Human Resource Management
MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1-Define human resource management in your own words. Describe the functions of a HR Manager citing real time examples.
Ans – WHAT IS HRM?
HRM is the process of acquiring, developing, maintaining, and retaining human resources in an organisation with the strategic objective of achieving organisational goals. So, what is the significance of the term “human resource management”?
Human: This term refers to an organization’s required workforce.
The term Resource refers to an organization’s workforce supply.
Management refers to the most efficient use of resources in order to achieve organisational goals.
Edwin B. Flippo – ―Human resource management is planning, organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, resources to the end that individual and societal objectives are accomplished.
ROLES AND FNCTIONS OF HR MANAGERS :
The role of HRM is to plan, develop and administer policies and programs designed to make optimum use of an organization‟s human resources.
It is that part of management which is concerned with the people at work and with their relationship within organisation. Its objectives are:
(a) effective utilization of human resources,MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
(b) desirable working relationships among all members of the organizations, and
(c) maximum individual development
Human resources functions as primarily administrative and professional. With the changing scenario they are involved in company‟s overall strategic management also.
HR professionals have an all encompassing role.
They are required to have a thorough knowledge of the organization and its intricacies and complexities.
The ultimate goal of every HR manager should be to develop a linkage between the employee and organization because employee‟s commitment to the organization is crucial.
The first and foremost role of HR manager is to impart continuous education to the employees about the changes and challenges facing the country in general and their organization in particular.
The employees should know about the balance sheet of the company, sales progress, and diversification of plans, share price movements, turnover and other details about the company.
The HR professionals should impart such knowledge to all employees through small booklets, video films and lectures.MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
The primary responsibilities of Human Resource Managers are:
To develop a thorough knowledge of corporate culture, plans and policies;
To act as an internal change agent and consultant;
To initiate change and act as an expert and facilitator;
To actively involve in company„s strategy formulation;
To keep communication line open between the HRD function and individuals and groups both within and outside the organization;
To identify and evolve HRD strategies in consonance with overall business strategy;
To facilitate the development of various organizational teams and their working relationship with other teams and individuals;
To try and relate people and work so that the organization objectives are achieved efficiently and effectively;
To diagnose problems and determine appropriate solution particularly in the human resource areas;
To provide co-ordination and support services for the delivery of HRD programmes and services; and
To evaluate the impact of an HRD intervention or to conduct research so as to identify, develop or test how HRD in general has improved individual and organizational performance. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Different management gurus have deliberated different roles for the HR managers based on the major responsibilities that they full fill in the organization. Few of the commonly accepted models are enumerated below
1) To bring the issues and trends concerning an organization’s external and internal people to the attention of strategic decision makers and to recommend long term strategies to support organizational excellence and endurance.
2) To design and prepare HR systems and actions for implementation so that they can produce maximum impact on organizational performance and development.
3) To facilitate the development and implementation of strategies for transforming one’s own organization by pursuing values and visions.
4) To create a positive relationship with the customer’s by providing them with the best services; to utilize the resources to the maximum and to create commitment among the people who help the organization to meet the customers needs whether directly connected or indirectly connected to the organization.
5) To identify the learning needs hence to design and develop structured learning programmes and materials to help accelerate learning for individuals and groups.
6) To enable the individuals and groups to work in new situations and to expend and change their views so that people in power move from authoritarian to participative models of leadership.MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
7) To help employees to assess their competencies, values and goals so that they can identify, plan and implement development plans.
8) He also assists the individual employee to add values in the workplace and to focus on the interventions and interpersonal skills for helping people change and sustain change.
9) He assesses the HRD practices and programmes and their impact and to communicate results so that the organization and its people accelerate their change and development.
Administrative Role of HR :– The administrative role of HR management has been heavily oriented to administration and recordkeeping including essential legal paperwork and policy implementation.
