MEDIA ETHICS AND LAWS
MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Q 1. ‘In its urgency to share ‘Breaking News’ ahead of its competitors, electronic media is at times, ……………………………’…….. Enumerate the steps that the channel or website should take in such a scenario.
Ans: – There are two kinds of fake news:
• Stories that aren’t true. These are entirely invented stories designed to make people believe something false, to buy a certain product, or to visit a certain website.
• Stories that have some truth, but aren’t 100 percent accurate. For example, a journalist quotes only part of what a politician says, giving a false impression of their meaning.
Again, this can be deliberate, to convince readers of a certain viewpoint, or it can be the result of an innocent mistake.
Either way, it quickly attracts an audience and can become entrenched as an “urban myth.”
Fake news is nothing new. But, what is new is how easy it’s become to share information – both true and false – on a massive scale.
Social media platforms allow almost anyone to publish their thoughts or share stories to the world.MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
The trouble is, most people don’t check the source of the material that they view online before they share it, which can lead to fake news spreading quickly or even “going viral.”
At the same time, it’s become harder to identify the original source of news stories, which can make it difficult to assess their accuracy.
This has led to a flood of fake news. In fact, one study found that more than 25 percent of Americans visited a fake news website in a six-week period during the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
But, not all fake news stories are found online.
Co-workers who gossip by the water cooler or while browsing print publications that fail to check their facts, for example, are also guilty of spreading misinformation, even if inadvertently.
Research shows that 59 percent of people are concerned about the effect that fake news has in the workplace, and with good reason!
For example, some people might start to believe that they no longer need evidence to back up their arguments.MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Others start to mistrust information all together. They stop listening to industry reports, and disengage from official workplace communication, slowing their professional growth and development.
Ultimately, this can damage an organization’s learning culture.
Fake news can affect behavior, too. It encourages people to invent excuses, to dismiss others’ ideas, to exaggerate the truth, and to spread rumors.
This can create divided, anxious workplaces where people are cynical and unsure of who to trust.
They might even begin to mistrust you if they believe that authority figures have lied to them, or that the information that they are working with is suspect.
This can sap people of the curiosity, enthusiasm and ambition that they need to collaborate and to be successful.
Misinformation and fake news can also harm your business. Invented reviews of your products or inaccurate financial updates, for example, can do serious reputational damage
Ways to Spot Fake News MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
(1. Develop a Critical Mindset
One of the main reasons fake news is such a big issue is that it is often believable, so it’s easy to get caught out.
Much fake news is also written to create “shock value,” that is, a strong instinctive reaction such as fear or anger.
This means it’s essential that you keep your emotional response to such stories in check. Instead, approach what you see and hear rationally and critically .
Ask yourself, “Why has this story been written? Is it to persuade me of a certain viewpoint? Is it selling me a particular product? Or is it trying to get me to click through to another website? Am I being triggered?”
(2. Check the Source
If you come across a story from a source that you’ve never heard of before, do some digging!
Check the web address for the page you’re reading. Spelling errors in company names, or strange sounding extensions like “.infonet” and “.offer,” rather than “.com” or “.co.uk,” may mean that the source is suspect. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Whether or not the author or publisher is familiar, stop to consider their reputation and professional experience.
Are they known for their expertise on the matter? Or do they tend to exaggerate?
Be aware that people who spread fake news and “alternative facts” sometimes create web pages, newspaper mockups, or “doctored” images that look official, but aren’t.
So, if you see a suspicious post that looks like it’s from the World Health Organization (WHO), for example, check the WHO’s own site to verify that it’s really there.
(3. See Who Else Is Reporting the Story
Has anyone else picked up on the story? What do other sources say about it?
Avoid leaping to the conclusion that all main stream media (MSM) output is fake. This can be as unwise as following every rumor or conspiracy theory.
Professional global news agencies such as Reuters, CNN and the BBC have rigorous editorial guidelines and extensive networks of highly trained reporters, so are a good place to start.
But no one is unbiased, and anyone can make a mistake, so keep looking.
