MEDIA AND SOCIETY
MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. ‘Press always take the form and colouration of the social, political structures within which it operates’ – contextualise this statement within your state/regional media system. Give suitable examples.
Ans: – Mass media does not operate in a vacuum; the press always takes on the form and coloration of the social and political structures within which it operates.
Normative theories were first proposed by Fred, Peterson and Wilbur Schramm in their book called “Four Theories of the Press”.
At first the word “Normative Theory” was pronounced in USA during the height of ‘cold war’ with communism and soviet. Often it called as western theories of mass media.
A Normative theory describes an ideal way for a media system to be controlled and operated by the government, authority, leader and public.
These theories are basically different from other communication theories because normative theories of press are not providing any scientific explanations or prediction.
At the same these “four theories of the press” came from many sources rather than a single source. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Sometimes media practitioners, social critics and academics also involved to develop these normative theories.
Normative theories are more focused in the relationship between Press and the Government than press and the audience.
These theories are more concern about the ownership of the media and who controls the press or media in the country.
By contrast, normative statements affirm how things should or ought to be, how to value them, which things are good or bad.
Normative theories are divided into the following categories:
Long before the democratic societies could think of matters pertaining to freedom of speech, there existed a thought that the emergence of media should not challenge the writ of the government which were more in dictatorial form and less they looked like democracies.
The media was forced to remain under state control. It had following features which, in non-democratic governments still rule on media:
a) Direct governmental control of the media. Typical to pre-democratic societies, where the government consists of very small ruling-class.
b) No printing that could undermine the established authority or offense to existing political set up. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
c) The government may punish anyone who questions the state’s ideology and the Media professionals are not allowed to have any independence within the media organization.
d) Registration of the media by the state.
This theory developed in the 16th and 17th centuries and was mainly based on absolute power of the monarchy (truth).
It was essential that the Press supports monarchy and couldn’t criticise it.
This approach was designed to protect the established social order, setting clear limits to media freedom and ensure that it is not the media which must talk about people and their problems in any manner.
According to this theory, mass media, though not under the direct control of the State, had to follow its bidding. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
This Theory Envisages:
i. The government consists of a very limited and small ruling-class and media are not allowed to print or broadcast anything which could undermine the established authority of the government.
ii. Any offense to the existing political values should be avoided and the government may punish anyone who questions the state’s ideology.
iii. The government is infallible and the media professionals are therefore not allowed to have any independence within the media organization.
iv. Foreign media are subordinate to the established authority, in that all imported media products are controlled by the state.
Steps were taken to control the freedom of expression. The result was advocacy of complete dictatorship. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The theory promoted zealous obedience to a hierarchical superior and reliance on threat and punishment to those who did not follow the censorship rules or did not respect authority.
Censorship of the press was justified on the ground that the State always took precedence over the individual’s right to freedom of expression.
This theory stemmed from the authoritarian philosophy of Plato (407 – 327 B.C), who thought that the State was safe only in the hands of a few wise men.
Thomas Hobbes (1588 – 1679), a British academician, argued that the power to maintain order was sovereign and individual objections were to be ignored.
Engel, a German thinker further reinforced the theory by stating that freedom came into its supreme right only under Authoritarianism.
The world has been witness to authoritarian means of control over media by both dictatorial and democratic governments. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
This theory essentially applies to authoritarian societies, but can surface in less authoritarian societies (particularly in times of war, terrorism).
It depends on the medium/ media of press subject to a greater control in some countries. There are certain assumptions attached to the Authoritarian approach, which are as follows:
a) Press should do nothing to undermine vested power and interests;
b) Press should be subordinate to vested power and authority;
c) Press should avoid acting in contravention of prevailing moral and political values;
d) Censorship justified in the application of these principles;
e) Criminalisation of editorial attacks on vested power, deviations from official policy, violation of moral codes.
f) Media is an instrument/ mouthpiece to publicise and propagandise government ideology and actions. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
g) Absolute power of state versus subservience of the individual ᾶ press.
