IGNOU MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MHI 10

URBANISATION IN INDIA

MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

SECTION-A

Q1. What are the approaches to study the medieval towns?

Ans. The various approaches to study medieval Indian towns are as follows:

• The establishment of Sultanat of Delhi brought an urban revolution.

• The factors responsible for this include centralisation, political and economic stability, ruling class and craft and trade; increasing monetisation. Some major towns during medieval period included Delhi, Multan, Patan. Kara etc.

• The iqta head quarters emerged in early phase as camp sites. Most of the 13th century towns are infact defined as iqta head quarters in our sources for e.g. Hansi, Kara etc.

• The role played by rulers in setting up new towns is also significant. Feroze Shah Tughlaq settled Ferozabad, Hissar Firoza & Jaunpur. Akbar built the town of Fatehpur Sikri while Shah Jahan settled Shahjahanabad.

• Some cities gained importance because of their administrative function where other roles such as manufacturing or religion were secondary. Such cities included Delhi, Agra Lahore, Pune etc.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Their period of rule witnessed almost a renaissance in the fields of ancient and medieval learning brought about by scholars of all races, religious communities and linguistic groups.

Persian as a court language prospered by leaps and bounds during the Mughal period. The use of Arabic was confined to the production of Islamic treaties and scriptures only.

Humayun Namah written by Guladan Begum in colloquial Persian mixed with Turki words. Another book written in Persian during Mughal period was Akbarnama by Abul Fazl.

Al Badaoni another scholar was also asked by Akbar to make translation from Arabic and Sanskrit to Persian. Ramayana was translated by him into Persian. Other books written in Persian include Muntakhab ut Tawauh by Al Badaoni. Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri by Jahangir etc.

Q2. What do you understand by subsistence and non-subsistence economies? Explain in the context of the Harappan civilization.

Ans. A subsistence economy is one of the oldest approaches to market management. Economic activity under this type of market does not have monetary value.

In fact, wealth in a subsistence economy is determined by an individual or family’s ability to provide for themselves. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

This means that this market approach relies on natural resources. Activities like hunting, fishing, gathering, food cultivation and handmade homes are the primary drivers behind survival.

In this type of economy, the goal is to maintain existence rather than create a surplus for investment and growth Historically, all humans lived in subsistence economies.

This, of course, was before the existence of urbanization and major cities.

As civilizations grew and developed, divisions in labor took place, different values were placed on different goods and services, and societies began to evolve into different types of economies.

Characteristics of a Subsistence Economy: Perhaps the principal characteristic of a subsistence economy is its lack of industry, technology, and profit. These economies are generally small and participate in trade and bartering practices.

The principal goods and services of these markets are based on local customs, beliefs, and values. Often a subsistence economy participates in artisan fishing, labor-intensive agriculture, and grazing livestock. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Each of these endeavors is performed with handmade, simple tools and traditional techniques.

Another characteristic of subsistence economies is the lack of surplus. The goods and services produced are used or traded in their entirety, meaning nothing is left over to be sold for profit.

Subsistence economies are commonly found in developing countries with large, rural communities and underdeveloped industry.

Advantages of a Subsistence Economy: When the success of an economy is typically measured by its profit margin, it may seem that a subsistence economy does not have many advantages.

This is,however, far from the truth. This type of economy is self-sufficient, providing members with several different benefits.

The first of these benefits is that people within a subsistence economic society are often born into their roles in the community. The son of the fisherman, for example, goes on to become a fisherman as well. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Under this sort of system, people more often understand and accept what their production roles are. This understanding of production roles combined with the lack of surplus creates a less competitive marketplace.

The participants know in advance what resources they will receive for their services. Another benefit of a subsistence economy is that economic decisions are often made by the community as a whole or by one particular family or tribal leader.

Under this system and unlike other economic approaches, the people in the society have a voice in future economic plans.

Additionally, an often overlooked advantage to subsistence economies is that they are less environmentally destructive than industrial markets.

This is because economic activities are traditional in nature and do not rely on chemicals or fossil fuels, thus not contributing to water and air pollution.

