IGNOU MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MHI 06


MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022


Q1. Comment on the role of interpretation in writing the history of ancient India.

Ans.The historiography of antiquated and early medieval India uncovers huge changes after some time; these can be comprehended against the foundation of the political and scholarly settings in which they developed and prospered.

The different schools” of history composing are regularly introduced and comprehended as far as one school clearing a path for the other in a perfect, forward movement. Actually more perplexing.

There was significant assortment inside the schools; some of them existed together in exchange or struggle with each other, and there are cases of works that conflict with the grain and don’t fit into the predominant historiographical patterns of their opportunity.

Curators’ mastery :

The eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years were commanded by the works of European researchers, alluded to as Orientalists or Indologists, despite the fact that they frequently portrayed themselves as ‘classicists!

A large number of them worked for the East India Company of the British Government of India. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The establishing of the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1784 gave an institutional concentration to researchers working in fields, for example, literary examination, epigraphy, numismatics, and history.

A noteworthy commitment of the Indologists lay in their endeavors to gather, alter, and decipher antiquated writings. In this, they depended vigorously on data gave by ‘local witnesses.

Indology soon spread past the British domain and turned into a subject of concentrate in European colleges.

Aside from the investigation of old messages, the nineteenth century saw improvements in epigraphy, numismatics, prehistoric studies, and the investigation of craftsmanship and design.

The decipherment of Ashokan Brahmi and Kharoshthi contents were achievements. The examination of coins added to the development of a structure of political history.

Officers of the Geological Survey found ancient stone devices and laid the premise of Indian ancient times.

The Archeological Survey of India, built up in 1871, has throughout the decades made imperative commitments to uncovering and breaking down the material stays of India’s past.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The commitments and leaps forward of the eighteenth and nineteenth hundreds of years were established in a pioneer setting, and this is obvious in specific elements of Indological composing.

MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The Brahmanical point of view of antiquated Sanskrit writings was frequently uncritically taken as mirroring the Indian past. Social and religious organizations and conventions were scrutinized from a Western perspective.

Indian culture was exhibited as static, and its political frameworks authoritarian, throughout the hundreds of years.

Race, religion, and ethnicity were mistaken for each other, and there was a propensity to overstate the effect of outside impact on antiquated India.

This is the point at which the characterization of the Indian past into Hindu, Muslim, and British periods flourished.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Indian researchers of the late nineteenth century and the main portion of the twentieth century made real commitments to building an associated account of antiquated India.

These students of history, who composed against the foundation of a developing, and later progressively solid, national development, are by and large alluded to as Nationalist antiquarians.

They wove together information from writings, engravings, coins, and other material stays to demonstrate the shapes of the antiquated Indian past.

Commitments were made in the field of political history. South India was brought into the story and the investigation of territorial nations advanced.

The patriot tinge in these researchers’ compositions can be found in their emphasis on the indigenous foundations of social improvements.

It is reflected in their look for brilliant ages, which prompted their commending the age of the Vedas and the Gupta Empire. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Non-monarchical commonwealths were found and celebrated to counter India had never known anything other than oppressive run the show.

The periodisation of the Indian past into Hindu, Muslim, and British periods was, in any case, held. It blended with a mutual propensity to valorise the ‘Hindu period’ and to extend the coming of the Turks and Islam as a cataclysm and disaster.

The 1950s saw the rise of Marxist historiography, which went ahead to assume a persuasive part in the development of the historical backdrop of antiquated and early medieval India.

Over the long haul, the Marxist students of history moved the concentration from an occasion focused history ruled by political account to the outline of social and monetary structures and procedures, particularly those identified with class stratification and agrarian relations.

Marxist historiography added to revealing the historical backdrop of non-first class gatherings, some of which had endured subordination and minimization.

While making these significant intercessions and commitments, Marxist compositions regularly tended to work with unilinear chronicled models got from Western authentic and anthropological works. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Writings were at times perused uncritically, with deficient consideration paid to their hazardous order and idiosyncrasies of sort.

Archeological information were incorporated, however the essential system of the recorded story remained content driven.

At first, the emphasis on class implied less thoughtfulness regarding different bases of social stratification, for example, station and sexual orientation.

Religion and culture were sidelined, or mechanically introduced as impressions of financial structures.

