IGNOU MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MJM 21

REPORTING TECHNIQUES

MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q 1. In today’s world of multiple sources of news and information, how important is inverted pyramid style of writing? Collect some recent facts on climate change and write a news piece in the inverted pyramid style. Then convert the same story into a feature based on the same facts.

Ans: – The inverted pyramid is perfectly suited for the web – on any screen size. We know that users don’t read carefully online.

They have little patience for content that doesn’t engage them. Users scroll, but only when they think that the content they want or need will appear on that page.

The inverted pyramid style addresses all of these aspects of user behavior.

Using the inverted pyramid style can:

Improve comprehension: Users can quickly form a mental model and a general understanding of the article, making it easier to understand the details that follow.

Decrease interaction cost: Users can understand the main point of the page without having to spend a lot of time reading.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Encourage scrolling: This structure can encourage scrolling by engaging the audience with the main point, and drawing them in to the details that follow.

Structure content logically: Starting with broad information sets the stage for what follows.

Elements like anchor or jump links can become unnecessary when content is structured to draw the user down the page.

Support readers who skim: Readers can stop reading at any point on the page and still come away with the main point.

Write in the Inverted Pyramid Style Identify your key points.

What piece of information is the key fact you want your readers to know, even if they only read a single paragraph or sentence on the page? What effectively summarizes all the information that will follow?

Rank secondary information. Outline the story details and supporting information, prioritizing the information that is most likely to be of interest to the broadest audience, and moving down the list to the smaller and more nuanced details Write well and concisely.

The structure only helps readers if the content is strong. Cut unnecessary information.

Get to the point quickly. Use straightforward language. Use short paragraphs and bulleted lists.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Frontload all elements of content with important information. The main headline should be descriptive. The story should start with the main point.

Each heading or subheading should be descriptive. The first sentence of every paragraph should be the most important.

The first words in each sentence should be information-carrying and indicate what content will follow.

Consider adding a summary or list of highlights. Some sites go a step beyond and add a summary (like this article does) or a bulleted list of key points to further emphasize the main takeaways of the content.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

(1. Within the next 2 decades, global temperatures are likely to rise 1.5 degrees Celsius

In its highly-anticipated Sixth Report this year, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that a certain amount of global warming is locked in and is irreversible.

This means that within the next two decades, global temperatures are likely to rise 1.5 degrees Celsius.

In its 2018 special report, the IPCC warned that we only have until 2030 to prevent the worst impacts of climate change.

Yet little has changed since then to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. That’s terrifying.

In 2019, global carbon emissions from fossil fuels and industry reached a high of 36.44 billion metric tons.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

In 2020, emissions fell by 5.8 percent due to COVID-19 and the resulting economic crisis.

Despite last year’s reverse trend, however, 2021 emissions are expected to again grow by nearly 5 percent, to 33 billion tons.

(2. The last 7 years have been the warmest on record 2020 tied 2016 as the hottest year on record, according to NASA.

Notably, 2020’s temperature level was hit without it being an El Niño year, as it was in 2016.

“The last seven years have been the warmest seven years on record, typifying the ongoing and dramatic warming trend,” said Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Director Gavin Schmidt.

“Whether one year is a record or not is not really that important — the important things are longterm trends.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

With these trends, and as the human impact on the climate increases, we have to expect that records will continue to be broken.”

(3. More than 1 million species are at risk of extinction by climate change
Imagine dressing up as a frog for Halloween and having to explain to younger generations what it was and why it’s gone.

Almost half of all amphibians are at risk of extinction due to climate change — so this could be a reality if we don’t act soon.

Extinction is a natural phenomenon, claiming about five species per year.

But some experts suggest we’re in the midst of the sixth mass extinction — one that is caused mostly by human activity.

Scientists estimate dozens of species of plants and animals currently go extinct each day — nearly 1,000 times the natural rate.

By mid-century, as many as 30 to 50 percent of the total species found on Earth will have disappeared.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022
MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q 2. What is the Pegasus issue? Write an article focusing on the issue and highlighting the concerns of privacy and Indian Government’s take on it.