Disadvantages of a Subsistence Economy: Despite its advantages, many people believe the disadvantages to a subsistence economy outweigh the advantages. The principal disadvantage found in these types of economies is the reliance on what nature can provide.

This means that unexpected climate changes can have drastically negative results on the capacity of productivity. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Occurrences like drought, temperature variations, flooding, tsunami, hurricanes, and tropical storms can significantly reduce the amount of goods produced.

When this happens, the society does not have access to alternative resources because money is unavailable or difficult to obtain. Not only does the economy suffer in this situation, but the people as well.

Along the same lines, human resources within subsistence economies are also scarce. If one or several community members become sick or suffer a physical impairment, they are unable to work.

MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

In this case, an insufficient number of goods are produced for its members’ survival. Another disadvantage of subsistence economies is that they are vulnerable to larger and wealthier countries, which usually work under market economies.

These wealthier nations often invade or occupy countries with subsistence economies in order to take advantage of the undeveloped environment.

This results in an imposition of their industries, which can be detrimental to the local environment. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

For example, petroleum exploration and exploitation efforts tend to benefit wealthy nations financially while contaminating the water and soil resources of the subsistence nation.

This pollution further reduces the production output of subsistence economies.

The Importance of Subsistence Economies: Subsistence economies are important for cultural preservation. These practices allow cultures to retain traditional knowledge and social identity, which is valuable for understanding human history and development.

In fact, a large percentage of the world’s indigenous peoples are able to survive by obtaining their daily necessities directly from subsistence activities.

For example, the Inuit peoples of the Arctic regions continue to practice traditional, subsistence economies.

This can be found in Greenland, Alaska, and Canada. Indigenous peoples living in these areas are able to earn a living by trading animal products obtained by hunting or fishing among other indigenous communities in the area.

The importance of subsistence economies has even been recognized by the US federal government and state government of Alaska. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

In this state, subsistence hunting and fishing has been protected by regulatory measures. This law was enacted in order to protect the culture and lifestyle of Alaska indigenous peoples.

Subsistence practices are also carried out on native reservations in the mainland,

Q5. Write short notes on any two of the following. Answer in about 250 words each.

(i) Layout of Harappan cities

Ans. Following are the important features of the town planning of the Harappan cities:

(1) The Harappan cities were generally divided into two main parts the raised area; known as the ‘Citadel’, and the lower town.

The Citadel was more in height because the buildings in it were built on mud brick platforms. This area was separated from the lower town by a wall.

The Citadel had within its fold important buildings like the Great Bath, the assembly hall, the granary and the workshops. The lower town, on the other hand had residential dwellings.

(2) The main streets of the Harappan cities were built according to the grid pattern. They were built from north to south and from east to west.

(3) The houses built on the corners of streets were rounded in order to allow the passage of carts.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The main road in the city of Mohenjo-daro was 10.5 meters wide and 800 meters long.

(4) The house drains relayed all the waste water to the drains built in streets.

(5) The streets were so designed as to cross the main road of the city at right angles, thus dividing the city into square or rectangular blocks.

(iii) Growth of urban centres in the Sultanate period

Ans. We have already referred to the revival of towns and town life under the Sultanate. The Turkish ruling class was essentially an urban ruling class with taste for town life.

Many of the towns grew around military garrisons as providers of food, goods and services to them. In due course, many of them emerged as cultural centers.

The medieval town had miscellaneous population, including many lesser nobles and a large class of clerks for running government office, shopkeepers, artisans, beggars, etc.

The posts of clerks and lower government officials had, obviously, to be given to the people who could read and write. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Since the work of teaching was largely in the hands of the Muslim theologians (ulama), the ulama and the lower officials tended to think and behave alike.

Most of the historians were drawn from this section and their writings reflect the opinions and prejudices of this-section.

Beggars, who generally wore arms like the ordinary citizens, formed a large mass and could sometimes create a problem of law and order.

Another large section in the town consisted of slaves and domestic servants. Slavery had existed in India as well as in West Asia and Europe for a long time.

