IGNOU MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MHI 03


MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022


Q2. Write a note on the historiographical traditions in early India.

Ans. The ancient Indians were acquainted more with the art than sciences of historiography. It would be too much to expect scientific, serious or genuine histories from the authors of ancient times.

It has been aptly remarked that the modern historian of ancient India unceremoniously discards the ancient forms and ideas, the very context of ancient historical works.

The tradition of historical writing in ancient India began in the time of Vedavyasa and continued until the end of the twelfth century AD. The oldest Indian historical tradition is preserved in the Rgveda.

The Rgveda hymns about the Aryan people speak of the sense of history of those who composed them.

These hymns constitute the earliest evidence of the historical sense in India. And the composition of the original Bharata Itihasa or Bharata Samhita and the Purana Samhita or Itihasa Samhita by Vyasa in theDvapara age marked the beginning of Indian historiography.

The two main tradition of historiography in its early phase were the epic and Puranic. The Puranic tradition is relatively of greater value.

The Puranakara were the first to record and preserve the dynastic genealogies and chronology- the two legitimate constituents or components of history.

Their historical conception and chronological perception find reflections in the information they have supplied about the kings of different dynasties with length of their reign.

They have provided the dynastic history of India in a very systematic way up to the beginning of the Gupta rule. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The details of the Kingdoms and the dynasties of the Gupta post Gupta period furnished by them with some chronological data though not very systematic are also of considerable historical value.

This chapter will discuss the tradition of historical writings in ancient India in three different contexts such as the Itihasa-Purana tradition, the Vedic tradition and the Epic and Puranic traditions.

In fact, it was the Itihasa-Purana tradition, which marked the beginning of ancient Indian historical tradition.

The three main constituent elements of the historical tradition were akhyana(narratives), Itihasa (pas events) and Purana (any old tale or ancient lore).

These three constitute rudimentary specimens of history. In fact, they contained the seeds of history. Akhyana signifies presentation of history in a narrative style.

Itihasa in real sense of the term signifies history, which appears in ancient Indian literature not only as a record of the past but also as a trustworthy guide to contemporary cultures and civilization. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

In its broader sense, it comprises ancient events arranged in the form of story based on historical truth.

The writer of Itihasa tradition took history in a very comprehensive sense and attached more importance to the delineation of contemporary social, economic, political,religious and cultural life of the people than to the mere description of wars and battles, political conflicts and discords, etc.

Purana is generally applied to tales of primeval antiquity or ancient stories whether quasi-historical, mythological or fanciful. Itihasa or Purana in the widest application of the term denotes actual traditional history.

Various legendary and historical accounts of the events of the past or primordial events of humanity have been incorporated in the Itihasa and Purana.

The earliest form of Itihasa based on real or oral tradition emerged in the Vedic age. The written records of the tradition appeared much later. The written form of history began with written tradition.

The literature of both Vedic and Post-Vedic times contains the rudiments of history. The antiquity of Itihasa-Purana tradition can be traced back to the Vedic Age.

The earliest reference to the word Purana occurs in Rgveda Samhita, the oldest Vedic text. The sense of ancientness of anything is imposed in the word.

In the same text, it has been used in the form of tale of hoary antiquity, Gatha, etc. Yaska (who may be tentatively placed between 800-700 Cnetury B.C) also referred to Purana and Itihasa.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

He cited the Kuru dynasty as an example of Itihasa, which according to him, may be distinguished from the Gathas.

He uses Aitihasiaka, for those who interpreted the Veda with reference of traditional history, which can also be supported by statement of Durgacharya (A.D 1300-1350), a commentator on his work.

The Puaranic Akahyanas in the Veda were purely based on contemporary tradition. Itihasa as a kind of literature is repeatedly mentioned along with Purana in the later texts of the Vedic period as well as in the text of post.

Vedic times In the Atharva Veda Samhita, the Purana has been mentioned fast singularly along with three other Vedas and then conjointly with Itihasa.

