BROADCAST & ONLINE JOURNALISM
MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Q 1. What is sound effect? Discuss the importance of sound effects in radio programmes.
Ans: – Sound effects (typically digital in nature, living as a file on a computer) are recorded and edited, or synthesized artificially for use in some medium.
This medium could be a theatrical play, film, television broadcast, radio broadcast, podcast, video game, application, or any other medium that can facilitate the playback of a digital sound file.
Sound effects can also be of analog or acoustical nature and originally arose in use in early theatrical plays, providing an additional story-telling element (ex. a large metal sheet replicating the sound of thunder during a loud storm).
Various special microphones, like hydrophones and contact microphones, allow sound recordists to capture frequencies present in places humans may not ordinarily be able to listen, and may not be able to record with traditional microphones.
Every microphone has a different capability in terms of frequency response, maximum Sound Pressure Level (loudness) and internal noise.
Knowing how and when to use the different microphones available is important to the capturing of sound effects.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Every sound effect will sound different depending on how it’s recorded, making the need for an expansive collection of SFX prevalent when working on a large project like a film, television show, or video game.
Some sound engineers specialize in recording sound effects and focus solely on this aspect of sound.
For instance, Soundsnap is a sound effects library that contains thousands of sound effects from various contributing recordists.
Sound effects in a radio programme give meaning and sense of location. It adds realism to a programme and helps a listener to use imagination.
Sound effects describe the circumstances of a dramatic audio situation.
They can be used for such things as setting and place, conveying action, solving certain narrative problems and evoking characteristics.
Effects should sound as though they were being heard by the character. Dubbing adds extra sound effects or bring disparate sounds together.
Sound effects can be used in two ways:
(a) Spot effects or effects that are created as we speak and
(b) Recorded sound effects.
Categories of Sound Effects: MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
a) Ambiences: It provide a sense of place, “where”, and perhaps of time “when”, events occur.
b) Discrete Effects: Indicates individual events; “what”, “how”, and “how much”.
c) Crowds: Sounds of many people in a crowded situation, without specific voices or words being distinguishable.
d) Dialogue: Dialogue is sound too. The character of the voice indicates a lot about who the character is. Give importance to vocal contrast.
e) Silence: A dramatic element.
Q 2. Write a script for a television news package of 90 seconds duration on any story related to pollution.
Ans: – For too long, we have been exploiting and destroying our planet’s ecosystems.
Every three seconds, the world loses enough forest to cover a football pitch and over the last century we have& destroyed half of our& wetlands.
As much as 50 per cent of our coral reefs have already been lost and up to 90 per cent of coral reefs could be lost by 2050, even if global warming is limited to an increase of 1.5°C.
Ecosystem loss is depriving the world of carbon sinks, like forests and peatlands, at a time humanity can least afford it.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Global greenhouse gas emissions have grown for three consecutive years and the planet is one pace for potentially catastrophic climate change.
The emergence of COVID-19 has also shown just how disastrous the consequences of ecosystem loss can be.
By shrinking the area of natural habitat for animals, we have created ideal conditions for pathogens – including coronaviruses – to spread.
With this big and challenging picture, the World Environment Day is focus in the ecosystem restoration and its theme is “Reimagine.Recreate.Restore.”
Ecosystem restoration means preventing, halting and reversing this damage – to go from exploiting nature to healing it.
This World Environment Day will kick off the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration (2021-2030), a global mission to revive billions of hectares, from forests to farmlands, from the top of mountains to the depth of the sea.
Only with healthy ecosystems can we enhance people’s livelihoods, counteract climate change and stop the collapse of biodiversity.
From forests to peatlands to coasts, we all depend on healthy ecosystems for our survival.
Ecosystems are defined as the interaction between living organisms – plants, animals, people – with their surroundings.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This includes nature, but also human-made systems such as cities or farms.
Ecosystem restoration is a global undertaking at massive scale.
It means repairing billions of hectares of land – an area greater than China or the USA – so that people have access to food, clean water and jobs.
It means bringing back plants and animals from the brink of extinction, from the peaks of mountains to the depths of the sea.
But it also includes the many small actions everyone can take, every day: growing trees, greening our cities, rewilding our gardens or cleaning up trash alongside rivers and coasts.