(4. Examine the Evidence
A credible news story will include plenty of facts – quotes from experts, survey data and official statistics, for example. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Or detailed, consistent and corroborated eye-witness accounts from people on the scene. If these are missing, question it!
Does the evidence prove that something definitely happened? Or, have the facts been selected or “twisted” to back up a particular viewpoint?
Q 2. ‘In the recent Raj Kundra arrest case, his wife Shilpa Shetty moved the court against media intruding in…………………………. respect their privacy while serving the news to satisfy the public curiosity?
Ans: – Businessman Raj Kundra, who was arrested in a pornography case earlier this year and later granted bail, on Monday claimed he has never been involved in the production and distribution of pornographic content in his life.
In a statement issued on a social media platform, Raj, who is married to actor Shilpa Shetty, said the entire episode was nothing but a “witch hunt”.
The businessman also said he has already been pronounced “guilty” by the media and wished that his privacy is not intruded anymore with this continued “media trial”.
The Supreme Court last week granted protection from arrest to Raj in connection with an FIR registered against him for allegedly distributing pornographic videos.
In July this year, he was arrested by the Mumbai Police in another case where he was accused of distributing porn films through an app. He was granted bail in September.
The right to privacy is recognised as a fundamental right under the Constitution of India. It is guaranteed under the right to freedom (Article 19) and the right to life (Article 21) of the Constitution. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Article 19(1) (a) guarantees all citizens the right to freedom of speech and expression.
It is the right to freedom of speech and expression that gives the media the right to publish any information.
Reasonable restrictions on the exercise of the right can be imposed by the State in the interests of sovereignty and integrity of the State,
the security of the State, friendly relations with foreign States, public order, decency or morality, or in relation to contempt of court, defamation or incitement to an offence.
Article 21 of the Constitution provides, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.”
Internationally the right to privacy has been protected in a number of conventions. For instance, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 (UDHR) under Article 12 provides that: MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
“No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, or to attacks upon his honour and reputation.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.”
The UDHR protects any arbitrary interference from the State to a person’s right to privacy.
Similarly, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1976 (ICCPR) under Article 17 imposes the State to ensure that individuals are protected by law against “arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.
Thus, ensuring that States enact laws to protect individual’s right to privacy. India has ratified the above conventions.
The ratification of the Conventions mandates the State to take steps to enact laws to protect its citizens.
Although, human right activists have periodically demanded that the State take adequate measures to protect human rights of the vulnerable in society, the right to privacy has received little attention. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Similarly, Article 16 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) provides protection to a minor from any unlawful interference to his/her right to privacy and imposes a positive obligation on States who have ratified the convention to enact a law protecting the same.
India does have safeguards in place to protect identity of minors, especially, juveniles and victims of abuse. However, there are exceptions when the law on privacy does not apply even in case of a minor.
Q 3. ‘With a lot of buzz around the Indian startups becoming Unicorns and generating capitals beyond …………..,………….You may agree or disagree with the above statement. Support your argument with valid defences.
Ans: – “Facts only account for 10% of the reactions on the stock market; everything else is psychology.”
André Kostolany, a stock market investor who made most of his fortune during the reconstruction of Europe after World War II, made this observation.
Renowned for his shrewd and astute mixture of psychology and his sensible knowledge of stocks and markets, Kostolany became one of the most successful investors of the 20th century. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
The Internet was just emerging from its infancy when Kostolany died in 1999.
The evolution of data intelligence technologies have given us the capability to process and analyze vast amounts of online data, which means we can now test Kostolany’s intuition that markets are highly impacted by emotional reactions.
By monitoring and analyzing data from social media sources—especially with
regard to communication about stocks—it’s now possible to connect the dots between sentiment and market movements.
Like most other industries, the financial industry communicates by sharing information and data via the Internet and, eventually, through social media.
People interacting on social media generate emotional data by expressing their emotions and opinions via tweets, forum posts, and blogs.
They also consume it, and in the process are influenced by the sentiments, feelings, and opinions expressed by others.MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Scientific studies show that people are often influenced by the data they consume, and that their decisions or actions are partly aligned with it.