Major changes have happened in the administrative role of HR during the recent years. Two major shifts driving the transformation of the administrative role are: Greater use of technology and Outsourcing
Technology has been widely used to improve the administrative efficiency of HR and the responsiveness of HR to employees and managers, more HR functions are becoming available electronically or are being done on the Internet using Web-based technology.
Technology is being used in most HR activities, from employment applications and employee benefits enrollments to e-learning using Internet-based resources.
Operational and Employee Advocate Role for HR :-
HR managers manage most HR activities in line with the strategies and operations that have been identified by management and serves as employee champion for employee issues and concerns.
HR often has been viewed as the employee advocate in organizations.
They act as the voice for employee concerns, and spend considerable time on HR crisis management, dealing with employee problems that are both work-related and not work-related. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Employee advocacy helps to ensure fair and equitable treatment for employees regardless of personal background or circumstances. Sometimes the HR’s advocate role may create conflict with operating managers.
However, without the HR advocate role, employers could face even more lawsuits and regulatory complaints than they do now
Strategic Role for HR :
The administrative role traditionally has been the dominant role for HR. However, it is observed that a broader transformation in HR is needed so that significantly less HR time and fewer HR staffs are used just for clerical work.
Differences between the operational and strategic roles exist in a number of HR areas.
The strategic HR role means that HR professionals are proactive in addressing business realities and focusing on future business needs, such as strategic planning, compensation strategies, the performance of HR, and measuring its results.
However, in some organizations, HR often does not play a key role in formulating the strategies for the organization as a whole; instead it merely carries them out through HR activities.
The role of HR shifted from a facilitator to a functional peer with competencies in other functions, and is acknowledged as an equal partnertbyte Windows others.
The HR is motivated to contribute to organizational objectives of settings to actilate Windows. profitability and customer satisfaction, and is seen as a vehicle for realization of quality development. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
The department has a responsibility for monitoring employee satisfaction, since it is seen as substitute to customer satisfaction.
According to McKinsey’s 7-S framework model HR plays the role of a catalyst for the organization. According to this framework (Figure 3). effective organizational change is a complex relationship between seven Ss.
HRM is a total matching process between the three Hard Ss (Strategy. Structure and Systems) and the four Soft Ss (Style, Staff, Skills and Superordinate Goals).
Clearly, all the Ss have to complement each other and have to be aligned towards a single corporate vision for the organization to be effective.
It has to be realized that most of the Ss are determined directly or indirectly by the way Human Resources are managed, and therefore, HRM must be a part of the total business strategy.
New Roles of Human Resource Management :
Human Resource Management in the ‘New Millennium’ has undergone a great revolution by questioning the accepted practices and re-inventing the organisation as well as structures. Many traditional practices have been rown out.
As an example, it can be seen that hierarchies are vanishing and there is greater emphasis on flat organizations. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
It means a great deal of specialisation and skills. It also means upgrading the norms and standards of work as well as performance.
The new role of human resource management is much more strategic than before. Some of the new directions of the role of HRM can be summed up as follows:
A Facilitator of Change: To carry people through upheaval requires the
true management of human resources,
An Integrated Approach to Management: Rather than being an isolated function, human resource is regarded as a core activity one which shapes a company’s values. In particular, this can have an impact on customer service.
A Mediator: Establishing and balancing the new and emerging aspirations and requirements of the company and the individual
These changes, which are taking place involve more commitment of the organization to the development of people by improving performance and cutting costs.
As a result of this, the duration of tenure, which was traditionally long standing. is now limited, future is becoming less certain, management opportunities are self determined and motivational factors are more concerned with enhancing future employability rather than loyalty to the company and at the same time, the rewards are going up in terms of higher salaries. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
The future creative careers, will require more involved approach to career development, which will include:
1) Share employees with strategic partner organizations (customers of suppliers) in lieu of internal moves
2) Encourage independence : Employees may go elsewhere for career development, possibly to return in a few years.
3) Fund-groups of employees to set-up as suppliers outside the organization.