Ans: – In November 2019, a tech reporter from New York City photographed an interception device displayed at Milipol, a trade show on homeland security in Paris.

The exhibitor, NSO Group, placed the hardware at the back of a van, perhaps suggesting convenience of portability, and said it would not work on US phone numbers, possibly due to a self-imposed restriction by the firm.MJM 21 Free Solved Assignment

Since the Israeli cyber giant was founded in 2010, that was probably the first time an NSO-made portable Base Transceiver Station (BTS) was featured in a media report.

A BTS — or ‘rogue cell tower’ or ‘IMSI Catcher’ or ‘stingray’ — impersonates legitimate cellular towers and forces mobile phones within a radius to connect to it, so that the intercepted traffic can be manipulated by an attacker.

The BTS photographed in 2019 was composed of horizontally-stacked cards, likely to allow interception over multiple frequency bands.

The other option is to leverage access to the target’s mobile operator itself.

In that scenario, an attacker would not need any rogue cell tower but would rely on the regular network infrastructure for manipulation.

Pegasus aka Q Suite, marketed by the NSO Group aka Q Cyber Technologies as “a world-leading cyber intelligence solution that enables law enforcement and intelligence agencies to remotely and covertly extract” data “from virtually any mobile devices”, was developed by veterans of Israeli intelligence agencies.

Until early 2018, NSO Group clients primarily relied on SMS and WhatsApp messages to trick targets into opening a malicious link, which would lead to infection of their mobile devices.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

A Pegasus brochure described this as Enhanced Social Engineering Message (ESEM).

When a malicious link packaged as ESEM is clicked, the phone is directed to a server that checks the operating system and delivers the suitable remote exploit.

In its October 2019 report, Amnesty International first documented use of ‘network injections’ which enabled attackers to install the spyware “without requiring any interaction by the target”.MJM 21 Free Solved Assignment

Pegasus can achieve such zero-click installations in various ways.

One over-the-air (OTA) option is to send a push message covertly that makes the target device load the spyware, with the target unaware of the installation over which she anyway has no control.

This, a Pegasus brochure brags, is “NSO uniqueness, which significantly differentiates the Pegasus solution” from any other spyware available in the market.

The past few days have once again provided extensive evidence of a cyberattack on Indian citizens.

Barring the evasive statements issued by various ministers of the Government of India, we are yet to hear any substantive explanation of why phone numbers of several Indian politicians, including Rahul Gandhi,

activists and lawyers were found to be amongst the 50,000 other phone numbers believed to be potential surveillance targets by governments around the world.

It is correct that for a variety of reasons, forensic testing that might have revealed infection by NSO’s Pegasus was not possible in each of these cases.

But the presence of these numbers does call for a thorough investigation, instead of another word salad being offered by the government.

The French and Israeli governments have already ordered an investigation.

Most followers of this controversy will remember that this is not the first time the current government has been accused of snooping on civilians.

In 2019, it was alleged that NSO’s software was used by GoI to exploit a vulnerability in WhatsApp to illegally spy on 24 citizens, and hack as many as 121 Indians.

All that resulted in was bombastic denials by ministers, and blocking of any action by the ruling party.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The Parliamentary Standing Committee on Information Technology chaired by Shashi Tharoor had held some hearings but no substantive outcome resulted or at least no information was made public.

Such inaction across board leaves us citizens to wonder whether the surveillance structure is one where all parties are complicit and the inaction is deliberate after some obligatory public outrage.

Q 3. On the basis of your reading of the unit ‘Research for Journalistic Writing’, use the various methods and tools of journalistic research to write an article on the ‘the emerging need of skilled personnel in Indian job market’.

Ans: – Research Methods :

Students will demonstrate ability to employ various research methods to collect and analyze quantitative data and qualitative information for news.

Such methods include, but are not limited to court and other public documents, surveys, and computer databases.