The position of different types of Slaves – one born in the household, one purchased, one acquired and one inherited is discussed in the Hindu Shastras. Slavery had been adopted by the Arabs and, later, by the Turks also.

The most usual method of acquiring a slave was capture in war. Even the Mahabharata considered it normal to enslave a prisoner of war.

The Turks practiced this on a large scale in their wars, in and outside India. Slave markets of men and women existed in West Asia as well as in India.

The Turkish, Causasian, Greek and Indian slaves were valued and were sought after

A small number of slaves were also imported from Africa, mainly Abyssinia. Slaves were generally bought for domestic service, for company or for their special skills.

Skilled slaves or comely boys and beautiful girls sometimes fetched a high price. Skilled slaves were valued and some of them rose to high offices as in the case of the slaves of Qutbuddin Aibak.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Firuz Tughlaq, also prized slaves and collected about 1, 80,000 of them. Many of them were employed in handicrafts, while other formed the Sultan’s personal bodyguard.

The largest numbers of slaves were, however, used for personal service. Such slaves were sometimes treated harshly.

It can be argued that the conditions of slave was better than that of a domestic servant because the master of the former was obliged to provide him food and shelter, while a free person may starve to death.

Slaves were allowed to marry and to own some personal property. However, it was widely accepted that slavery was degrading.

Giving a slave his or her liberty was considered a meritorious act both among the Hindus and the Muslims. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

In general, foodstuffs were cheap for the townsfolk during the Sultanat period. We have mentioned the price of foodstuffs under Alauddin Khilji.

In his reign, a man (about 15 kg) of wheat was sold for 714 jitals, barley for 4 and rice for 5 jitals, with so als being equal to a silver tanka.

Prices rose sharply under Muhammad Tughlaq but declined almost to Alauddin’s level under Firuz. It is possible that this may have been due to the extension of cultivation during his reign.

It is difficult to compute the cost of living in towns. A modern historian has estimated that during Firuz’s reign a family consisting of a man, his wife, a servant and one or two children could live on five tankas for a whole month.

Thus, for a lower government official or a soldier, living was cheap. But this did not apply to the artisans and workers in the same way.

Even under Akbar, an unskilled labourer earned 2 1/2 to 3 rupees a month, or even less. In terms of their income, the living conditions of artisans and workers in towns appear to have been hard.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment
                              SECTION-B 

Q7. Examine the growth of the city of Surat in the 17-18th centuries. What was the pattern of urban social order of Surat?

Ans. There are so many contemporary Indian historian, who has presented a lengthy account about political and military events of the reigns of Mughal Emperor, have very little to so about the economic condition of the people and their commercial activities.

But the English and Dutch records of the period give very precious information.

The letters of the East India Company’s servant from Surat to their employers in England and from them to their Surat factors being chiefly devoted to their own commercial activities are of great value in tracing the trade of the city of Surat.

Besides these European travelers, visited Surat and other parts of the country in the 17th century, had given a good account of the socio-economic condition of the people and their commercial activities.

They were the eyewitness and have left firsthand account of the social and economic condition of the people. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

They came by different routes on different purposes. Chief among them are Terry (1615-1625). captain to the embassy of Sir Thomas Roe, Pietro Della valle(1623-1625), Mandelso, the German traveler( 1638-39),

who reached Surat on 25 April 1638, the French physician Bernier, who lived in India from 1659-1666, his contemporary French traveler Tavernier who lived in India from 1641 to 1668,

the French traveler Jean de Thevenot who reached Surat on 10th January 1666 and lived in India about a year, Italian traveler Dr Cremelli Careri (in India 1695).

Above and beyond these travelers the persons who served under East India Company at Surat, the most famous are Dr John Frayer, surgeon of English Factory at Surat, (1674-1681) and Ovington (1689-92) has given an excellent account of Surat in 1689.

Some Persian sources also throw some light on this subject like Abul Fazl’s Ain-i Akbari, MiratAhmadi of Ali Muhammad Khan and edited by Seyed Nawab Ali gives extra information about the history of the period.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The Persian sources supply us with additional information regarding the Mughal’s attitude towards European companies at Surat, the administration of city and its port,

the piracy in Indian waters, the weakness of Mughals at sea, attempt of the Mughals to hold responsibility of the European companies for the security of the Mecca ship ctc.