4) Encourage employees to think of themselves as a business and of the organization’s various departments as customers.
5) Encourage employees to develop customers outside the organization.
6) Help employees develop self-marketing, networking and consultancy skills to enable them to search out recognize or create new opportunities for both themselves and the organization Identify skilled individuals in other organizations who can contribute on a temporary project basis or part-time.
7) Regularly expose employees to new people and ideas to stimulate innovation.
8) Balance external recruitment at all levels against internal promotion to encourage open competition, competitive tendering for jobs to discourage seeing positions as someone’s territory which causes self protective conformity.
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9) Foster more cross-functional teamwork for self-development,
Q2-Explain the process of human resource planning. Describe how HR forecast is carried out in the organisation you are working with or an organisation you are familiar with.
Ans. PROCESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING :
Human Resource Planning (HRP) is the process of foreseeing the requirement of human resources in an organization. The objective is also to determine how the existing human resources best fit in their jobs.
Thus, it focuses on the basic economics concept of demand and supply in the context of the human resource capacity of an organization The process of HRP is entirely based on the corporate plans and objectives.
HRP is a continuous process of review, control and assessment. Figure 2 clearly indicates the HRP process
This HRP Process focuses on the following steps.
- A talent inventory to assess current human resources and to analyze how they can be used currently
- A HR forecast to predict future HR requirements. skills required and labor supply
- Action plans to enlarge the pool of people qualified to fill the vacancies through various methods MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
- Review and monitoring to provide feedback on the overall effectiveness of HRP
The major stages of HRP are as follows:
Analysing Operational Plans It consists of the following substages:
i) Objectives and strategic plans of the company are analyzed
ii) Plans concerning technological, finance, production are analyzed and HRP is prepared keeping these in mind.
iii) Future plans, goals, and objectives of the company are also taken into account
b) Human Resource Demand Forecasting :
HR demand forecasting mainly involves three sub functions:
i) Demand Forecast: Process of estimating future quantity and quality of human resources required. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
ii) Manpower Gaps: Depending upon the requirement existing surplus human resources having desired skills are matched, if not found then shortage is shown.
iii) Supply Forecast: Basing on the existing HR inventory and the demand forecast, the supply forecast of human resources is carried out in an organization.
HUMAN RESOURCE DEMAND FORECASTING
There are two approaches to HR demand forecasting: quantitative and qualitative. When focussing on human resources needs, forecasting is primarily quantitative in nature and, is carried out by highly trained specialists.
Quantitative approaches to forecasting can employ statistical analytical models, and at times by simple calculations anticipations future HR requirements.
Organizational demands will ultimately determine which technique is to be used. Regardless of the method, forecasting plays a major role in HRP however small or large the organisation is.
A.Quantitative Approaches : Quantitative approaches to forecasting involve the use of statistical or mathematical techniques Trend anlaysis modeling or multiple predictive techniques are some of the quantitative techniques used.
a. Trend Analysis- It forecasts employment requirements on the basis of some organizational index and is one of the most commonly used approaches for forecasting HR demand. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Following steps indicates the steps of trend analysis.
* First, select an appropriate business factor. This should be the best available predictor of human resources needs. Frequently, sales or value added (selling price minus costs of materials and supplies) is used as a predictor in trend analysis.
* Second, plot a historical trend of the business factor in relation to number of employees. The ratio of employees to the business factor will provide a labor productivity ratio (for example, sales per employee).
* Third, compare the productivity ratio for at least the past five years. Fourth, calculate human resources demand by dividing the business factor by the productivity ratio.
* Finally, project human resources demand out to the target year.
b. Modeling or Multiple Predictive Techniques.
Several mathematical models, with the aid of computers are also used to forecast HR needs, e.g., optimization models, budget and planning analysis.
Whereas trend analysis relies on a single factor (e.g.. sales) to employment needs, the more advanced methods combine several factors, such as interest rates, gross national product, disposable income, and sales, to predict employment levels.