Ethical Research :MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Students will apply ethical standards to assess data and information for accuracy, reliability, and relevance.

Freedom of Information :MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Students will understand and defend the value of freedom of information and freedom of speech in the marketplace of ideas.

Quantitative Evaluation :

Students will employ research techniques and to contextualize, evaluate, and organize data and information.

Such methods include, but are not limited to the use of computer spreadsheets and databases.

A central problem in the practice of journalism is that most of the time, we are trying to engage in narrative and analysis at the same time.

They don’t naturally go together. Journalists more often unwittingly let the narrative distort the analysis than vice versa.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

What follows is an attempt at a journalistic version of the scientific method, aimed at protecting us from writing stories that are factually accurate and narratively compelling, but still fail to capture the truth of a situation.

Awareness. On any complicated subject, beware, when you set out, of overly simple conceptions of what ‘the story’ is. Often these involve your having unwittingly accepted somebody else’s frame of reference, or having been primed to see the story in a certain way, or having mistaken correlation for causation, or having succumbed to some other form of embedded misperception.

As a first step, you should always stop and ask yourself what you have bought into before you have begun.MJM 21 Free Solved Assignment

Forming a hypothesis. It’s healthier to admit to yourself that you have one than to go into a story with the idea that you have no presuppositions at all – that would be impossible.

You should state a working hypothesis (to yourself, anyway), and then ask yourself what would prove the hypothesis false and what would be an alternate hypothesis to explain whatever it is you are investigating.

As you report, you should try not just to prove but also to disprove your working hypothesis, and you should engage in a continuing process of revision of the hypothesis, if necessary.

If you don’t design your reporting in such a way that if your hypothesis is flawed, you will find that out before you finish the story, then you are leaving yourself open to getting the story seriously wrong.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Mapping the discourse. On any important issue, there is likely to be a long-running debate with a set of established compass points.

Therefore the idea that you can find ‘an expert’ who can explain the issue quickly over the phone is unrealistic, and so, probably, is the idea that you can find two experts, one on each side, who between them can do justice to the subject.

Instead, you should familiarize yourself with the expert discourse on the subject.

You don’t need to read everything, but you need to know what the major schools of thought are, and where the debate stands at present, and you should be able to read the primary material for yourself as a way of enriching what other people tell you about it.

Evaluating the data. Never accept a conclusion from an expert at face value.
Instead, you should follow the steps that led to the conclusion, and you should make some judgment as to whether the methodology and presentation are sound.

You should also find out whether somebody else has drawn a different conclusion about the same subject.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Transparency. Journalism is not scholarship and does not generally use bibliographies or footnotes, but you should use attribution in your work in such a way that readers and colleagues can see, to the greatest extent possible,

where your information came from and how you have reached your conclusions.

Therefore, the use of anonymous sources should be kept to a minimum – you should always try to avoid saying something important with only the testimony of an unnamed person as proof.

Even your journalistic competitors should be able to tell, from your work, how to pursue your story further.

Skilling has emerged as a buzzword. The push for a policy-backed skill development initiative is a significant step towards realising the potential of the workforce by enhancing its employability.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The initiative seeks to strengthen institutional training, infrastructure, training of trainers, overseas employment, sustainable livelihoods and leveraging of public infrastructure.

But there exists a huge gap between the current status and the desired goals in terms of a skilled workforce.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The foremost challenge is the huge proportion of poorly-trained workers in the informal sector—the largest employment generator in India.

The large majority of skill training is carried out through selftaught practices, observation or a transfer of skills from a master craftsperson to an apprentice.

The proportion of formally skilled workers in India is extremely low, at 4.69% of total workforce, compared to 24% in China, 52% in the US, 68% in the UK, 75% in Germany, 80% in Japan and 96% in South Korea.

The mismatch between skill, academic training and employment has broadened to an extent where, on one hand, employers are unable to discover suitably trained people, and on the other, the youth is unable to find the kind of jobs they aspire for.

According to the latest India Skill Report (2019), only 45.6% of the youth graduating from educational institutions are employable.