Not withstanding imperative contrasts, the major historiographical schools shared similitudes. Certain precepts of these schools keep on thriving.

A portion of the principal premises and strategies for Orientalist historiography still hold their ground, and histories of Third World nations, for example, India stay Eurocentric.

Bids to the old and early medieval past are regularly managed by patriot or communalist plans. Marxist historiography keeps on being a persuasive drive in early Indian historiography.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

A basic comprehension of historiography, one that perceives the commitments and constraints of over a wide span of time ideological and hypothetical structures, is fundamental to understanding where the historical backdrop of antiquated and early medieval India stands.

In any case, the advances without bounds are probably going to be the aftereffect of addressing and thinking past the limits of existing historiographical positions and systems.

History is not one but rather numerous stories; just a couple of them have been composed. The difficulties to expand on the advances so far are numerous.

Presently, there are two parallel pictures of antiquated South Asia – one in view of abstract sources, the other on paleontology.

Writings and prehistoric studies create diverse sorts of chronicled stories and recommend distinctive rhythms of social congruity, progress, and change.

Students of history for the most part utilize archeological proof specifically as a verifying source when it matches theories in light of their elucidation of writings.

Archeologists have not satisfactorily investigated the chronicled ramifications of archeological information. Connections amongst’s writing and paleontology have a tendency to be shortsighted and without reflection on technique.

We have to consider whether, given their intrinsic contrasts, printed and archeological confirmation can be incorporated, or whether we ought to just go for juxtaposition.

The custom of extricating as far as anyone knows plainly obvious “realities” from artistic sources should be supplanted by an approach that is more delicate to their sort, surface, and rhythm. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

In any case, in perspective of the data and bits of knowledge offered by quickly developing archeological information, recorded accounts can never again remain content driven.

A more advanced approach towards printed examine must be joined by a fuse of archeological confirmation.

This will prompt a more nuanced picture of old India. It will uncover the complexities and assorted varieties of social procedures, and will fuse the standard and ordinary into our comprehension of the antiquated past.

Histories of early India ought to in a perfect world speak to the different areas and groups of the subcontinent in their assorted variety.

Be that as it may, while the heartlands of awesome realms and kingdoms are all around spoke to, numerous locales are definitely not.

These must be acquired. Bringing more individuals into history expects activities to reveal bunches that have been subordinated and minimized.

This is difficult, given that an incredible extent of the source material accessible to students of history has been made by tip top gatherings and mirrors their thoughts and interests.

By and by, the past of individuals who have been avoided history must be revealed and composed, and these histories must turn into an indispensable piece of the account of the antiquated Indian past. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Investigations of sexual orientation, the family, and the family unit should be pushed further and need to end up some portion of bigger social histories.

Issues and organizations, for example, the family, class, varna, and jati require long haul points of view, demonstrating how the distinctive bases of social personality crossed and changed after some time.

India’s shifted and complex social conventions require consideration.

While these keep on being the concentration of research among researchers working in South Asian examinations, religious investigations, and craftsmanship history offices abroad, they have in late decades remained to some degree negligible to standard chronicled writing in India.

Need to extend face off regarding :

There is a cozy connection amongst history and personality; the past has, in this manner, dependably been challenged landscape.

In contemporary India, the antiquated past is summoned in various routes in political talk, incorporating publicity with high and mighty or troublesome motivation.

There are banters over the state’s entitlement to extend and engender certain translations of the past through school reading material. Groups often disapprove of things expounded on them in students of history’s academic compositions.

In such a charged and bigoted environment, there are a few threats – of the consider control and mutilation of the past to accomplish political closures, of verifiable theories being judged on the premise of their political ramifications as opposed to scholarly legitimacy

Q4. Why do we talk about the early medieval period in Indian history?

Ans. Medieval period is an important period in the history of India because of the developments in the field of art and languages, culture and religion. Also the period has witnessed the impact of other religions on the Indian culture.

The beginning of Medieval period is marked by the rise of the Rajput clan. This period is also referred to as the Postclassical Era. Medieval period lasted from the 8th to the 18th century CE with early Medieval period from the 8th to the 13th century and the late medieval period from the 13th to the 18th century.

Early Medieval period witnessed wars among regional kingdoms from north and south India where as late medieval period saw the number of Muslim invasions by Mughals, Afghans and Turks. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

By the end of the fifteenth century European traders started doing trade and around the mid-eighteenth century they became a political force in India marking the end of Medieval period.