In this connection we are further told that Itihasa, Purana, Gatha and Narasamsis were known to the people. They being repository of age-old traditions were seriously studies by scholars and elites of the days. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The Gopatha Brahmana mentioned not only purana but also the Itihasa- vedaand Purana-Veda. In the Satapatha Brahmana, the Itihasa and ther Purana have been identified with Vedas. The compound word Itihasa-Purana also figures in it.

In one passage, Anvakhyana and Itihasa are distinguished as different classes of works. But the exact point of distinction is obscure.

The former was probably supplementary to the later. The stories narrated in the Brahminical textswere also based on Itihasa Purana tradition. In Taittiraiya Aranyakas, Itihasa and Purana have been mentioned together with Gathas, Narasamsis and Kalpa.

The combination of Itihasa and Purana appear in the Brahadaranyaka Upanishad. In the Chhodangya Upanishad also Itihasa finds mentioned in combination with Purana.

This is the texts, which specifically referred to Itihasa Purana as fifth veda, the four veda being the Rig, Sam, Yajur and Atharva Veda. From the Upanishad it distinctly appears that Itihasa, Purana and Veda were important subjects of study.

The Sankhayana srautasutra, mentioned the Itihasa as well as the Purana as a veda. In two Grihya sutra also Itihasa and Purana have been mentioned, which stand for stories and legends.

In one of the pali texts, Itihasa is called as the fifth veda. Sayana, (1300-1380 A.D), a commentator on Veda, while examining the relationship between Itihasa and Purana, tried to distinguish one from other which yields no consistent result.

We find that by the former he means the Mahabharata and by the later the Brahmanda. They, according to him, form parts of the sacred literature, which consist of the story of either god or men or cosmogony tradition.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

In fact, the general use of compound word Itihasa-Purana indicated the close relation between the two.

In the later vedic age, the three family of the Angiras, the Atharvanas and the Bhrigus, merged and the resultant composite family of the Bhrgviangirases successfully carried on the tradition of Itihasa-Purana, Akhyanas and Akhyayikas etc.

There is no denying fact that in the later Vedic age, Itihasa assume greater importance than Purana, however the fact remains that both were equally popular and remains indistinguishable.

In the later time, of course some distinction was made between the two. The connotation of Itihasa gradually changed; Itihasa was often used as a general term as is embrace all the historical and related tradition and the Purana.

MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The question as to which Itihasa-Purana or Itihasa has been called the fifth Veda in the Sanskrit and Buddhist texts concerned still remains to be answered. K.F Geldner, on the basis of the evidence whatsoever in the ancient Indian literature texts as reasonable concluded that their existed a single word called Itihasaveda or itrihasa Purana.

But he has not spelt out the name of the work. His view have been contradicted by Maurice Winternitz and A.A.Macdonell and A.B.Keith, according to them, the Itihasa Veda is not any particular book but that branches of learning which consist of story, legend etc.

They simply state that the Itihasa-Purana representing the great body of mythology, legendary history, etc, may roughly classed as fifth Veda.

Emil Sieg, while dealing with the ancient Indian Itihasa tradition, point out that there existed a collection of Itihasa or Purana under the title of Itihasapuranaveda.

He has called the Mahabharata the fifth Veda contending that these grate epic posses all the elements of Itihasa and Purana. J.Herten has also dealt with the subject but without drawing and positive conclusion.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

However, the so called fifth Veda is no other that Itihasa Samhita or Purana Samhita of Vyasa, which have been interchangeably called the Itihasapurana and the Puranaltihasa.

This can irrefutably be probe on the combined testimony of the puranic texts themselves. Here, suffice it to say that ancient traditions preserved in the so called Itihasa-Purana about kings of various dynasties, their genealogies and famous deeds etc., are of great historical importance.

The Puranic texts deals with various aspects of ancient Indian history, which are the glaring examples of Itihasas.

The Purana appeared as enlarge forms of the Vedas. That is why the Itihasa-Purana has been mentioned in the Vedic and puranic literature as the fifth Veda along with other four Vedas.

The ItihasaPurana and the Vedas were closely related and equally important. The Puranas were considered relatively more important that the Vedas.