To address this mismatch, it is imperative to understand the ‘return on skill’ (ROS) concept.

Common sense tells us that a skilled person is in a better position to enhance his earnings.

But to be able to understand the impact of skills on employment, one needs to take a closer and analytical look at it.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ILO, ISCO-08) provides a framework to make it possible to compare occupational data internationally.

ISCO-08 does not seek to substitute the existing National Classification of Occupations, but enables inter-country comparisons by aligning occupational classifications to ISCO-08 in concept and structure.

In the Indian context, many studies estimate return on education at the national level using NSSO data, India Human Development Surveys I and II (IHDS), National Data Survey on Savings Patterns of India, etc.

But there are hardly any studies that investigate the labour-market ROS due to the absence of skill-based earning data.

MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022
MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Q 4. Write a comment on the fast expanding world of digital while half the world population is lagging due to non accessibility. Cite relevant data from credible sources.

Ans: – Even before the pandemic, issues like constantly evolving technological advancements, lack of adequate skills, and new ways of working were disrupting the jobs and skilling ecosystem.

The coronavirus pandemic has only accelerated the pace of workforce & workplace disruption.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As we emerge out of the crisis, business leaders are rethinking how to prepare their workforces, from predicting the future skills required, to keeping pace with a fast-paced technological climate.

Against this backdrop, The Economic Times and The DataTech Labs organised a discussion titled “Leveraging New Age Enterprise Workforce” where some of the prominent experts from across industries participated to discuss strategies to ensure that their employees are equipped with the skills & technology tools that are critical to their business recovery models.

Digital technologies are everywhere, affecting the way we live, work, travel and play.

Digitalisation is helping improve the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems around the world.

But it is also raising new security and privacy risks, while disrupting markets, businesses and workers.

Digitalisation & Energy is the International Energy Agency’s first comprehensive effort to depict how digitalisation could transform the world’s energy systems.

The report examines the impact of digital technologies on energy demand sectors, looks at how energy suppliers can use digital tools to improve operations, and explores the transformational potential of digitalisation to help create a highly interconnected energy system.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

This report seeks to provide greater clarity to decision makers in government and industry on what digitalisation means for energy, shining a light on its enormous potential and most pressing challenges.

It also lays out no-regret recommendations to help steer the world towards a more secure, sustainable and smarter energy future.

Over the coming decades, digital technologies are set to make energy systems around the world more connected, intelligent, efficient, reliable and sustainable.

Stunning advances in data, analytics and connectivity are enabling a range of new digital applications such as smart appliances, shared mobility, and 3D printing.

Digitalised energy systems in the future may be able to identify who needs energy and deliver it at the right time, in the right place and at the lowest cost. But getting everything right will not be easy.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Digitalisation is already improving the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems.

But digitalisation is also raising new security and privacy risks. It is also changing markets, businesses and employment.

New business models are emerging, while some century-old models may be on their way out.

Policy makers, business executives and other stakeholders increasingly face new and complex decisions, often with incomplete or imperfect information.

Adding to this challenge is the extremely dynamic nature of energy systems, which are often built on large, long-lived physical infrastructure and assets.

Digitalisation trends are truly astounding. Data are growing at an exponential rate – internet traffic has tripled in only the past five years and around 90% of the data in the world today were created over the past two years.

This exponential growth has led to the use of increasingly large units of measurement.

For example, global annual internet traffic surpassed the exabyte threshold in 2001 and is expected to pass the zettabyte threshold by 2017.

Q 5. A story of a reputed newspaper highlighted that there are still considerable percentage of women in the country who justify wife beating. Write a story on the socio economic factors that lead to development of such psyche among women citing data from credible sources. Also suggest plausible solutions for the problem.

Ans: – Major life transitions such as pregnancy, motherhood and menopause can create physical and emotional stresses for women.

Negative life experiences – infertility and perinatal loss, poverty, discrimination, violence, unemployment and isolation – also impact on women’s mental health and wellbeing.