While the costs of developing these forecasting methods used to be quite high, advances in technology and computer software have made rather sophisticated forecasting more affordable to even small businesses. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Qualitative Approaches :
In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative approaches to forecasting use less statistical tools. Expert forecasts and Delphi technique are the most commonly used qualitative techniques.
a) Expert Forecasts In this method, managers estimate future human resource requirements, their experiences and judgments to good effect.
a) Delphi Technique It attempts to decrease the subjectivity of forecasts by involving a group of preselected individual and soliciting and summarizing the judgments.
Thus a group decision-making process is invoked which in turn, requires a great deal of process orientation to enhance coordination and cooperation for satisfactory forecasts.
This method works best in situation where dynamic technological changes affect staffing levels. Ideally. HRP should the use both quantitative and qualitative approaches while forecasting HR demand. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Both the approaches complement each other, thus provide a wholesome forecast Whatever technique one might utilize, but they need to be selected aptly and done systematically.
HR planners many times go further and analyze the demand also on the basis of workforce analysis, work load analysis and job analysis.
a. Workforce analysis to determine the rate of influx and outflow of employee. It is through this analysis one can calculate the labor turnover rate, absenteeism rate, etc.
Qualitative methods go a long way in analyzing the internal flow created by promotions, transfers etc.
b. Workload analysis, calculate the numbers of persons required for various jobs with reference to a planned output.
This takes into consideration factors such as absenteeism, and idle time, etc. Both quantitative and analitative techniques are utilized for accurate results
c. Job analysis: Job analysis helps in finding out the abilities or skills required to do the jobs efficiently. A detailed study of jobs is usually made to identify the qualifications and experience required for them. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Job analysis includes two things: job description and job specification. Job description, thus, is a factual statement of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job.
It gives an indication of what is to be done, how it is to be done and why it is to be done.
Job specification provides information on the human attributes in terms of education, skills, aptitudes and experience necessary to perform a job effectively. This you will learn more in the next unit.
Q3-Discuss the concept of ‘career planning’. Explain the process of career planning that you are familiar with, citing suitable organisational examples.
Ans. CONCEPT OF CAREER PLANNING Career Planning essentially means helping the employees to plan their career in terms of their capacities within the context of organisational needs.
It is described as devising an organisational system of career movement and growth opportunities from the point of entry of an individual in employment to the point of his or her retirement. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
It is generally understood to be a management technique for mapping out the entire career of young employees in higher skilled, supervisory, and managerial positions.
Thus, it is the discovery and development of talents, planned deployment and redeployment of these talents. Some writers on organisational matters have described it as the regulation of “blue eyed” jobs.
It is also described as a process-of synthesizing and harmonising the needs of the organisation with the innate aspirations of the employees, so that while the latter realise selffulfilment, the formers effectiveness is improved.
Literally, a career can be defined as a sequence of separate but related work activities that provide continuity, order and meaning to a person’s life.
It is not merely a series of workrelated experiences, but consists of a series of properly sequenced role experiences, leading to an increasing level of responsibility, status, power, and rewards. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
It represents an organised path taken by an individual across time and space.
In the case of an employee, career planning provides an answer to his or her question as to where he or she will be in the organisation after five years or ten years or what the prospects of advancing or growing are in the organisation or building the scope for his or her career there.
Career planning is not only an event or end in itself but also an ongoing process for development of human resources.
In short, it is an essential aspect of managing people to obtain optimal results. Career planning takes place at different stages of ones career of an employee.