For achieving the correct interpretation, explanation and analysis of the data contained in the Vedas, the sound knowledge of the Itihasa and Purana was essential for the Brahmans as evidenced by the Mahabharatas, the Puranas and one of the Smritis.

The Puranas was one of the main fourteen branches of learing. According to well-established tradition, the learned members of the society regularly studied the Itihasa and Purana.

Q3. What do you understand by oral history? Discuss its relationship with the mainstream historiography

Ans. Oral history is the accumulation and investigation of chronicled data about people, families, imperative occasions, or regular daily existence utilizing audiotapes, tapes, or interpretations of arranged meetings.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

These meetings are led with individuals who partook in or saw past occasions and whose recollections and impression of these are to be saved as an aural record for who and what is to come.

Oral history endeavors to get data from alternate points of view and the greater part of these can’t be found in composed sources.

Oral history additionally alludes to data assembled in this way and to a composed work (distributed or unpublished) in view of such information, frequently saved in chronicles and expansive libraries.[1][2][3][4]

Knowledge displayed by Oral History (OH) is extraordinary in that it shares the implicit viewpoint, contemplations, assessments and comprehension of the interviewee in its essential form.(5)MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The term is some of the time utilized as a part of a more broad sense to allude to any data about past occasions that individuals who experienced them tell anyone else, [6][7] yet proficient students of history for the most part view this as oral convention.

Be that as it may, as the Columbia Encyclopedia[1] clarifies:
Primitive social orders have since quite a while ago depended on oral custom to save a record of the past without composed histones.

In Western culture, the utilization of oral material backpedals to the early Greek antiquarians Herodotus and Thucydides, both of whom made broad utilization of oral reports from witnesses.

The present day idea of oral history was created in the 1940s by Allan Nevins and his partners at Columbia University. Oral history has turned into a universal development in chronicled examine.

Oral students of history in various nations have moved toward the gathering, investigation, and scattering of oral history in various modes.

Not withstanding, it ought to likewise be noticed that there are numerous methods for making oral histories and doing the investigation of oral history even inside individual national settings.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

In the expressions of the Columbia Encyclopedia:[1]

The teach made its mark in the 1960s and mid 70s when modest recording devices were accessible to report such rising social developments as social liberties, women’s liberation, and anti-Vietnam War challenge.

Writers, for example, Studs Terkel, Alex Haley, and Oscar Lewis have utilized oral history in their books, a large portion of which are to a great extent in view of meetings.

In another vital case of the class, a monstrous chronicle covering the oral history of American music has been arranged at the Yale School of Music. Before the finish of the twentieth penny.

oral history had turned into a regarded teach in numerous schools and colleges. Around then the Italian antiquarian Alessandro Portelli and his partners started to think about the part that memory itself, regardless of whether exact or broken, plays in the subjects and structures of oral history.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Their distributed work has since turned out to be standard material in the field, and numerous oral history specialists now incorporate into their exploration the investigation of the subjective memory of the people they meet.

Awesome Britain and Ireland[edit]

Since the mid 1970s, oral history in Britain has developed from being a technique in old stories thinks about (see for instance the work of the School of Scottish Studies in the 1950s) to turning into a key part in group histories.

Oral history keeps on being an essential means by which non-scholastics can effectively partake in the gathering and investigation of history.

Be that asit may, experts over an extensive variety of scholastic controls have likewise formed the technique into a method for recording, understanding, and filing described recollections.

Impacts have incorporated ladies’ history and work history. In Britain, the Oral History Society has assumed a key part in encouraging and building up the utilization of oral history.

A more total record of the historical backdrop of oral history in Britain and Northern Ireland can be found at “Making Oral History” on the Institute of Historical Research’s website. [8]

The Bureau of Military History directed more than 1700 meetings with veterans of the First World War and related scenes in Ireland. The documentation was discharged for inquire about in 2003.[9]MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Amid 1998 and 1999, 40 BBC nearby radio stations recorded individual oral histories from a wide cross-area of the populace for The Century Speaks arrangement.