Unequal economic and social conditions also contribute to women’s higher risk of depression.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Gender inequality refers to the differences between genders in terms of status, power, wealth, health, and employment.

When these differences are avoidable and unfair, it is known as gender inequity.

Gender inequity is the product of sexism, which is prejudice or discrimination against people based on their sex or gender. It primarily impacts women and girls, with consequences that begin at birth.

Some of the measurable ways that gender inequity affects women globally, in comparison with men, include Trusted Source:

• lower rates of schooling and employment
• less pay for similar work

• higher levels of stress
• higher rates of unpaid work, such as caring for sick relatives

• exposure to higher rates of sexual assault, intimate partner abuse, and gender- based violence
• a lack of representation in government

Some of the ways that sexism affects everyday life include:

• sexist remarks
• sexual harassment
• workplace discrimination MJM 21 Free Solved Assignment

All of these have a significant impact on the mental and physical health of women and girls, as well as people of other marginalized genders.

Unlike sex, which is based on biological traits such as genitalia, gender refers to how people feel about themselves.MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

As a result, anyone can experience gender inequity and sexism based on how they behave and express themselves.

Traumatic events can affect people differently. If the symptoms persist for long periods after a traumatic event, people may meet the criteria for PTSD.

Women are slightly less likely to experience a traumatic event than men. But the types of trauma women experience are more likely to lead to PTSD.

This includes child abuse and sexual assault, which 1 in 3 women in the United States endure during their lifetime. In men, the rate is around 1 in 10.

Women are also more likely to experience childhood neglect, intimate partner abuse, the sudden loss of a loved one, and harmful practices such as female genital mutilation (FGM).

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 3 million girlsTrusted Source undergo FGM every year, most of whom are under the age of 15 years old.

Experiencing a traumatic event can lead to depression and anxiety.

Depression and anxiety are 2–4 timesTrusted Source more prevalent in women who have experienced intimate partner violence, on average, than in the general population.

Childhood abuse is also strongly linkedTrusted Source to depression.

Household responsibilities :MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Despite the fact that in many countries it is common in two-parent households for both parents to work, women still spend more time on parenting and housework than men.

A 2014 nationwide study looking at women physicians and academics found that among those with partners and children, women spent, on average, 8.5 hours more each week on domestic chores.

Among those with partners who had full-time employment, women were also more likely to take time off from their jobs to take care of children.

Caregiving :MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Women provide unofficial care to family members and others more oftenTrusted Source than men. Caring can negatively impact a person’s mental and physical health.

Caregivers have higher stress levels than those who are not caregivers, and women caregivers report more stress and health problemsTrusted Source than men caregivers.

Research also links caregiving with a higher incidence of depression in women of childbearing age.

There are many factors that could contribute to this. Informal caregiving can result in people:

• getting less sleep or exercise
• having less leisure time MJM 21 Free Solved Assignment

• earning less money, putting them at a higher risk of poverty
• becoming socially isolated
• Any of these can increase strain on a person’s mental health.

Sexual harassment :MJM 21 Solved Free Assignment 2022

Sexual harassment refers to unwanted sexual comments or advances. A survey from the National Sexual Violence Resource Center found that around twice as many women experience sexual harassment as men.

During their lifetime, 81% of women and 43% of men reported at least one incident. Women with disabilities were the most likely to experience physically aggressive harassment and assault.

For most people, the age they first experienced harassment was between 14–17 years old.

Gender stereotypes continue to exist and are transmitted through media, and through social, educational and recreational socialization, which promote gender prejudice and discrimination.

This paper argues that contemporary management culture does not critically engage with the social theories of gender studies, which could help in developing gender-neutral affirmative action-oriented managerial perspectives.

Many gender-related barriers and biases have declined over the years but gender stereotypes continue to create problems in the progress of women’s careers.

The availability of opportunities for the career progressions of women continues to be negatively affected by gender stereotypes, which shape managerial behaviour and occupational outlooks in the workplace with patriarchal expectations

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