PROCESS OF CAREER PLANNING There are two components of career planning and development:
A) Career Development Programme, and
B) Career Planning Process and Activities Now we discuss about Career Planning Process and Activities The process of career planning involves a number of activities or steps to be undertaken as mentioned below:
*) Preparation of HR inventory of the organisation,
*) Building career paths or ladders for various categories of employees,
*) Locating or identifying employees with necessary potential for career
planning. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
*) Formulation and implementation of suitable plans for training and development
*) persons for different steps of the career ladder or paths,
*) Maintaining age balance while taking employees up the career path and
review of career development plan in action, etc.
a) Organisation’s HR Inventory: Such an inventory is an essential prerequisite for any successful career planning within the organisation. This inventory should be so prepared as to provide the following information:
* ) Organisational set up and its different levels.
* ) The existing number of persons employed in the organisation. For this, manning tables are prepared showing the nature of positions at different levels of the organisation and the number of persons manning those jobs.
Sometimes the age of persons holding the jobs are also mentioned in the table to show when they are likely to retire and when the vacancy thus caused may be required to be filled
* ) Types of existing employees, their status, duties, qualifications, age, aptitude, ability to shoulder added responsibility and their acceptability to their colleagues.
* ) Whether the existing manpower is short or in surplus to requirements. If there is a shortage, how many more persons are required, and for what positions.
Number of persons required in the near future, say in the next one to five years, to meet the needs arising from expansion or diversification of work or natural wastage of manpower.
The latter includes death, permanent disability, superannuation and retirement, discharge, dismissal, voluntary resignation, or abandonment of the jobs.
Collection of all the above information may amount to manpower planning, and involve preparation of manpower budget showing present and immediate future needs.
Employee’s Potential for Career Planning : After determining the career path, the next logical step is to find out the suitable employees who may have the necessary ability and potential for climbing up the ladder and are willing to be promoted and to take up higher responsibilities. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
For this the management control technique of Performance Appraisal and Merit Rating is utilised Periodical and merit rating of employees is also necessary for proper planning of manpower and career of employees in the organisation can be possible only by knowing how much and what types of human resources are available, and the potential of employees whose career is to be planned.
Formulation and Implementation of Training and Development Plans and Programmes:
For making the career planning a success it is essential that the training and development programmes should be so planned and designed that they meet the needs of both the management and employees.
The participants of these programmes should be the employees who are willing to be trained and developed further to make their career in the organisation.
Methods of training and nature of skill and knowledge to be imparted may be different for different types of employees.
The emphasis may be on improving technical skills of skilled workers and on acquiring and improving leadership qualities, human and conceptual skills for senior supervisors, executives and managers. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Age Balance and Career Paths: One widespread difficulty in career planning may arise from the need to accommodate people in the same level of supervisory and managerial hierarchy, some of whom are young direct recruits and others are promotees who are almost always considerably older.
The latter, because of their limited education or formal professional qualification, cannot expect to move up very high;the former as they are better educated and trained have aspirations for rapid vertical mobility.
Promotion and direct recruitment at every level must, therefore, be so planned as to ensure a fair share to either group. Intense jealousies, rivalries or groupism may develop if this aspect of personnel administration is neglected.
Very quick promotions which create promotion blocks should also be avoided if the not to feel stagnated or demotivated at early stages of their careers, and think of leaving the organisation for better prospects.
Such a situation can be avoided if promotions are properly spaced.
Review of Career Development Plans in Action: Career planning is a continuous activity. In fact it is a process. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
For effective career planning, a periodical review process should be followed so that the employee may know in which direction the organisation is moving,
what changes are likely to take place and what resources and skills he or she needs to adapt to the changing organisational requirements.
Even for the organisation, annual evaluation is desirable to know an employee’s performance,
limitations, goals and aspirations, and to know whether the career plan in action is serving the corporate objective i.e. effective utilisation of human resources by matching employee abilities to the demands of the job and his or her needs to the rewards of the job.
Some of the questions that could be asked while evaluating the career plan might be:
- Was the classification of the existing employees correct?
- Are the job descriptions proper?
- Is there any employee unsuited to his or her job?
- Are the future manpower projections still valid?