In 1514 the Portuguese traveler Barbosa described Surat as “a city of very great trade in all classes of merchandise, a very important sca port, yielding very large revenue to the king, frequented by many ships from Malabar and all other ports.”

The city of Surat is about 10 miles by land and about 15 miles by water from the sea. Throughout the second half of the 17th century, it served as the emporium of the trade, both inland and seabom and was the chief port of the Mughal Empire.

In the 17th century Surat was a fairly big city of considerable size. Ovington says, “The circumference of it, with the suburb, is between two and three English miles, tending somewhat in its position to the form of a semicircle or half moon, because of the winding if the river to which half of it adjoins”.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The entrance in to the city was through several gates. The three main gates were one leading to Cambay and Ahmadabad, another to Burhanpur and Navsari.

Sentries were posted at each gate, who kept an eye on all incoming and outgoing persons. The city has ordinary and splendid buildings. European travelers who visited Surat in the 17th century have remarked that the houses of the inhabitants were not in proportion to their wealth because they hidden their riches.

Even the houses of the rich people were not splendid.The sarkar of Surat comprising 31 mahals including the Bandar (Port and surrounding territories) was placed under the governor (Hakim).

Finch remarks about the location of Surat that the city has many fair merchants houses therein standing twenty miles within the land up a fair river is the Barred, where the ship trade and unload, where on at a spring tide is three-fathom water.

Over this channel is fair to the city side able to bear vessels of the fifties tuner laden.

Surat is an ancient city and port by all evidence and had been through centuries a centre of maritime trade. The city was very populous and full of merchants.

The city had a very considerable number of foreign settlers. Apart from the Europeans, there were Turks, Jews, Arabians, Persians and Armenians,MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

There is not an accurate figure about the population existing. However the population estimated to be able 2 laks.

But the number increased considerably at the time when the ships came and went i.e. in the month from January to April. Then the town was so full of people.

The population consists of administrative merchants, artisans, weavers and agriculturist, which may be mainly divided in to three broad sectors, the Muslims, the Hindus and the Parsis, besides these Foreigners.

The Hindus were in majority at Surat.

They were occupied in trade and other line of work and also linked with administration and appreciated in revenue departments to the port where mathematical and commercial knowledge was necessary, i.c. as accountant and in the mint, to examine the purity of gold and silver.

Some of them were busy as Shroff and other brokers. Among the Hindus, the Banias were the most noted inhabitants of Surat, who were merchants all by profession.

There were very big merchants among them, Virji Vohra was the richest Hindu merchants at Surat whose property was plundered by Shivaji during the attack in 1664 and who was reckoned to be work at last light million rupees.

Muslims were generally engaged in the administration-military as well as civil. The upper classes were appointed to the key posts of honor and trust.

Some Muslims were engaged in trade at Surat for example, Haji Zahid bog and haji Kasim were rich merchants and their property was plundered by Shivaji during his attack on Sarat in January 1664.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The Parsis were in minority, rich and industrious people. They were active in trade, craft and manual Labor at Surat. Most of the Parsis worked as weavers.

They were principal men at loom and most of the silks and stuffs at Surat were made by their hands. They used to supply cloth to the English factory at Surat.

Among the foreigners, mention may be made particularly of the English, the Dutch and the French They had their factories at Surat, established under the farmans of the Mughal Emperors.

Surat as a port was described by Ptolemy. Hiuen Tsang referred to this place as Sowrata which he found to be a trading port in the coast of Gujarat. Surat was a great port and commercial centre.

Goods were brought up the river in boats. The boats were moored at flight of steps. This port and town were 20km up the river Tapti.

The ocean going vessels could not come up to Surat. They anchored at Stwli road. The goods were carried by bullock carts or small boats to or from Surat.