These assumptions in turn help us in understanding the basic premise of the theory. It explains the principles on which this theory is based and the approach which the authoritarian society used to follow.
The biggest examples of this theory are: Fascist regimes, some African countries, communist countries, Aspects of apartheid etc.
Q 2. ‘Media works as a conduit between the public and the powers that be’. Closely observe a newspaper/a news………………… the newspaper/news channel’s efforts to air public concerns on that coverage.
Ans: – Labeled as the “fourth estate” in democratic societies, the media possesses a distinctive capability to influence and shape government policies.
Normatively ascribed the role of a “watchdog” with a capacity to contribute to institutional change, the media holds the political elite accountable, reflects the needs of the audience, and exposes transgressions of the power holders within the democratic system.
Its role thus in influencing matters related to legislation and government policies is crucial and should not be overlooked. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Media’s origin is usually traced back to the French Revolution that witnessed an uprising of the press.
Since then, the media has been used as a powerful tool in mending governmental policies and establishing free societies.
Although it does not own the authority to “create” policies, it plays an instrumental role in exercising decisive influence over the general public’s policy priorities.
This is achieved by the media’s omnipresent role as a mediator between the State and Society, actively participating in the public representation of policies, thereby also acting as the gatekeeper of the agenda of political discourse.
Correspondingly, policy proposals are designed by the politicians anticipating the media reaction.
This has increasingly strengthened the reciprocal power dynamics between the two.
While dealing with the dissemination of government information, the media also plays the crucial role of a stakeholder in times of crisis, wherein it informs the public regarding the crisis escalation, and the news is framed through a ‘self-referential cycle’, that includes interactions between the media, the public, and policyholders.
However, in this cycle, these parties may project their perceptions of reality onto the news.
As a result, during adverse situations, Indian media lacks the independence to present critical perspectives and investigative reports.
Progressive Developments : MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The Indian media’s coverage of the price hike that followed the 2008 global food crisis, pressurized the government into introducing targeted strategies and policies to insulate the poor and vulnerable from the price shock.
Submitting to panic, the government devised various measures like food stock to be sold at subsidized rates along with a public distribution system.
It curbed the escalation through the imposition of export tariffs coupled with higher domestic price support of crops.
The media thus triggered some well-calibrated policy formulations that helped the domestic market remain stable and restricted the overall food inflation.
Studies have also revealed the determining influence of the media on foreign policy matters.
On the issue of signing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), which would ban all types of nuclear explosions, the political parties in India were divided on the opinions, especially when the agreement got linked with the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.
India felt that the Treaty was essentially discriminatory and posed a threat to its sovereignty and so the majority opined that it should not be signed.
The debates in Indian newspapers called for a rejection of the treaty, and this ultimately inspired the government’s final stance. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Recognition of Rights: Raising the Bar
The Delhi Gang Rape Case (Nirbhaya Case, 2012) was one of the most sensitive issues where investigative journalism catalyzed the public outrage and stimulated debates around the need for social reforms.
The increasing momentum placed this case on the priority list of the Indian policy, which eventually resulted in various amendments in Criminal Law.
Here, the media provided a platform to debate the existing policies and pressurized the Centre to formulate stringent laws and regulations for women.
Mathura’s rape case led to amendments in rape laws and a re-development of the concept of ‘consent’ in rape cases. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The widespread dissent amongst people during the Bhanwari Devi rape case culminated in the landmark Vishakha Judgement.
The recently introduced Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Act significantly furthered legal recognition for transgender individuals as the ‘Third Gender’ under the Indian Constitution.
In this manner, the media acts as the primary conduit between the public and policymakers, legitimizing the general opinion by addressing the same to the government institutions.
Media effectively brings into cognizance different instances that require government intervention in the form of policies.
The campaign #blacklivesmatter gained momentum as the video of Police torture on George Floyd went viral by the media.
In the Indian context, this case forced Indians to introspect about the inherent caste system in society. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The recent images of Kerala’s elephant, that died due to the firecrackers in the fruit, reprimands the actions of humans and calls for government intervention to make stringent legislation on animal rights.