The outcome was 640 half-hour radio documentaries, communicate in the last long stretches of the thousand years, and one of the biggest single oral history accumulations in Europe, the Millennium Memory Bank (MMB).

The meeting based recordings are held by the British Library Sound Archive in the oral history collection. [10]

In one of the biggest memory extend anyplace, The BBC In 2003-6 welcomed its groups of onlookers to send in memories of the homefront in the Second World War. It put 47,000 of the memories on the web, alongside 15,000 photographs.[11]

In the United States[edit]

First class studies[edit]

In 1948, Allan Nevins, a Columbia University student of history, built up the Columbia Oral History Research Office, now known as the Columbia Center for Oral History, with a mission of recording, interpreting, and safeguarding oral history interviews.

The Regional Oral History Office was established in 1954 as a division of the University of California, Berkeley’s Bancroft Library.[12] In 1967,

American oral students of history established the Oral History Association, and British oral antiquarians established the Oral History Society in 1969. In 1981, Mansel G. Blackford, a business student of history at Ohio State University,

contended that oral history was a helpful apparatus to compose the historical backdrop of corporate mergers.[13] More as of late, Harvard Business School propelled the Creating Emerging Markets extend, which investigates the development of business administration in Africa, Asia, and Latin America all through late decades” through oral history.

“At its center are interviews, numerous on video, by the School’s workforce with pioneers or previous pioneers of firms and NGOs who have majorly affected their social orders and endeavors crosswise over three continents.”[14] MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

There are currently various national associations and an International Oral History Association, which hold workshops and meetings and distribute pamphlets and diaries committed to oral history hypothesis and practices.

Q4. Describe the important features of Indo-Persian tradition of history-writing during the Mughal period.

Ans. Among the Muslim elite, history was considered as the third important source of knowledge after the religious scripture and jurisprudence.

Therefore, the study and writing of history were accorded great importance after the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate in the closing years of 12th century.

The pioneers of history – writing in the IndoPersian tradition were Muhammad bin Mansur, popularly known as Fakhr-i Mudabbir.

His writings included a book of genealogies of the Prophet of Islam and the Muslim rulers, including Qutbuddin Aibak. Minhaj Siraj Juzjani was another important historian of the 13th century. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

However, the most important figure in the Indo-Persian historiography was Ziauddin Barani in the 14th century. His Tarikh-i Firuzshahi is a milestone in the tradition of history – writing in medieval India.

It was written for the enlightenment of the rulers of his times. Under the Mughals this tradition of history-writing continued and reached new heights.

Abul Fazl, Nizamuddin Ahmad, Abdul Qadir Badauni, Khwaja Kamgar Husaini and Abdul Hamid Lahori were some important historians of the Mughal period.

During the Mughal rule in India, a new tradition of history writing by official chroniclers came into, existence.

These chroniclers, appointed by almost all the Mughal emperors till the reign of Aurangzeb, were provided access to the official records that could facilitate them in writing histories.

It was the most significant feature of the Indo-Persian tradition of history writing under the Mughal rule.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The Early Writings: Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, who invaded India and supplanted the Lodi rule by his Own in 1526, was a prolific writer.

His autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi, written in Turkish is a literary masterpiece, containing the history of the rise and fall of the Timurid power in central Asia, biographical account about himself, the description of life and culture in India and the diary of events that took place in the course of campaigns he led against his rivals.

Babur’s son and successor, Humayun (1530-1555) was also interested in history. He commissioned a renowned scholar, Khawandmir, to compose the history of his reign.

Khawandmir prepared a brief account of Humayun’s reign from his accession up to the year 1535. Qannu-i Humayuni sheds interesting light on Humayun’s state policy, particularly towards the Indian nobles and landed aristocracy.

Akbar’s Reign Official histories: With the accession of Akbar (1556-1605) to the throne, important change took place in the concept of history writing.

Akbar proposed to have a written history of the Muslim rulers from the death of the prophet up to his own time on the completion of the first millennium of Islam, i.e., a history of one thousand years, called Tarikh-i Alfi. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

At Akbar’s instance, Gulbadan Begum, the daughter of Babur, wrote Humayunnama which sheds light on the lives and culture of the royal harem.