Surat was ruled by the Muslim family of Mirzas. In 1573 Emperor Akbar laid a grasp on Surat to conquer it.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The Mirzas offered the place to the Portuguese in lieu of their help in the war. On reaching Surat the Portuguese force gave up the idea of fighting the strong imperial force and took the stance of an ambassador before the Emperor.

“The Mughal forces gained control over Surat. During Akbar’s time Surat was an important port. Its revenue from customs and other dues was Rs.4 lakhs annually.

Because of its importance as a port the Emperor appointed a Mutasaddi or revenue.

At the turn of the 17 century in Gujarat, Mughal administration was driving a large income from Gujarat in comparison to other subas, from taxation on trade and commerce.

It has been expected by Shireen Moosvi that 18.65% of the total assessed revenue (jama) in Gujarat came from trade and commerce. In sarkara Surat itself, the proportion was 29.75%.”

Surat was a convenient place for exchange of goods from Central India and the Deccan. Merchandise from Kashmir, Lahore, Agra and south India passed through Surat. Commodities from Europe and China cum to Surat.

“Everyone from the Cape of Good Hope to China, man and woman, was clothed from head to foot in material made in Gujarat.” MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

And most of it passed through Surat. Surat started to increase its importance due to the establishment of trading factories by the European travelers, whether they Portuguese or the English.

Surat as a future trade market was chosen due to great entrepot of the Mughal Empire on the coast of India.

According to a contemporary traveler, a city of great trade in all the classes of merchandise. A very important sca port and frequented Surat was a prominent port of the empire in the Mughal period and it came in to prominence during at the starting of the 17 century,

after the discovery of swally hole John Fryer visited Surat in 1674; found Surat as an entrepot for foreign as well as Indian trade, Surat has its trade relation with South East Asia and Middle East.

The main imports of Surat from these countries were quicksilver, porcelain cowries or seashells. Surat became one of the emporiums of the world because of the merchandise it received by land and sea MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The English East India Company soon realized the economic importance of the city of Surat. The English factory was established at Surat in 1612.

The Portuguese created many obstacles in the way of English as they did not welcome a new competitor. When in 1608 captain Hawkins arrived at Surat, he was not allowed to establish a factory there.

He was however, advised by the viceroy of Gujarat, to apply for permission to the Emperor in person.

When he landed his goods at Surat, he faced fierce opposition of the Indians which was instigated by the Portuguese just because of they were considered invincible.

Hawkins proceeds to Agra to see Emperor but the Jesuits frustrated Hawkins plans. When in 1611 Henry Middleton had no other alternative but to meet force by force. In the battle that ensued, the English became victorious.

The victory greatly enhanced the English prestige in the eyes of local authorities.

Like the English East India Company the merchants of Netherlands formed a Dutch East India Company to trade with the East. Surat was a great place for producing indigo and textile industries in the 17 century. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

The first recorded attempt to enter the Indian cloth market was made by the Dutch at the end of the year 1601. Their earliest relation with Gujarat started via Achin.

Two factor Messers wolff and Lafer, started from Achin for Akbar’s Empire with articles of trade and a letter of recommendation to the Mughal Emperor, which was given to them by Sultan Alauddin of Achin.

After a trip of three months and six days, they arrived at Surat, rented a house and the trade started.

The French factory at Surat was established in the year 1668. The English and Dutch had already established their Factories at Surat in the year 1612 and 1618 respectively.

But the French took interest in India long before the foundation of Compagnie des Indes Orientale in 1664.

The contact between India and French was established by three classes of people, first by Missionaries, second travelers and third traders who had a field already prepared by for them by the first two classes of people. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Travelers like Jean de Theycnol, Francois Bernier, Jean Baptist Tavernier and other who wrote retailed accounts of the condition of India.

The missionaries established contact with the local population and the native authorities, and the traveler gave their countrymen the benefit of their knowledge about India,

about the social, political and economic condition of the country and about the immense possibilities of rising trade and commerce with this country.

Thus was heightened the impatient desire felt in France to share with the Dutch and the English Europe’s trade in the precious goods of India. Beber and La Boullaye started from Surat to the Mughal court at Delhi to seek trade privileges.