But some scholars believe that start of Mughal Empire is the end of Medieval period in India.

Main Empires and Events in Medieval period

Rajput Kingdoms – Rajput came for the first time in the 7th century AD. But historians gave different theories of their origin.

The Turkish Invasion (1000 AD – 1206 AD) – North India during this period was raided by Mahmud of Ghazni.

He sacked Somnath temple many a time. Prithviraj Chauhan defeated Ghuri in the first battle of Tarain but was defeated by Ghuri in the second battle. With this comes the rule of the Sultan of Delhi (Delhi Sultnate).

The Slave Dynasty (1206 AD-1290 AD) – Ghuri gave the commands of his reign to his slave Aibak. Aibak broke his links with Ghazni to establish Slave Dynasty.

Aibak was succeeded by Iltutmish. He built Qutub Minar and during this period Delhi became the capital of India.

The Khiljis (1290 AD-1320 AD) – Delhi Sultanate was taken over by Jalaluddin Khilji. But he was murdered by Alauddin Khilji who then took over his position. Khilji ruled most of the South India.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The Tughlaqs (1320 AD – 1412 AD) – Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq brought Tughlaqs into power. Famous Tughlaqs are Muhammad-Bin-Tughlaq, and Firoz Shah Tughlaq.

The Sayyids and Lodhi Sultans (1414 AD – 1526 AD) – Sayyids ruled Delhi for a short duration and taken over by Lodhis who moved the capital from Delhi to Agra. Many small kingdoms emerged with the decrease in the power of Lodhis.

Following these two dynasties were the powerful Vijayanagara Empire (1336 AD – 1565 AD) and the Bahamani Kingdom (1346 AD – 1689 AD).

Chola Empire – One of the most prominent empires in South India that ruled from Tamilnadu and extended till south east asian Nations (Cholamandalam region) from the 9th to 13th century.

The Cholas unlike most of the other rulers were not from outside but from South India who contributed at lot towards political, architectural, cultural spheres of India. Cholas had strong army and powerful navy.

During their regime, Buddhism and Jainism flourished to a great extent. Along with this, fine arts, metal casting and literature touched new heights.

Vijayanagara was one of the most important states to emerge in the 14th century. The place is now known as Karnataka. Many famous travelers of that time had mentioned about this place.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The Mughal Empire (1526 AD – 1857 AD): The Sultans of Delhi were replaced by the Mughals who were great patronage of art, music, culture and architecture. They ruled strongly till 1707 and after this the Mughal Empire weakened and disintegrated.

Zahir-uddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal Empire by defeating Abrahim Lodhi at Panipat in 1526. Babur recorded all his experiences in Tuzuk-i-Baburi. The word Mughal has its origin in Babur’s Mongol ancestry.

In 1530 Babur’s son Humayun came into power. A battle at Kanauj in 1540 brought Sher Shah into power but again Humayun recaptured Delhi and Agra. He re-established Mughal rule in India.

He was succeeded by his son Akbar. He was the great emperor and brought almost entire India under his rule. Jahangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb are the other Mughal kings.

The Great Marathas (1674 AD – 1819 AD) – Hindavi Swaraj was established by the great Maratha Shivaji and then he became Chattrapati.

Bhakti Movement: Sufis and saints were famous religious gurus in Medieval period. Along with them were the Bhakti saints whose teachings were also very popular.

Guru Nanak dev ji, Ramanuja, Ramananda, Kabir, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Mirabai, Namadeva are few of the great saints of that time.

Almost every saint in Medieval period challenged the caste system, emphasized oneness of God, brotherhood of all human beings. Under Bhakti movement no one was discriminated on the basis of caste or gender.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Art and painting: Painting was another important area that was flourished to a great extent during this period.

Persian art came to India with Humayun who brought painters with him to India. Most of the art got influenced by the Islamic culture.

Mughal school of painting kept flourishing under the rule of Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan. Jahangir was a great painter and under his rule the Mughal school of painting reached at its peak. He had many famous painters in his court.

Along with the Mughal school of painting, the Rajput and the Pahari schools of painting also got support. Beautiful landscapes were introduced by the Mughals. Rural art and social scenes from daily life became prominent.