The incident of the Boys Locker Room has forced the government to materialize the laws on cyber-crimes concerning juveniles.
The images of the dilapidated plight of the migrant laborers circulated by the media have led the governments to introduce reforms in the labor laws.
Q 3. Collect front-pages of any national daily of your choice for five days. Select any two stories from each front page that results in 10 stories from five front pages. For each news story, find the answer to the following questions –
1] Who is the intended reader?;
2] Who benefits from the story?;
3] What is their benefit?;
4] How many sources are used in the stories and their socio-demographic profiles [gender, position, relationship with the story etc.]?.
Ans: – Top News Headlines
1) Elgar steers South Africa to victory over India
2) PM’s security breach: MHA forms 3-member panel
3) Fresh violence in Kazakhstan as Russia sends troops
4) CVC expands scope of banking frauds panel
5) Omicron may be less severe, but not ‘mild’ – WHO
6) Capt Amarinder demands Prez Rule in Punjab
7) Deloitte launches a health playbook for officials
8) CBI files FIR against Gujarat firm for ‘bank fraud’
9) ‘Punjab Police was informed about farmers’ protest’
10) Yogi slashes power rates for UP farmers by half
What had been expected to be a tense chase on the fourth day became a comfortable win for the home side after rain delayed the start of play by almost six hours.
When play did get under way after tea it was under heavily overcast skies with the floodlights on.
Resuming at 118 for two in pursuit of a target of 240, Elgar and Rassie van der Dussen added 57 runs in the first hour before Van der Dussen was caught behind off Mohammed Shami for 40. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The pair had put on 82 for the third wicket. Temba Bavuma gave a caught and bowled chance to Shardul Thakur before he had scored but then batted solidly to make 23 not out and stay with Elgar until the end.
The captain was not quite able to complete his century but hit the winning runs with a flick for four off Ravichandran Ashwin.
The decider in the three-match series will start at Newlands in Cape Town on Tuesday.
The Centre Thursday formed a three-member committee to enquire into “serious lapses” in security arrangements during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Punjab which led to the exposure of the VVIP to grave risk.
The Home Ministry panel was formed a day after Modi had to cut short his visit in Punjab after he was stuck on a flyover for 20 minutes due to a blockade by some protesters, an incident described by the Ministry of Home Affairs as a “major lapse” in security.
The MHA has also sought an immediate report from the state government besides asking it to fix responsibility and take strict action against those responsible.
“Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA) has constituted a committee to enquire into the serious lapses in the security arrangements during Hon’ble Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi’s visit to Ferozepur, Punjab on 05.01.2022,which led to the exposure of the VVIP to grave security risk,” a spokesperson tweeted. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Fresh violence erupted in Kazakhstan’s main city on Thursday after Russia rushed in paratroopers to put down a countrywide uprising in one of Moscow’s closest former Soviet allies.
Police in the main city Almaty said they had killed dozens of rioters overnight into the early hours of Thursday morning.
The authorities said at least 18 members of the security forces had died, including two found decapitated. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
More than 2,000 people had been arrested.
After a night of running confrontations between protesters and troops on the streets, a presidential residence in the city and its mayor’s office were both ablaze, and burnt out cars littered the city.
Advisory Board for Banking and Financial Frauds (ABBFF), which might now look at financial institution frauds of Rs 3 crore and above and advocate motion.
Till now, the ABBFF was solely trying into banking and monetary frauds of Rs 50 crore and above.
With the above modification, there can be full synchronisation of all of the frauds the place complaints/FIRs are filed with CBI for the brink of Rs 3 crore and above, an official assertion stated. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
“CVC in consultation with Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and Department of Financial Services has further expanded the role of ABBFF headed by T M Bhasin, former vigilance commissioner, to cover all banking and financial fraud cases involving the amount of Rs 3 crore and above, to examine the role of all levels of officials/Whole Time Directors (including exofficials/ex-WTDs) in Public Sector Banks (PSBs) and Public Sector Financial Institutions (PSFIs),” it stated.