They were welcomed at the Mughal court and presented the personal letter of Louis xiv to the Emperor Aurangzeb. The Mughal emperor granted them a farman dated 11 August 1666 and the French were allowed to establish a factory at Surat.

Caron, who had a vast knowledge of Eastern trade and served the Dutch East India Company for twenty two years, now joined the service of the French East India Company and started from France in 1667. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Passing through Madagascar and touching at Cochin, he reached Surat in the beginning of 1668 and established there the first French factory.

Thus English, Dutch and French also established their factories in 1613, 1616 and 1668 respectively. To the English, Surat was an integral part of the commercial infrastructure.

Q10. Write short notes on any two of the following.

(i) Bidar: a manufacturing town

Ans. Bidar, city, northeastern Karnataka state, south-central India. It is situated about 2,300 feet (700 metres) above sea level and 68 miles (109 km) northwest of Hyderabad in Telangana state.

The city contains some of the finest examples of Muslim architecture in the Deccan region. Bidar was important under the medieval Hindu dynasties.

It was captured in 1324 by the Muslim prince Muhammad ibn Tughluq, who became the sultan of Delhi the following year. In 1347 the Deccan region broke away from the sultanate’s control under the leadership of the Bahmanis,

whose ruler Ahmad Shah Bahmani moved the site of his capital from Gulbarga (now Kalaburagi) to Bidar about 1425. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

He rebuilt and extended the fort that still dominates the city’s layout. Bidar became an independent sultanate in 1531 under the Barid Shāhi dynasty.

The city was annexed by the sultanate of Bijapur (Vijayapura) in 1619-20 but was captured by the Mughal viceroy Aurangzeb in 1657 and formally annexed to the Mughal Empire in 1686.

Upon that empire’s breakup, Bidar fell to the nizam of Hyderabad in 1724. When Hyderabad state was partitioned in 1956, Bidar was transferred to Mysore (now Karnataka) state.

The fortress that Ahmad Shah Bahmanī rebuilt about 1428 at Bidar has a triple moat and walls built of red laterite.

Within the fortress, complex is the Rangin Mahal (“Painted Palace), so called because of its elaborate decoration with coloured tiles; the Takht Mahal, or throne room; and several other palaces.

Elsewhere in Bidar are the Jāmi Masjid (“Great Mosque”) and the Sola Khamba (“SixteenPillar”) mosque, which are typical Bahmani buildings without minarets or prominent domes.

Another notable Bahmanī monument is the great madrasah (Islamic college) that was built in 1472-81 and is now a massive ruin. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

East of the town are the domed tombs of eight Bahmani kings, while to the west lies the royal necropolis of the Barid sultans. Since the 14th century,

Bidar has been noted for its production of Bidri ware metal articles damascened (ornamented with wavy lines) in floral and geometric designs with silver wire.

Several colleges in the city, including schools of law and commerce, are affiliated with Gulbarga University which was established in 1980.

Bidar is reached by northward branches of the roads and rail lines between Hyderabad and Mumbai in Maharashtra state.

The surrounding lowland area is drained by the Karanja River and produces millet, wheat, and oilseeds. Kalyani, about 40 miles (65 km) west of Bidar, was the capital of the second Chalukya dynasty (10th-12th century). Pop. (2001) 172,877: (2011) 214,373.

(iii) Hill Stations in the colonial period

Ans. The remote sentinels of India, its majestic mountains and verdant hills, have played a pivotal role in the history of the country.

The frontline defence on the northern border, these were once a safe haven for people running away from the persecution of kings with their seats in major capitals, and later were summer retreats for the British,

who sought to find cooler climes. So mighty and vast are these landscapes, that it has not been possible to explore and map all of them.

As we take a journey through the beautiful hill stations of India, let us give you a peek into their history and rich culture.

Shimla: Perched against the snowy peaks of the Himalayas, the misty hill station of Shimla is suspended in time.

Its colonial-style buildings and British-era lodges exude an old-world charm, which is perfectly preserved in this snow globe of a hill station.

Shimla was the summer capital of India in the year 1864, and thus played host to many Europeans who later built lavish bungalows in the city.