Medieval period was the marvelous period and an era of wars and great architecture in India. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Also most of the regional languages of today have evolved during this period. This period is also important from the religious point of view because of many Bhakti movements and saints such as Guru Nanak Dev ji, Ramananda, Kabir etc.

Suffi saints such as e Chishti, Firdausi, and Nizam-ud-din Auliy were also there during Medieval period. Regional as well as folk traditions developed to a great extent.

MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Q5. How does Sangam literature help us in understanding the early Tamil society.

Ans. The Sangam literature forms the main source of information for the Early Historic period.

The literature derives its name from Sangam, where it is believed to have been composed or compiled. According to Tamil tradition, there were three Sangam

Ages, each extending over a period of thousands of years and these Sangams were patronised by the Pandya rulers.

The Sangam perhaps functioned as an academy or assembly, where a number of poets were present. The extant works, which are attributed to the third Sangam Age, were compiled in the early medieval period. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

All the Tamil works that were produced in the first two Sangams are said to have been lost. However, there is very little historical or linguistic evidence to prove the authenticity of this legend. It has also been stated that the term ‘Sangam’ is of very late origin.

The Sangam literature is the oral bardic literature of the ancient Tamils. Most of the works were composed by the bards and poets who praised the kings and received their patronage in return.

They are also the emotional outpourings of the poets. The literature offers vital information for reconstructing the socio, economic and political history of the Early Historic Tamil country.

Though the situations in the poems were described according to the poetic conventions, the poets have taken real life situations and the happenings in the society for similes, metaphors and other codes and symbols.

The symbols and codes have hidden meanings, which are not obvious. A careful analysis of these symbols and codes can offer valuable information.

These works are preserved mainly due to the efforts of scholars including U.V.
Swaminatha Iyer, who collected the manuscripts and published them in the modern
period.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

The major works produced during this era are grouped into Pathinenmelkanakku (eighteen major works – narrative) and Pathinenkilkanakku (eighteen minor works -didactic). Pathinenmelkanakku is divided into Ettutokai and Paththupattu.

Besides these works, there is Tolkappiyam, an ancient Tamil grammatical treatise.
There are five major Tamil epics, Silappadikaram.

Manimekalai, Sivaka cintamani, Valaiyapati and Kundalakesi, which postdate the Sangam Age. Among these, Silapatikaram and Manimekalai are the famous works.

There are also five minor epics, Yasodhara-kaviyam, Chulamani, Perunkathai, Nagakumara-kaviyam and Nilakesi, written by Jain authors.

Tolkappiyam – Grammatical Work

Tolkappiyam, the ancient extant Tamil grammar work, was written by Tolkappiyar, who was believed to be a disciple of the mythical sage Agasthya.

The Tolkappiyam lays down the rules and regulations for Tamil literature. The Tolkappiyam is divided into three components:MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Eluttatikaram (Orthography) Collatikaram (etymology and syntax) and Porulasikaram (deals with akam (the inner life) and puram [outer life) and prosody). Chronology of Tolkappiyam is debatable.

Some scholars date it to around the beginning of the Christian era, while others place it in fifth century A.D. Pathinenmelkanakku (the Eighteen Major Works) Pathinenmelkanakku comprises Ettutokai (eight anthologies) and Paththupattu (ten Idylls),

which are the earliest Sangam works. Ettutokai (the eight anthologies) The Ettutokai is a collection of eight long and short poems. The Ettutokai works are:

1) Narrinai: The general theme of Narrinai is love and it consists of 400 stanzas, composed by 175 poets.

2) Kuruntokai: It is a short anthology’, consisting of 402 love poems.

3) Ainkurunuru: This short five hundreds’ deals with love songs of five fold

4) Pattirrupattu: The ‘ten tens’ consists of ten long poems divided into ten sections.It is a puram work praising the valour of the Chera kings. The work is valuable for reconstructing the history of the early Chera rulers.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

5) Paripatal: It is a composition of devotional songs dedicated to deities such as
Vishnu and Karthikeya.

6) Kalitokai: It consists of 150 stanzas with most of the songs dealing with love
theme and a few songs on moral values.

7) Akananuru: It contains 401 stanzas of poems composed by nearly 145 poets.
All the songs deal with love theme.