Restoring ecosystems carries substantial benefits for people. For every dollar invested in restoration, at least seven to thirty dollars in returns for society can be expected.
Restoration also creates jobs in rural areas where they are most needed.
Some countries have already invested in restoration as part of their strategies to bounce back from COVID-19.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Others are turning to restoration to help them adapt to a climate that is already changing.
Q 3. Describe the structure and functioning of a television newsroom.
Ans: – In Journalism, there is always a room or space that provides reporters, directors, editors and news broadcasters with an avenue to do their jobs effectively.
The Newsroom structure is one of those environments. In Mass media and communication studies, these professionals are given a central space to get jobs done.
A newsroom structure is that central workspace in a media house where editors, news reporters, directors and producers come together to publish news, be it on a magazine, newspaper, over a radio or on a television.MJM 23 Free Solved Assignment
It could be a live shoot or a recording. In journalism, the process of broadcasting news is usually a team effort, it involves the effort of every member of staff.
In the newsroom which is also called the City room, there is the need for all the professionals to collectively bring a story to life.
There different sets of people who work to see that news are published. There are a set of people called gatekeepers.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This set of people tend to come in really handy when there has to be a regular news broadcast, either print or on media.
On the other hand, when there has to be a publishing of a news online, the services of the gatekeepers may not be as required.
There are basically two types of a newsroom. There is a news room for Broadcasting and there is equally a news room for newspaper.
Though they have similarities, the striking difference between the two newsrooms is that these rooms both have other spaces within them, where the editing of videos and audios are done.
The news room and the newspaper room also happen to be close by the radio and television studio.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
In a newspaper or print publication room, reporters are expected to sit at the desks being provided, collate information, news, stories to be reported and send over to the news editors for review, a final compilation and depending on the case, to be rewritten.
The structure of a newsroom depends partly on the size and time of a particular publication.
If there has to be a publication on a daily basis. The size of a newsroom can also play a large role in the functions of a news room at a said time.
Most times, a newspaper publication is done in the early hours of the day. There is always a budget meeting held by the editors of a media house.
Here, the editors decide what part of a newspaper will contain every story.
They decide what stories have the catchiest headlines and whether or not which story should be placed on the front page of a newspaper publication.
In a newsroom, there is always a desk which is popularly called an “Assignment desk” by the journalists. MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
This desk serves as the position where staff members tend to attend to calls, emails, and respond to emergency reports.
The assignment desk in the newsroom also serves as the point where different stories and headlines are assigned to broadcasters or reporters by the editors.
On the assignment desk, some stories are also taken away from the list, it is decided whether a story or news will be aired.
In the newsroom, the assignment desk is usually placed higher or above, as in a platform or a stage, to enable other members of the crew to attend to the reporters on the seat.
It is also placed that way because reporters need to see staff members and call their attention whenever there is a need for that.
The structure of a contemporary newsroom also allows for a system called the Maestro concept.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The Maestro concept in the newsroom is a system that gives reporters in the media house an avenue to manage time and improve time management when reporting.
This maestro concept is usually an effort of the entire team, to keep the reporters abreast of time.MJM 23 Free Solved Assignment
The maestro concept is usually set as a system in the Broadcasting newsroom and is an important part of the newsroom structure.
The broadcasting of news by reporters or broadcasters seeks the attention of an entire team because it takes a large number of professionals in the field to bring a story or report to life.
When there are unison, synchrony and teamwork in the reporting of a story, the pictures, plot and every detailed information of a story is presented in its best form.
The structure of a newsroom is usually large and requires all the necessary equipment to enable quality production and participation of the members of staff.
Q 4. What is interactivity? Explain ‘interactivity’ as one of the main characteristics of online journalism.
Ans: – Interactivity is the communication process that takes place between humans and computer software.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The most constant form of interactivity is typically found in games, which need a continuous form of interactivity with the gamer.
Database applications and other financial, engineering and trading applications are also typically very interactive.MJM 23 Free Solved Assignment
There are many software packages that run in the background without any need for input from humans or output to them — that is, with no interactivity.
A web browser is a common interactive program that most people deal with. During an online session, the web browser is the only interactive application that the user deals with.