At that time, the only way to travel to Shimla was on a precarious bullock cart that traversed through the tough terrain.

To make travel easy and quicker, the British introduced the famous toy train of Shimla, which was called ‘British Jewel of the Orient’, in 1903.

The maiden journey of the train that wound through mesmerizing sights and quaint hamlets was taken by the then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.

Shimla’s heartbeat – the Ridge and the Mall Road – are age-old markets that were as vibrant during colonial times as they are now. The landmark Christ Church and the Gothic Gaiety Theatre are some other historical places worth a visit.

McLeodganj: An immaculate green expanse encompassed by the mist-covered Himalayas and a dense cover of oak, deodar, pine and conifers, McLeodganj is a secluded natural retreat, near Dharamsala.

Today, this pristine town is known worldwide as the home of the Dalai Lama, the Tibetan spiritual leader.

It was in 1960, when the Dalai Lama arrived here and established his base, that the town became a melting point of Buddhist culture. Its rich Buddhist heritage invites travellers from all over the world today.

A number of monasteries, traditional markets displaying cultural handicrafts and authentic cuisines, etc., make McLeodganj a unique stopover. Also known as Little Lhasa (the traditional capital of Tibet).

McLeodganj lets one have the opportunity to explore Buddhism amidst serene surroundings. Stupa of Geshe Rabten.

Dalai Lama’s temple-where Gyatso used to meditate, and Tibet Museum holding the remains of the Buddhist history in India allures several history enthusiasts every year.

Mussoorie: Colloquially called the Queen of Hill Stations, Mussoorie is a tranquil hamlet nestled in the Garhwal Himalayas.

It was established by the British in 1823 and traces of colonial architecture can be found almost everywhere – from churches, lamp posts and summer palaces to libraries and hotels.

During the colonial period, Mussoorie was a charming summer retreat, which became a centre of brewing fine alcohol. The famous McKinnon’s brewery that exported fine wine to England in the 1880’s was set up here.

As the British period ended, many Englishmen chose to make their home in Mussoorie. Amongst them, the most popular are Sir George Everest, who helped measure the height of Mt Everest, the world’s highest peak.

Author Ruskin Bond still lives there and can often be spotted strolling around. Many of his works have been inspired by this hill station.

Gangtok: Irreverent, charming, and pleasantly boisterous, the city of Gangtok is perched along a steep mountain ridge, descending the hillside in steep tiers,

This urban site, set against the majestic Mt Kanchenjunga (Khangchendzonga) is present-day Gangtok, which earned its place on the map when Enchey Monastery was constructed here in 1840, making it a centre of Buddhist teachings.

A glimpse of Tibetan history can be seen from the Namgyal Institute of Tibetology (Tibetan Museum) showcasing everything from coins to old photographs, from Buddhist scriptures to religious art.MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Lansdowne: Unexplored, well-preserved. breathtaking landscapes, and a tranquil valley covered with blue pine trees, aptly symbolise Lansdowne. It is a rustic town showcasing a blend of Garhwali and British architecture and history.

Situated at an altitude of 1706 m above sea level. Lansdowne is idyllic for a perfect summer getaway. Earlier, it was called ‘Kaludanda’, meaning ‘Black Hill’.

Later, it was minted after Lord Lansdowne. when the British started developing it in 1883. Garhwali Museum. St Mary’s Church, Army Museum, and Old Palace of King of Patiala are some of the popular heritage sites here.

Ooty: Enveloped in the green blanket of Nilgiris, Ooty is a little town often covered with mist, clouds, and eucalyptus fragrance, Its traditional and colonial-style buildings are a peeping hole in the rich history of this town.

Il marked its presence back in 1817 when the collector of Coimbatore, John Sullivan, discovered it. Eventually, it became a popular summer retreat of the British and the capital of Madras Residency in British India. MHI 10 Free Solved Assignment

Thanks to its rich colonial heritage, today Ooty has many architectural wonders, the most important being Raj Bhavan or the Government House. It was the erst while residence of the governor of Madras and draws tourists from around the area.

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