8) Purananuru: It comprises of 400 heroic poems, composed by 157 poets

Paththupattu (Ten Idylls) The Paththipattu is a collection of ten long poems. Out of them, five belong to the arrupatai class in which a bard directs another to a person/king for the acquisition of wealth. They are:

1) Tirumurukarruppatai: A bard directs another to the abode of Lord Muruga, to
acquire spiritual wealth. All the important shrines of Lord Muruga are described
in this work. It was composed by Nakkirar.

2) Porunararruppatai: It praises the valour of the Chola king Karikala. It was
composed by Muttatamakanniyar.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

3) Ciruppanarruppatai: In this work, the bard directs the minstrel to the court of
Nalliyakotan, a chieftain.

While describing his kingdom, the work also portrays the capital cities of three major kingdoms, namely, the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas. It was written by Nattattanar.

4) Perumpannarruppatai: This arrupatai is in praise of the ruler of Kanchi, written by the poet Uruttirakkannanar. The administration of the city of Kanchi and its trading activities are widely described in this work.

5) Mullaipattur: The shortest of ten idylls, containing 103 lines was composed by
Naputtanar. This work deals with the akam concept.

6) Maturaikanci: The longest of ten poems, contains 782 lines. Mankuti Marutanar
praises the valour of the Pandya king Netunceliyan and describes in detail the trade, commerce and administrative aspects of the Pandya Kingdom.

7) Netunelvatai: This puram work was written by Nakkirar in praise of Netunceliyan, the Pandya ruler.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

8) Kurincipatu: Kapilar’s work deals with akam concept.

9) Pattinapalai: In praise of the Chola ruler Karikala, this work was composed by
Uruttirankannanar. This work deals with the trade relations between ancient
Tamil country and foreign countries.

10) Malaipatukatam: Composed by Perumkaucikanar, the work is an arrupatai,
directing the fellow bard to the kingdom of Nannan.

Pathinenkilkanakku (Eighteen Minor Works)

The eighteen minor (Kilkanakku) works which are didactic in nature are later than the Melkanakku works. They show more influence of Prakrit and Sanskrit cultural traditions than the Melkanakku works.

The impact of Jainism and Buddhism is also seen in these works, which mostly contain codes of conduct for kings and people. The Kilkanakku literature was composed in fourth-fifth centuries A.D., MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

when the Tamil country was under the Kalabhra rule. The most famous among these works is Muppal or Tirukural, written by Tiruvalluvar. It deals with philosophy and maxims. The eighteen minor works are:

1) Naladiyar;
2) Nanmani Kadigai;

3) Palamoli Nanuru;
4) Aintinai Elupathu;

5) Aintinai Aimbathu;
6) Tinai Malai Nurrambathu;

7) Acharakovai;
8) Tinaimoli Aimbathu;

9) Muppal (Tirukural);
10) Tirikadugam;

11) Cirupanchamulam;
12) Kalavali Narpathu;

13) Kar Narpathu;
14) Inna Narpathu;

15) Iniyavai Narpathu;
16) Kainilai;

17) Innilai; and MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment
18) Eladi.


Q 9. Comment on the role of women in the Indian national movement.

Ans. The role played by women in Indian freedom struggle- ‘Crusaders’ not just ‘helpers’ – Early struggles: Woman’s participation in India’s freedom struggle began as early as in 1817. Bhima Bai Holkar fought bravely against the British colonel Malcolm and defeated him in guerilla warfare.

Many women including Rani Channama of Kittur, Rani Begam Hazrat Mahal of Avadh fought against British East India company in the 19th century; 30 years before the “First War of Independence 1857”.

The First War of Independence (1857-58): Even though the British succeeded in crushing it within a year, it was certainly a popular revolt in which the Indian rulers, the masses and the militia participated so enthusiastically. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Rani Lakshmibai was the great heroine of the First war of India Independence 1857″.

The First War of Independence (1857-58): Even though the British succeeded in crushing it within a year, it was certainly a popular revolt in which the Indian rulers, the masses and the militia participated so enthusiastically.

Rani Lakshmibai was the great heroine of the First war of India Freedom. She showed the embodiment of patriotism, self-respect and heroism. She was the queen of a small state, but the empress of a limitless empire of glory.

Non-cooperation movement launched (1920): Gandhi ji returned to India from South Africa in 1915 and took up the demand for self-rule and non-cooperation movement.