The code included in every Internet page defines a degree of interactivity with the user.
For example, an online form needs input from a user and then it gives output in the form of labels that indicate the data to be entered in each text box or lists for the user to choose from.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Web based applications offer many forms of interactivity, including hypertext, which adds an embedded link to a text.
Such interactivity provides higher readability and expands online applications to include video, audio and games.
The four identities types of online journalism to some extent utilize the key characteristics which include hypertextualiy, multimediality, interactivity, and immediacy.
Each of these four characteristics make-up online journalism in their own way, I will try to exemplify by looking at the online news situation.
Hypertextuality : MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The problem with hypertext is as one of the founding fathers of hypertext Ted Nelson writes, that it creates “a delivery system for separate closed units – a system which allows only embedded links pointing outwards”.
What one has to realize is that texts, interconnected through links – hyperlinks – can refer internally to the other texts within text’s domain or externally to texts located elsewhere on the internet.
Effective use of internal and external hyperlinks is a basic element of a good online media production.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
It enables journalists to refer their readers to all kinds of background or related information, ranging over documents, illustrations, sources, multiple perspectives on a particular topic and so on.
If we examine how today’s news sites apply these concepts the conclusion we will come up with is pessimistic.
Only a few sites actually embed hyperlinks and if they do it does not integrate their information with the web.
Multimediality means the extent to which text, graphics, sound, voice and images (still and moving) are translated and integrated into a common digital form.
The internet provides opportunity to journalists to present non-linear types of storytelling by using hypertextuality and multimediality in an innovative way.
One of the important implications of multimedia is that the online journalist will learn how to work with these different formats.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
For this writing, the journalist will also need the skills to decide for each story that which part of parts of the story will consist of text and which one will carry audio and visual elements.
Web designer Tim Guay has written as early as 1995 about the inherent pitfalls of applying multimedia content to web sites: “if multimedia is used with no thought to the reasons why it is being used, or it had poor lay-out or content it can result in a pointless aesthetic fiasco that needlessly hogs bandwidth”.
Interactivity is the process of two people or things working together and influencing each other that is the ability of a computer to respond to a user’s input.
In online journalism interactivity is subdivided into three types: navigational interactivity, functional interactivity, and adaptive interactivity.
Observing interactive options in news sites it is noted that there is a sheer absence or rather the fact that most sites do not develop interactivity beyond functional and navigational levels.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
The most sophisticated level of interactivity is adaptive meaning that it allows the web site to adapt to itself, and the behaviour of the visiting surfer.
Its revealed that the more interactive opportunities websites give to users, the more involved the users will feel about the website.
Mainstream news sites usually operate on internal hypertextuality with mainly navigate interactivity.MJM 23 Free Solved Assignment
These sites don’t usually apply multimedia, unless they specifically intend to index images.
This could be seen as serving as some kind of accountability one could argue: allowing the surfer to submit a feedback or comment to the people responsible for the metasite.
Immediacy :MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Immediacy is the quality of bringing into direct and instant involvement with something, giving rise to a sense of urgency or excitement.
The basic concept of immediacy is that it means there is theory, virtually no lag between when information is received or created at a news producer and when the information is passed on to the news consumers.
This is possible because of two related features.
Q 5. Explain any four of the following terms:
i. Voiceover Artist
Ans: – Recorded voices are all around us. In fact, most people are so accustomed to hearing human voices integrated into their favorite products, spaces, and services that they might never stop to ask the obvious question: whose voice am I hearing?
The answer, of course, is that of a voiceover artist.
The center of a massive and rapidly expanding industry, voiceover artists are professional actors who use their voices to create characters, tell stories, communicate vital information, and connect with customers.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Every day new performers flock to this popular career—attracted by the flexible, workfrom-home lifestyle or the dream of voicing the next Disney-Pixar film—and yet demand for voiceover only seems to grow,
as new work flows in from successful internet markets like the audiobook, online education, and phone app industries.
Some may mourn the tight-knit communities, energetic studio sessions, and slower pace that characterized the pre-internet industry, but for the most part, there’s never been a better time to be a voiceover artist.
A voiceover is a form of acting, but that doesn’t mean that any actor can work in the voice industry.