Stock prices tick up and down constantly due to fluctuations in supply and demand. If more people want to buy a stock, its market price will increase.
If more people are trying to sell a stock, its price will fall. The relationship between supply and demand is highly sensitive to the news of the moment.
Nonetheless, chasing the news is not a good stock-picking strategy for the individual investor. In most cases, professional traders react in anticipation of an event, not when the event is reported.
Negative news will normally cause people to sell stocks.
A bad earnings report, a lapse in corporate governance, big-picture economic and political uncertainty, and unfortunate occurrences all translate to selling pressure and a decrease in the prices of many if not most stocks.
Zomato shares made a strong stock market debut on Friday, closing the initial day of trade at Rs 126 per share on the NSE. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Zomato’s stock price was up 66 per cent or Rs 50 from IPO price of Rs 76. On opening, Zomato shares hit 20 per cent upper circuit at Rs 138, nearly doubling IPO investors money.
The total market capitalisation of the online food ordering platform stood at Rs 98,211 crore on the closing bell, down from Rs 1 lakh crore earlier in the day.
While on BSE, Zomato shares closed 65 per cent or Rs 49.86 higher at Rs 125.85 apiece. In traded volume terms, 451 lakh shares have exchanged hands on BSE, while 69.48 crore units traded on NSE.
The Rs 9,375-crore IPO was sold in a price band of Rs 74-76 a share during 14-16 July.
The mega public issue of the food-tech unicorn saw a subscription of over 38 times, receiving a robust response from all pockets of investors.
Zomato’s IPO is the first Indian internet unicorn to make its stock market debut. This much-awaited public issue is the largest to hit Dalal Street since SBI Cards and Payment Services’ Rs 10,341-crore IPO in March 2020.
Q 4. In the creative and intellectual fields, plagiarism has become a menace. Find out and discuss any five softwares and tools that are being used to check the malpractice of copying and plagiarism these days.
Ans: – Plagiarism is an offense against any author whose content has been used by others as their own. It is an unethical conduct that can make or break the search engine performance of any webpage, articles, product page, etc.
If you are writing on your own, you can guarantee the authenticity of your content. But what about the times when you have to depend on another writer?
Plagiarism Checker X : MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Plagiarism Checker X is one of the best plagiarism detection tool available in the market because of its diverse features.
It is a content scanning tool that helps you identify the level of plagiarism in documents like assignments, reports and articles.
The software has a huge number of users around the globe, as it is extremely cost effective and reliable to use.
Key features of Plagiarism Checker X:
• Scans your documents up to 16 billion web pages across multiple search engines.
• It can locate copied content easily and you can get a side-by-side window to do the comparison. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
• Supports bulk-cross comparisons which means that you can analyze multiple documents to determine their originality within single or multiple repositories.
• It can cross-examine up to 20,000 words within one second accurately.
• Your submitted content is not stored or uploaded anywhere. So, it is extremely safe and secure in every sense.
• Supports 7 languages, i.e. English, Spanish, French, German, Italian, Dutch and Portuguese.
Grammarly : MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Grammarly plagiarism checker lets you know whether your content is copied or not.
Grammarly has a premium version which also detects the content that requires citations and provides an appropriate resource to give credits to the content, wherever needed.
It is a free plagiarism checker for teachers, students and many more.
Key features of Grammarly:
• It gives feedback on word choice and tone.
• Corrects grammar and spelling errors.
• Compatible with MS word and outlook
• Available as a browser extension for Chrome, Safari and Firefox.
• Comes with a native app for MAC users.
• Supports social media and email platforms as well.
• It can be used be college students, bloggers and content marketers.
Copyscape plagiarism checker can be used by just entering the URL of your content or you can also use the inbuilt Siteliner.MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
It can also check how much of your content has been copied from other websites.
Copyscape is an interesting tool, it not only tells you about the copied content on your page, but also shows you where your content has been copied.
Key features of Copyscape:
• It can send notifications by email whenever your content is copied.
• It comes with a WordPress plugin.
• Its premium version can check up to 10,000 pages.