Bayazid Biyat’s Tazkirat-i Humayun wa Akbar and Jauhar Aftabchi’s Tazkirat-ul Waqiat are also important works written at Akbar’s order.

Non-official Histories: Nizamuddin Ahmad and Abdul Qadir Badauni were the two most important non-official historians of the period.

Nizamuddin wrote Tabaqat-i Akbari in three volumes. He mentions all the important events that took place during Akbar’s reign including the controversial Mahzar which Abul Fazl had left out.

Jahangir’s Reign: Akbar’s son and successor Jahangir wrote autobiographical history of his own reign in the traditions set by Babur. Besides, Qazi Nurul Haque compiled the Zubdatu’t Tawarikh and closed it with the account of Jahangir’s reign.

The Zubdatu’t Tawarikh narrates the history of the Muslim rulers of India.

Shah Jahan’s Reign: Mutamad Khan wrote Iqbalnama-i Jahangiri after Shah Jahan’s accession to the throne. His aim was to justify Shah Jahan’s rebellion against his father.

Khwaja Kamgar Husaini’s Maasir-i Jahangiri is an important source for the events that took place during the last years of Aurangzeb’s Reign: Aurangzeb appointed Muhammad Kazim to write the history of his reign. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

His Alamgir Nama reads as a panegyric in prose. ‘Later on, Saqi Mustaid Khan compiled the history of Aurangzeb’s reign titled Maasir-i Alamgiri.


Q6. What is postmodernism? Discuss the postmodernist views on history.

Ans. Postmodernism, also spelled post-modernism, in Western philosophy, a late 20th-century movement characterized by broad skepticism, subjectivism, or relativism; a general suspicion of reason; and an acute sensitivity to the role of ideology in asserting and maintaining political and economic power.

This article discusses postmodernism in philosophy. For treatment of postmodernism in architecture, see the article Western architecture.

Postmodernism and modern philosophy: Postmodernism is largely a reaction against the intellectual assumptions and values of the modern period in the history of Western philosophy (roughly, the 17th through the 19th century).

Indeed, many of the doctrines characteristically associated with postmodernism can fairly be described as the straightforward denial of general philosophical viewpoints that were taken for granted during the 18th-century Enlightenment, though they were not unique to that period. The most important of these viewpoints are the following

• There is an objective natural reality, a reality whose existence and properties are logically independent of human beings of their minds, their societies, their social practices, or their investigative techniques. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Postmodernists dismiss this idea as a kind of naive realism. Such reality as there is, according to postmodernists, is a conceptual construct, an artifact of scientific practice and language.

This point also applies to the investigation of past events by historians and to the description of social institutions, structures, or practices by social scientists.

The descriptive and explanatory statements of scientists and historians can, in principle, be objectively true or false.

The postmodern denial of this viewpoint which follows from the rejection of an objective natural reality-is sometimes expressed by saying that there is no
such thing as Truth.

• Through the use of reason and logic, and with the more specialized tools provided by science and technology, human beings are likely to change themselves and their societies for the better.

It is reasonable to expect that future societies will be more humane, more just, more enlightened, and more prosperous than they are now.

Postmodernists deny this Enlightenment faith in science and technology as instruments of human progress.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Indeed, many postmodernists hold that the misguided (or unguided) pursuit of scientific and technological knowledge led to the development of technologies for killing on a massive scale in World War II.

Some go so far as to say that science and technology—and even reason and logic-are inherently destructive and oppressive, because they have been used by evil people, especially during the 20th century, to destroy and oppress others.

• Reason and logic are universally valid-i.e., their laws are the same for, or apply equally to, any thinker and any domain of knowledge.

For postmodernists, reason and logic too are merely conceptual constructs and are therefore valid only within the established intell traditions in which they are used.

• There is such a thing as human nature; it consists of faculties, aptitudes, or dispositions that are in some sense present in human beings at birth rather than learned or instilled through social forces. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Postmodernists insist that all, or nearly all, aspects of human psychology are completely socially determined. Language refers to and represents a reality outside itself.