In terms of transmissibility, we are seeing a really increased growth rate of Omicron over other variants of concern. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
These are some of the sharpest increases that we’ve seen to date. We do know that it has what we call a growth advantage over Delta.
And what this means is that we’re seeing a large increase in cases where Omicron is detected.
At the time of filming this Omicron has been detected in more than 77 countries, but it’s likely that it’s present in other countries as well.
The big question right now is how will Omicron compete with other variants that are circulating in populations?
For example, will Omicron outcompete Delta or not? It’s still a little bit early for us to have a full understanding, but what we can say is that some of the mutations that are identified in Omicron will provide a growth advantage, will allow it to be more transmissible.
So, this is a concern that we have and as we know, more cases, if there’s more increased transmissibility, which is what we are seeing, we’ll have more cases.
More cases mean more hospitalizations and more hospitalizations can put health care systems that are already overburdened into a state where people will not get the appropriate care that they need. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Holding the Charanjit Singh Channi government squarely responsible for the gross security lapse during Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s visit to Punjab that eventually led to cancellation of all his programmes yesterday, former Punjab Chief Minister Capt Amarinder Singh has demanded dismissal of the government and imposition of President’s rule in the state.
In a statement issued at Chandigarh, the former Chief Minister said, “this government has lost all the moral and constitutional authority to continue in office as it failed in its constitutional duty to provide security to our Prime Minister”.
He said, by trying to deflect the issue and claim that it was a spontaneous protest by some people that blocked the Prime Minister’s route, the government was trying to defend the indefensible and run away from responsibility.
“If the Prime Minister of the country has to cancel all his programmes owing to a grave security breach, what should be the plight of the ordinary person living in Punjab?” the former Chief Minister asked, while asserting that sooner this government was dismissed better it would be for the state and its people.
Capt Amarinder said, it was a deliberate mischief of the government to disrupt the Prime Minister’s programmes in Punjab, as he was to start various development projects to the tune of more than Rs 50,000 crores, which would benefit the people of the state.
The former Chief Minister regretted that this government had stooped so low that it orchestrated disruption of the rally and did not provide proper security to the Prime Minister and he had to cancel his programmes.
Capt Amarinder said, what happened today was shameful and disgraceful and the Chief Minister cannot escape the responsibility for it”.
The Government of Haryana, with support from Deloitte, today launched “Sanjeevani Pariyojana” (or ‘the life project’), a supervised, virtual home care initiative to help people quickly access health care for mild to moderate symptoms of COVID-19.
The approach taken by the Government of Haryana provides individuals with support and resources to manage their care at home including access to virtual triage, as well as COVID-19 field hospitals and inpatient facilities when deemed appropriate by state-trained medical staff. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The Haryana-Deloitte collaboration builds on the state’s existing telemedicine and other virtual medical care services for home treatment.
The program, designed and supported by Deloitte, the Public Health Foundation of India (Dr. K. Srinath Reddy) and the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences in Haryana (Dr. Dhruva Chaudhry), is a critically important step in bringing much needed medical care to the people who need it most, when and where they need it most.
The pilot project will begin in the district of Karnal and may include a roll out to other affected areas shortly thereafter. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) has registered an FIR against a Gujarat-based firm for defrauding Bank of India to the tune of Rs 631 crore, officials said.
The federal probe agency has named Electrotherm (India) Ltd, an Ahmedabad-based firm, its Director Mukesh Bhanwarlal Bhandari, Managing Directors Shailesh Bhanwarlal Bhandari, Avinash Prakashchandra Bhandari and Whole Time Director Narendra Babubhai Dalal as accused in the case along with unknown public servants.
Preparations are in full swing for Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s January 5 rally in Ferozepur, his first of the poll season in Punjab.
With nine farmers’ unions vowing to protest against PM Modi’s visit, the police have increased vigilance in the area. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
PM Modi is expected to address a crowd of one lakh soon after he lays the foundation stone of a 400-bed PGI satellite center in Ferozepur.