• It can also allow you to create a ‘private index’ so that whenever any new content is generated into the system, it will go for a plagiarism check automatically.
Plagscan : MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Almost 1 million documents are tested on Plagscan every year. It is an advanced plagiarism detection tool suitable for single users, students, and even large businesses.
It is extremely time efficient and you can get the results within seconds as you can compare, scan and upload simultaneously on the Plagscan.
Key features of Plagscan:
• It can scan multiple webpages by just using the URL.
• Supports a variety of languages.
• Offers API integration.
• It has its own Plagiarism Prevention Tools.
Plagiarisma is a free plagiarism detection tool that can identify copied content mainly in your essays, research papers, coursework, and dissertation. Since it is available online, it is platform independent.
Key features of Plagiarisma: MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
• Works on multiple platforms like Windows, Android, Blackberry, Moodle and the web.
• Supports various platforms like Google, Yahoo, Bing and Scholar.
• Helps with search engine optimization
Q 5. ‘Recently some advertisements were trolled for allegedly hurting cultural sentiments………… Also, state your views on any one of these ads:
- Dabur’s Fem Creme Gold Bleach Karwachauth ad
- Ceat’s Road Crackers ad featuring Aamir Khan
3.‘Jashn-e- Riwaaz’ campaign by FabIndia (400 words)
Ans: – Recently, consumer goods company Dabur and clothing brand FabIndia have been faced backlash and criticism for their advertisements.
Dabur on Monday withdrew an advertisement showing a same-sex couple celebrating the Hindu festival Karwa Chauth, hours after Madhya Pradesh Home Minister Narottam Mishra warned of legal action against the firm. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Meanwhile, FabIndia has been at the receiving end of a lot of backlash ever since it brought out a Diwali-themed advertisement for a range of clothing collection and named it ‘Jashn-e-Riwaaz’.
The brand was accused of “defacing” the Hindu festival of Diwali and terming it Jashn-e-Riwaaz.
Many slammed the brand for unnecessarily uplifting secularism and Muslim ideologies in a Hindu festival.
The tweet was described by several sections of social media as “culturally inappropriate”.
After BJP leader Tejaswi Surya slammed the brand for ‘deliberate attempt of Abrahamisation of Hindu festivals, the advertisement also received a lot of flak for not portraying the models in ‘Hindu traditional clothes’.
Tanishq ad : MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Last year, a Tanishq ad on interfaith marriage triggered a furious backlash on social media with some accusing the jewellery brand of promoting ‘love jihad’, prompting the company to withdraw the film citing hurt sentiments and the well-being of its staff.
The 43-second commercial, which led to the hashtag #BoycottTanishq trending on Twitter, shows a pregnant woman being led to her bridal shower, a Hindu custom called ‘godh bharai’, by a woman who viewers later realise is her mother-in-law.
The description of the video on YouTube read: She is married into a family that loves her like their own child.
Only for her, they go out of their way to celebrate an occasion that they usually don’t.
A beautiful confluence of two different religions, traditions, cultures.”
The commercial opened the floodgates of debate and trolling with a flurry of tweets, some angry and threatening, demanding a ban on the advertisement and a boycott of the brand, a Tata product.
Surf Excel ad : MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Another advertisement went viral for the wrong reasons last year. Surf Excel was severely criticised for an ad showing Hindu-Muslim unity.
The HUL-owned brand, which is known for its “daag achhe hai” (stains are good) ads, tried to do something similar recently with its latest Holi special “Rang Laaye Sang” (colours bring us together) campaign.
Under this campaign, the brand released an advertisement in a bid to promote HinduMuslim unity. The advertisement ends with Surf Excel’s classic tagline “daag acche hain”.
Amul ad :
Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF) — which makes Amul brand of food products — found its Twitter account blocked on the evening of 4 June, 2020 evening. The account was restored on 5 June.
Twitter was abuzz with several users expressing shock, while many questioned its move to restrict the account. MJM 25 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Twitterati linked the restriction of Amul’s account with the brand’s campaign supporting boycott of Chinese products.
The brand figured among trending topics in India even on Saturday with over 11,500 tweets.