Sarla Devi, Muthulaxmi Reddy, Susheela Nair, Rajkumari Amrit Kaur, Sucheta Kripalani and Aruna Asaf Ali are some the women who participated in the non-violent movement.

Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi, and the women of the Nehru family, Kamla Nehru, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit and Swarup Rani, also participated in the National Movement. Lado Rani Zutshi and her daughters Manmohini, Shyama and Janak led the movement in Lahore.MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Civil Disobedience and the Dandi Salt March (1930): The women started their march on the road to liberty by breaking salt laws, forest laws, taking out “Prabhat Pheries?, processions picketing schools, colleges, legislative councils and clubs.

Sarojini Naidu was specially nominated by Gandhiji to initiate raid upon Dharasana Salt Works in May 1930. During the movement, Kamla Devi addressed meetings, prepared salt and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.

Nari Satyagraha Committee, Mahila Rashtriya Sangha, and Ladies Picketing Board played important role during the period.

Revolutionary Activities: The organization of the revolutionaries was very active in Dhaka, Comila and Chittagong and young college girls came into its fold.

The famous group of the women revolutionaries consisted of Samiti and Suniti, Bina Das, Kalpana Dutta and Preetilata Waddedar

The Quit India Movement (1942): The Quit India resolution, taken against British, directly addressed women “as disciplined soldiers of Indian freedom”, required to sustain the flame of war. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

Usha Mehta, a committed patriot set up a radio transmitter, called The “Voice of Freedom” to disseminate the “mantra” of freedom-war.

News of protest and arrests, deeds of young nationalists, and Gandhi’s famous “Do or Die” message for the Quit India movement were circulated amongst the masses. Usha Mehta and her brother persisted with their task of broadcasting until their arrest.

Q10. Was caste an invention of colonial modernity? Discuss.

Ans. Brahmanism represents a core civilizational value and caste is the central symbol of this value.

It is the basic expression of the pre-colonial traditions of India. Contrary to this view, Nicolas Dirks, in his Castes of Mind (2001), argues that caste is a product of colonial modernity.

By this he does not mean that caste did not exist before the advent of British. He is simply suggesting that caste became a single, unique category under the British rule that expressed and provided the sole index of understanding India.

Earlier there were diverse forms of social-identity and community in India. The British reduced everything to a single explanatory category of caste.

It was the colonial state and its administrators who made caste into a uniform, all-encompassing and ideologically consistent organism. They made caste as a measure of all things and the most important emblem of traditions.

Colonialism reconstructed cultural forms and social institutions like caste to create a line of difference and demarcation between themselves as European modern and the colonized Asian traditional subjects. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

In other words, British colonialism played a critical role in both the identification and production of Indian tradition.

The colonial modernity devalued the so-called Indian traditions. Simultaneously, it also transformed them. Caste was recast as the spiritual essence of India that regulated and mediated the private domain.

Caste-ridden Indian society was different from the European civil society because caste was opposed to the basic premises of individualism as well as the collective identity of a nation.

The salience of this pre-colonial identity and sense of loyalty could easily be used to justify the rule by the colonial modern administrators.

So, according to Dirks, it was the colonial rule of India that organized the ‘social difference and deference’ solely in terms of caste The attempts to downplay or dismiss the significance of Brahmans and Brahmanical order is not in accordance with much familiar historical records and persistence of caste-identities even in contemporary Indian social life.

Caste-terms and principles were certainly not in universal use in precolonial periods. Caste in its various manifestations and forms was also not an immutable entity.

However, starting from the Vedas and the Great Epics, from Manu and other dharamsastras, from puranas texts, from ritual practices, the penal system of Peshwa rulers who punished culprits according to caste-principles, to the denunciations of anti-Brahmanical ‘reformers’ of all ages; everything points towards the legacy of pre-colonial times. MHI 06 Free Solved Assignment

It is true that there were also non-caste affiliations and identities such as networks of settlements connected by matrimonial alliances, trade, commerce and state service in the pre-colonial times.

However, caste was also a characteristic marker of identity and a prevailing social metaphor. Caste was not merely a fabrication of British rulers designed to demean and subjugate Indians.

It did serve the colonial interests as by condemning the ‘Brahmanical tyranny’ colonial administration could easily justify their codes to ‘civilize’ and ‘improve the ‘fallen people’.

Moreover, the strengthening of caste-hierarchy could also act as a bulwark against anarchy.

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