This is PM Modi’s first visit to Punjab since the repeal of the three farm laws. Security in Ferozepur has been heightened ahead of PM Modi’s visit.
The International Border (IB) is less than 15 kilometers away from the district, and with drone sightings being a commonality, no stone is being left unturned to ensure security for the PM’s event.
Lucknow, Jan 6 (PTI) Amid various political parties seeking to woo voters with promises of free power and other freebies ahead of the assembly polls,
the Uttar Pradesh government on Thursday announced a 50 per cent cut on farmers’ electricity bills for running their tubewells.
The Chief Minister’s office made the announcement on its official Twitter handle that said the decision to slash the power bills has been taken in the interest of farmers.
While the CM’s office tweet tagged a picture of a newspaper advertisement announcing the relief for farmers, it also mentioned a cut in power bills for urban areas by half.
It was not immediately clear if the relief in urban areas was meant only for farmers in urban villages or all urban residents. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Q 4. Read the document – A freelancer’s guide to reporting on climate change [available in this link -https://drive.google.com/file/d/1yf1yTlrQFsaKpqMXmmbDg-E22pHNJS3m/ view]. Collect five environmental news from any Indian newspaper. Critically analyse these stories with the help of this guide.
Ans: – Ceylon Graphite Corp. announced on Tuesday the receipt of renewal of its environmental protection licence from the Central Environmental Authority of Sri Lanka for its ongoing operations at the K1 mine.
The licence is valid for three years after having past an inspection that the operation conforms to stipulated standards, the company said in a press release.
Ceylon currently holds a land package constituting 121 km² grids containing historic vein graphite deposits in Sri Lanka. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
These exploration grids (each 1 km² in area) cover areas of historic graphite production from the early 20th century and represent a majority of the known graphite occurrences in Sri Lanka.
According to Ceylon, the “vein” graphite found in Sri Lanka has the highest in situ purity in the world, but make up just less than 1% of the world’s graphite production. K1 is Ceylon’s first mining project in the country.
The mine site has been granted the highest category license in Sri Lanka, giving the company exclusive rights to mine, process and trade in graphite mined within the area specified in the licence.
“We are very pleased with our technical staff on site, having maintained compliance with the applicable environmental standards, and we look forward to applying these standards to our production growth vein graphite prospects in Sri Lanka,” Ceylon’s CEO Don Baxter said in the release. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
He added that Ceylon is looking to “tick all the ESG boxes” for OEMs and investors alike as it continues to evolve into a stand-alone battery technology company.
‘Coral IVF’ aids Australia’s Great Barrier Reef
The world’s largest living structure is under threat from rising ocean temperatures linked to climate change, which have caused coral bleaching.
This year, however, has seen some recovery on the Great Barrier Reef. Scientists have been using man-made pools in a process comparable to in vitro fertilisation (IVF), moving eggs from areas of the reef where coral has been growing.
These are then transferred in an effort to regenerate areas hit by bleaching or destruction from storms. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The process of assisted spawning, dubbed “coral IVF”, aided the birth of billions of new coral babies this year, in an explosion of colour.
The reef is still facing substantial dangers, but scientists and conservationists hope these types of technologies can spur broader recovery in the world’s reefs, home to roughly a quarter of marine life
The ozone layer is healing MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
It was one of the key environmental causes of the 1980s: trying to prevent the hole in the ozone layer, which protects the planet from harmful UV rays, from getting any larger.
Activists mobilised street protests and politicians held summits.
And change is happening, according to a recent study by the US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR): Because of the 1987 Montreal Protocol, a global deal to regulate nearly 100 man-made chemicals that deplete the ozone layer, 443 million Americans will likely be spared from skin cancer through the end of this century.
The hole in the ozone layer remains enormous – about the size of North America – but it is recovering at a rate of one to three percent every 10 years, according to the UN.