- Is the team pulling on well as a whole? MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
- Are the training and development programmes adequately devised to enable the employee to climb up the career ladder and fit into
Answers to all these and other questions can be found either by holding brainstorming sessions or by undertaking a survey of career planning activities and their impact on the working of the organisation
Career Counselling :- Career planning may also involve counselling individuals on their possible career paths, and what they must do to achieve promotions.
The need for such counselling arises when employees plan their own careers, and develop or train themselves for career progression in the organisation. This does not mean revealing the number of determined steps in a long range plan of the organisation.
Even if it were possible, it would be inappropriate to raise expectations which might not be fulfilled or induce complacency about the future.
In counselling the wisest approach is to provide a scenario of the opportunities that might become available.
The main aim should be to help the individual concerned to develop oneself by giving him or her some idea of the direction in which he or she ought to be heading. Some other objectives of career counselling are as follows: MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
- Enabling individuals to study the immediate and personal world in which they live.
- Providing a normal mature person with guidelines to help him or her understand oneself more clearly and develop his or her thinking and outlook.
- Achieving and enjoying greater personal satisfaction, pleasure and happiness.
- Understanding the forces and dynamics operating in a system
Q4- Define collective bargaining in your own words. Critically evaluate the state of collective bargaining in the present day business scenario. Explain with examples your answer giving due details of the organizations and the sources you are referring to.
Ans- collective bargaining
Collective bargaining is the process in which working people, through their unions, negotiate contracts with their employers to determine their terms of employment, including pay, benefits, hours, leave, job health and safety policies, ways to balance work and family, and more. Collective bargaining is a way to solve workplace problems.
It is also the best means for raising wages in America. Indeed, through collective bargaining, working people in unions have higher wages, better benefits and safer workplaces.
In the United States, some three-quarters of private-sector workers and two-thirds of public employees have the right to collective bargaining. This right came to U.S. workers through a series of laws.
The Railway Labor Act granted collective bargaining to railroad workers in 1926 and now covers many transportation workers, such as those in airlines.
In 1935, the National Labor Relations Act clarified the bargaining rights of most other private-sector workers and established collective bargaining as the “policy of the United States.”
The right to collective bargaining also is recognized by international human rights conventions. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Every year, millions of America’s workers negotiate or renegotiate their bargained contracts. However, some employers seek to undercut existing bargaining relationships and roll back many hard-won contract terms and conditions.
Unions continue to fight for the intrinsic rights of working people and restore the balance of economic power in our country through collective bargaining agreements. collective bargaining in the present day business scenario
As noted above, the International Labour Organization (ILO) states that collective bargaining is a fundamental right available to all workers.
This means that all employees are entitled to present their grievances to their employers and to be able to negotiate them.
According to the ILO, collective bargaining helps reduce inequalities in the workplace while providing workers with labor protection.
Collective bargaining normally takes place between members of corporate management and labor union leaders, who are elected by workers to represent them and their interests.
Collective bargaining is initiated when employee contracts are up for renewal or when employers make changes to the workplace or contracts. These changes include, but aren’t limited to: MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
Working conditions and other workplace rules
Base pay,wages and overtime pay
Work hours and shift length
Holidays, sick leave, and vacation time Benefits related to issues such as retirement and healthcare
Example of collective bargaining :
Collective bargaining in the banana sector can contribute to inter alia the availability of employment opportunities, improved occupational safety and health, higher productivity and workplace adaptability, higher wages and a more equitable distribution of wealth.
Strong workers’ and employers’ organizations can therefore play a key role in rural development through facilitating access to services, ensuring a voice for those directly affected by rural policies and programmes, as well as through negotiating CBAs at the plantation level. MMPC 02 Free Solved Assignment
The banana industry is however traditionally characterized by a low trade union membership.
Reasons for this include the increasing “casualization” of the workforce through sub-contracting and temporary contracts, deregulation and flexibilization of labour laws, and anti-union approaches by employers
There are however many examples of effective social dialogue in the global banana industry that have been documented by the World Banana Forum Working Group on Labour Rights.
