extensive reading: Reading extensively will enable you to become a better writer. In personal as well as professional life a reading habit helps in developing better communication skills MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Constant writing: One of the best ways to become a good writer is by constantly writing. Practice makes writing more profound and the words that flow have more clarity.
Word conscious/word seeker: Good vocabulary helps in placing the appropriate words while writing which will help in transmitting the message with more clarity. This is very much important in the business world.
Purpose of writing: It is very important to be aware of the purpose for which you are writing and have knowledge of who your readers are. This will make your writing more focused and precise.
Whatever the writing situation, most of us as writers have various purposes in mind.
Target audience: Remember, most writing is meant to be read by others. In the business world, the audience is quite specific and communication to the employer or other stakeholders is made through e-mails, memos, reports etc. or a job application.
Understanding of the subject: The next step is to attempt to understand your subject or topic. Few writers can have a complete understanding of Windows their subject or topic when they begin to write.
Remember, “writing is settings to activate Windows. not something you do after thinking, but it is something which helps you to think’.
Well-written communication helps define goals, identify problems and arrive at solutions. This is important in every aspect of business. Executives must clearly write memos so that staff understands the directives without confusion.
Q5 Discuss the importance of technology in Business Communication. Illustrate with the help of examples
Ans- Business communication – Technology is the mechanical application of the rules of science in performing human activities.
Technological development has changed the human lives dramatically. It brings dynamism, happiness and prosperity in human lives and makes their lives easy and simple.
Recent development in business is the gift of technological advancement. Information technology has turned the whole world into a single family and has opened a new horizon in business. The role of technology in business communication is discussed below:
Quick transmission of information: The greatest advantage of electronic communication is the quick transmission of information. With the help of electronic media, one can send information to a distant receiver just within a few seconds.
Transmitting large volume of information: People can send large volume of information with the help of electronic devices. Through e-mail, one can attach writings of hundred pages easily. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Making instant business decision: With the help of electronic communication, managers can take instant or quick decisions. With a click of computer, they can obtain information at anytime from anywhere in the world.
This helps in making quick decision and ensures better management of business.
Lowering communication cost: Electronic communication not only saves time but also money. Electronic communication such as e-mail requires less cost than the traditional means of posting a letter.
Wide coverage: Through electronic communication, one can transmit information to many receivers who are located in different places.
With the help of electronic devices like satellite, people conquered distance and the whole world has now turned into a global village.
Communication with distant people: Electronic communication provides the opportunity of interactive communication with distant people.
Video conferencing, for example, allows interactive communication even though the participants are geographically dispersed. It saves travel cost, time, and energy.
Easy preservation of information: Electronic devices can store huge volume of information that can be used in time of need. As a result, the use of manual files is decreasing day by day. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Managing operations globally: In modern days, businesses are becoming global. More and more businesses are dispersing their operations across the globe.
Management of geographically dispersed business operations is possible only through electronic communication.
Importance of technology in Business Communication-
The term “Information and Communication Technology” (ICT) refers to all of the technologies and services involved in computing, data protocol management, telecommunications, and the internet.
ICT aims to provide newer and more innovative ways for people to interact, network, gain access to information, excel, and learn all at the same time.
Information and communication technology (ICT) now has a significant economic impact.
The technology sector holds a significant portion of economic activity around the globe, as economies, employment, and personnel have become more automated and the world has become a global village.
Customer feedback loops : Customer feedback loops and data analytics are both powered by information and communication technology.
Both of these factors enable manufacturers to strengthen their relationships with customers while also adding value to the products they create through customization.
Reduction in network latency : As the Fourth Industrial Revolution or Industry 4.0 progresses, new communications technologies such as 5G will reduce network latency, increase bandwidth and increase manufacturers’ capacity for real-time and near-real-time response. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
With 5G integration and Internet of Things (IoT) technology, manufacturers will be able to increase their use of sensors, cloud platforms, centralised tracking, quality inspection and other related systems.
Finally, advances in information and communication technology are spawning a new breed of “industrial wearables.”
Smart glasses and biometric sensors that can connect individual workers to remote databases or industrial resources, as well as robotics, are examples of tools and equipment.
ICT and advancements in health care systems : Information and communication technology (ICT) has developed a variety of applications in the health care sector.
These applications have tremendously affected domains of patient care, public health, operating costs, and the traditional bureaucracy linked with the medical profession and life sciences.
Electronic health records (EHRS) allow healthcare workers to enter patient data into a centralized, digitized system that is accessible to relevant stakeholders such as medical personnel, pharmacies, and insurers. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Systems can be configured with alerts and integrated with user authentication and security policies to allow patients access to their health information.
Education’s ubiquity and universal accessibility : ICT facilitates electronic learning, also known as eLearning, by combining database technology with communications and interactive programming techniques.
Individuals and organisations can participate in vocational or special interest training courses that combine formal instruction, quizzes, practical exercises, research, and interactive multimedia elements, all in the learner’s own time and at their own pace, using e-learning platforms such as Coursera and Lectora.
Information and communication technology (ICT) in schools and colleges provides students with engaging, interactive, and self paced learning methods that increase their independence and involvement in the learning process while also increasing their levels of digital literacy.
i) ICT and Environmental Impact : With sustainability and environmental stewardship high on the priority list for individual consumers, governments, and organisations,
Importance of Information and Communication Technology
a) ICT and e-commerce : The ICT infrastructure that formerly drove simple credit or debit card transactions and centralized record-keeping for commercial organisations continue to expand in retail and other customer-facing environments, and e-commerce now merges with the shopping experience itself. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Consumers can now shop for goods and services online from the convenience of their own homes.
Using database technology and shopper-friendly websites or applications, today’s consumers may shop for goods and services online from the comfort of their own homes or on their mobile phones.
And cutting edge technologies like augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), and artificial intelligence (AI) are allowing potential consumers to have quick, interactive access to product information and even try them out.
b) ICT and a New Business : Ecommerce and the expansion of ICT have brought considerable changes to how commercial organisations function behind the scenes, in addition to new routes for purchasing and new means of showing and promoting goods.
Mobile devices and real time communications, combined with developments in data analytics and artificial intelligence, enable retail sales people to work more efficiently.
c) Manufacturing Innovations : ICT is a useful support mechanism in the manufacturing sector, capable of making design and production more robust, effective, and efficient through the use of computer-based precision engineering, virtualized systems, and computer simulation. MMPC 07 Free Solved Assignment
Despite ongoing concerns about the potential impact of trade volatility, tariffs, and the global economic slowdown the industry remains optimistic.
d) New Methods of Manufacturing ICT is a useful support mechanism in the manufacturing sector, capable of making design and production more robust, effective, and efficient through the use of computer-based precision engineering, virtualized systems, and computer simulation.
information and communication technology presents a two-sided argument. On the one hand, while ICT is estimated to contribute 2% to 5% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, these technologies also help to reduce emissions.
Aside from the physical benefits of less reliance on paper-based documentation, ICT aids in monitoring climate change, mitigating and adapting to its effects, and easing the transition to a green and circular economy.
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