Many of the things “regular” actors rely on—facial expressions, movements, sets, costumes, props— are not an option in a purely auditory medium. For voiceover artists, who typically work on projects
in a wide variety of genres, every job requires a different skill set and a unique approach.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Reading an audiobook, for example, necessitates excellent diction and a steady reading voice, while voicing a video game might call for shouts, gasps, and grunts—non-speaking cues delivered under the direction of a dialogue editor.
Commercial is the broadest category of voiceover work, as a good commercial performance might be naturalistic, exaggeratedly theatrical, or even cartoonish depending on the material and direction.
Some voiceover artists have very particular specialties, such as mimics, who excel at imitating famous actors and characters and are often hired to record ADR for those who are unavailable—a difficult task which requires matching the delivery to the actor’s on-screen mouth movements.
At times, as when using motion capture technology, the line between voiceover artist and actor can grow blurry.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Ans: – For twenty years, Anchor provided free classes for high school students, and had an outreach program called Press on Wheels (POW) which brought printmaking into schools, galleries, museums, and community centers.
Workshops were open to students of all ages who learned to create handmade prints.
During the Toulouse-Lautrec and Rembrandt exhibitions at the Art Institute of Chicago, a press was brought to the museum, and Anchor staff demonstrated the print processes and tools used by both artists.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Ann Weins writes in DEMO 3, pages 24–28: “Anchor Graphics maintains an impressive schedule of classes, workshops, residencies, and lectures, all the while publishing exquisite, hand-pulled prints.”
The Artist-in-Residence Program was created to provide uninterrupted use of the shop by national and international printmakers for research and the development of new work.
Scraping the Surface free lecture series open to the public, presented talks by artists, curators, museum specialists, conservators, collectors, and others with an interest in prints, and was funded by the Terra Foundation for American Art from 2006 – 2010
Ans: – MCR stands for Master Control Room, the technical hub of a broadcast operation, where the signals from both audio and video pass through prior to transmission.
An MCR Operator works within the MCR on equipment which might typically include video monitors, satellite receivers, video tape machines and transmission equipment.
They check the quality of content, ensuring the transmission meets government regulations and respond to any technical issues from other areas of the operation.
Regulations include content ones (such as station ID, indecency, watershed rules etc.) and technical regulations (including those against over-modulation and “dead air”).
iv. Shifted time
Ans: – In broadcasting, time shifting is the recording of programming to a storage medium to be viewed or listened to after the live broadcasting.
Typically, this refers to TV programming but can also refer to radio shows via podcasts.
In recent years, the advent of the digital video recorder (DVR) has made time shifting easier, by using an electronic program guide (EPG) and recording shows onto a hard disk.
Some DVRs have other possible time shifting methods, such as being able to start watching the recorded show from the beginning even if the recording is not yet complete.
In the past, time shifting was done with a video cassette recorder (VCR) and its timer function, in which the VCR tunes into the appropriate station and records the show onto video tape.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Certain broadcasters transmit timeshifted versions of their channels, usually carrying programming from one hour in the past, to enable those without recording abilities to resolve conflicts and those with recording abilities more flexibility in scheduling conflicting recordings.
v. Open Source Reporting
Ans:- Though businesses opt for open-source software (OSS) primarily because they’re cost-effective, embeddability and regular updates are added benefits.
Many software vendors offer open-source solutions as a trial run for companies to upgrade to the paid version later.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Open-source is a software development term that refers to the public accessibility of an application’s source code.
Programmers who write the source code can manipulate it to improve how the application functions; it’s usually hidden from regular users – this is the definition of proprietary software.
Only the agency or person who created the code has exclusive control and modification rights.MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022
Remember agreeing to a license agreement when using software for the first time?
This agreement states you won’t make any changes to the software that its authors haven’t permitted.
Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop are examples of proprietary software.
On the other hand, non-proprietary software authors make the code freely available to others for using, copying, updating and sharing.
Chromium and Android are open-source. BIRT, JReport and Microsoft Power BI are some open-source reporting solutions.
With OSS, you also have to agree to specific license terms – you can use the software, with the stipulation that in case of any modifications, you must make the source code public, free of cost MJM 23 Solved Free Assignment 2022