Q5- Discuss the relevance of the understanding of job design for developing organizational effectiveness.
Ans – Relevance of the understanding of job design
Job design follows job analysis i.e. it is the next step after job analysis. It aims at outlining and organising tasks, duties and responsibilities into a single unit of work for the achievement of certain objectives.
It also outlines the methods and relationships that are essential for the success of a certain job. In simpler terms it refers to the what, how much, how many and the order of the tasks for a job/s.
Job design has emerged as an important area of work analysis. It is based on growing conceptual and empirical base and has commanded research attention and is being widely applied to actual practice of management.
Job design concern and approaches are considered to have begun with the scientific management movement. Pioneering scientific managers like Taylor and Gilbreth examined jobs with techniques such as time and motion analysis.
Their goal was to maximize human efficiency on the job. Taylor suggested that task design might be the most important single element in scientific management.
Job designing evolved into what is popularly known as job engineering. The industrial engineering approach is basically concerned with products, process, tool design, plant layout, operating procedures, work measurement, standards, and human-machine interactions.
It has also been closely associated with sophisticated computer applications involving Computer Assisted Design (CAD). These computer systems had a positive impact by reducing task and workflow uncertainty.
Top management could readily perceive the immediate cost savings form job engineering, but certain behavioural aspects like quality absenteeism, and turnover were generally ignored.
In the 1950s, different methods were being adopted by practicing managers. For example, IBM job rotation and job enlargement programmes were introduced.
Job enlargement programmes essentially loaded the jobs horizontally, and expanded the number of operations performed by the worker and made the job less specialized.
Job rotation programmes reduced boredom by switching people around to various jobs.
Although boredom at work is still a significant problem in the last several years, attention has shifted to new demanding challenges facing employees on the job.
For example, because of downsizing of organizations and increasingly advanced technology, jobs have suddenly become much more demanding and employees must differently adapt to unpredictable changes.
For example, in manufacturing assembly line methods are being replaced by flexible, customized production and computer-integrated manufacturing.
This new manufacturing approach requires workers to deal with an ever-increasing line of product and sophisticated technology.
Job Rotation :
An alternative to boredom in work place is job rotation. Job rotation implies moving of employees form one job to another without any fundamental change in the nature of the job.
The employee may be performing different jobs that are of similar nature. The advantages of job rotation may be reduced boredom, broadening of employees‟ knowledge and skills, and making them competent in several jobs rather than only one.
However, caution needs to be exercised while shifting people frequently form one job to another, as it may cause interruption or the employee may feel alienated in a new job.
Another factor is job rotation does not provide the employee any challenge on the job and, hence, those employees who are seeking challenge may feel frustrated.
Job Enlargement :
Job enlargement involves adding more tasks to a job. It is a horizontal expansion and increases jobs scope and gives a variety of tasks to the jobholder.
It is essentially adding more tasks to a single job. It definitely reduces boredom and monotony by providing the employee more variety of tasks in the job. Thus, it helps to increase interest in work and efficiency.
In one study it was found that by expanding the scope of job, workers got more satisfaction, committed less errors, and customer service improved.
However, research has provided contrary evidence also in that enlargement sometimes may not motivate an individual in the desired direction. Job Enrichment
Job Enrichment :
Another approach to designing jobs in job enrichment. In the earlier two methods, human capabilities are not being utilized to a maximum and employees are feeling frustrated.
Job enrichment involves a vertical expansion of a job by adding more responsibilities and freedom to it.
According to Herzberg, job enrichment is the type of expansion of a job that gives employees more challenge, more responsibility, more opportunity to grow and contribute his or her ideas to the organization‟s success.
In other words, job enrichment increases job depth that refers to the degree of control employees have over their work.
Job enrichment basically provides autonomy while retaining accountability. It generates feeling of personal responsibility and achievement.
Job enrichment certainly improves the quality of work output, employee motivation, and satisfaction.
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