The hole over parts of the northern hemisphere is expected to heal completely by the 2030s, with full repair over the southern hemisphere and polar regions expected by the 2060s, according to UN data. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Global action on the problem via the Montreal Protocol has prevented more than 99 percent of potential health effects that would have otherwise occurred from ozone destruction, NCAR reported.
China’s giant pandas no longer ‘endangered’
Home to more than 1,800 giant pandas living in the wilderness, China reported in July that the iconic bears are no longer officially “endangered”.
Thanks to conservation efforts, they are now classified as just “vulnerable”.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature, an independent tracking group, made a similar assessment several years earlier.
Partial credit for the improvement in the giant panda population can be traced to an expanded network of protected areas in the world’s most populous country, covering about 18 percent of China’s landmass, according to Chinese authorities.
Renewable energy generation hits all-time high
Despite supply chain problems stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic, 2021 was expected to set an all-time high for new renewable energy production capacity.
With new solar installations, wind farms and other technologies, the world added 290 gigawatts of renewable power production capacity this year, according to a report published this month by the Paris-based International Energy Agency.
By comparison, that is twice as much as Canada’s total electricity generating capacity of about 145 gigawatts. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Based on these trends, renewable energy capacity could exceed the current global capacity of fossil fuels and nuclear energy combined by 2026.
Globally, more than 90 percent of new electricity generating capacity in the next five years is projected to come from renewables.
The pace of growth, however, is still not fast enough to reach the goal of net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.
Q 5. Read UNWOMEN’s Guidelines for Gender and Conflict Sensitive Reporting document [ available here https://drive.google.com/file/d/ 1P7hU8WJKf5P7jeIG5TeLyBKTKHkTqri2/view?us]. Closely observe a newspaper/ news channel of your choice for a fortnight. Give your observations.
Ans :- The media plays a key role in shaping public attitudes, including perceptions about women and men.
Gender-sensitive reporting shuns stereotypes that limit and trivialize women and men to present an accurate portrait of the world and its possibilities.
The news coverage of armed conflicts is profoundly gendered and largely male-dominated.
Men are asked to explain and interpret the conflict in many different roles: as combatants, warlords, experts, and politicians. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
Women’s opinions, on the other hand, are rarely asked and if they are, it is usually from the perspective of victims.
Integrating a gender lens into conflict reporting involves respecting the key standards of journalistic professionalism which impartially presents verified information in a fair and balanced context, gives voice to marginalised actors, and shuns gender stereotypes.
Prevention focuses on preventing all forms of violence against women and girls in peacetime, conflict and post-conflict situations.
It involves various measures including creasing prosecutions for perpetrators of conflict-related sexual violence, addressing impunity, increasing surveillance for women’s security and safety and challenging discriminatory gender norms, attitudes and behaviour.
Participation aims to ensure women’s equal participation in peace and security decision-making processes at national, local, regional and international levels.
It affirms the importance of including a gender perspective in peace negotiations, peacekeeping, post-conflict peacebuilding and governance.
It includes appointing more women as negotiators, mediators, peacekeepers, police and humanitarian personnel as well as support for local women’s peace initiatives.
Protection seeks to ensure that girls and women’s rights are protected and promoted in conflictaffected situations or other humanitarian crises, including protection from gender-based violence (GBV) and sexual violence. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
The pillar also affirms the imperative to ensure that governments, regional organisations, continental bodies and peace support operations and humanitarian missions to establish mechanism that protect women from sexual and GBV and provide comprehensive care to victims as well as psycho-social, legal and institutional support.
It also emphasises the specific protection needs of refugees or internally displaced women and girls during the various stages of displacement.
Relief and Recovery intends to ensure that girls and women’s specific relief needs are met, specifically in conflict and post-conflict contexts, and that their capacities to act as agents in relief and recovery are reinforced. MJM 24 Solved Free Assignment
These needs include repatriation and resettlement, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes (DDR), the design of refugee camps, support to internally displaced persons (IDPs) and in the delivery of humanitarian assistance.