• According to postmodernists, language is not such a “mirror of nature,” as the American pragmatist philosopher Richard Rorty characterized the Enlightenment view.

Inspired by the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, postmodernists claim that language is semantically self-contained, or self-referential: the meaning of a word is not a static thing in the world or even an idea in the mind but rather a range of contrasts and differences with the meanings of other words.

Because meanings are in this sense functions of other meanings—which themselves are functions of other meanings, and so on—they are never fully “present” to the speaker or hearer but are endlessly “deferred.”

Self-reference characterizes not only natural languages but also the more specialized “discourses” of particular communities or traditions, such discourses are embedded in social practices and reflect the conceptual schemes and moral and intellectual values of the community or tradition in which they are used.

The postmodern view of language and discourse is due largely to the French philosopher and literary theorist Jacques Derrida (1930–2004), the originator and leading practitioner of deconstruction. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Human beings can acquire knowledge about natural reality, and this knowledge can be justified ultimately on the basis of evidence or principles that are, or can be, known immediately, intuitively, or otherwise with certainty.

Postmodernists reject philosophical foundationalism—the attempt, perhaps best exemplified by the 17th-century French philosopher René Descartes’s dictum cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”), to identify a foundation of certainty on which to build the edifice of empirical (including scientific) knowledge.

It is possible, at least in principle, to construct general theories that explain many aspects of the natural or social world within a given domain of knowledge-e.g., a general theory of human history, such as dialectical materialism.

Furthermore, it should be a goal of scientific and historical research to construct such theories, even if they are never perfectly attainable in practice.

Postmodernists dismiss this notion as a pipe dream and indeed as symptomatic of an unhealthy tendency within Enlightenment discourses to adopt totalizing” systems of thought (as the French philosopher Emmanuel Lévinas called them) or grand “metanarratives” of human biological, historical, and social development (as the French philosopher JeanFrançois Lyotard claimed).

These theories are pernicious not merely because they are false but because they effectively impose conformity on other perspectives or discourses, thereby oppressing, marginalizing, or silencing them. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

Derrida himself equated the theoretical tendency toward totality with totalitarianism.

Q 9. Write a note on the conflicting views on Indian Renaissance.

Ans. The part of the educated people in molding the popular supposition and driving the general population is past.

One such wonder which pulled in wide interests among both the Marxist and non-Marxist researchers was the ‘Bengal Renaissance’ which is now and then likened with the ‘Indian Renaissance?

It is on the grounds that a group of contemporary educated people moved toward becoming related with different developments of thoughts for the most part got from western-sources.

‘Indian Renaissance, frequently likened with Bengal Renaissance, has been a broadly discussed subject among sawy people and students of history.

The most begging to be proven wrong part of this subject has been its naming which unmistakably echoes the Italian scholarly experience and social marvel of the fifteenth and sixteenth hundreds of years in Europe charged as the ‘Renaissance.

Among the Marxist students of history Susobhan Sarkar was the first to break down this blossoming of social, religious, scholarly and political exercises in Bengal.

In his paper, Notes on the Bengal Renaissance, first distributed in 1946, he proclaimed that the ‘pretended by Bengal in the advanced arousing of India is in this manner tantamount to the position possessed by Italy in the account of the European Renaissance

This present day” development emerged on the grounds that the effect of British govern, middle class economy and current Western culture was first felt in Bengal.

Hence, the advancement brought into India by the British ‘delivered an enlivening referred to forthe most part as the Bengal Renaissance!.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

It created such intelligent compel that ‘for about a century, Bengal’s cognizant attention to the changing present day world was more created than and in front of that of whatever remains of India!

Such a blushing photo of the nineteenth century scholarly exercises has now been truly addressed.

The idea of Bengal, of Indian Renaissance has gone under feedback. The commentators call attention to that, dissimilar to the European Renaissance, the scope of the nineteenth century scholarly age was preferably restricted and its character was preferably less pioneers than was before accepted.

The “traditionalist” and “pioneer” polarity can’t be connected as the alleged “Renaissance” scholarly was a profoundly separated identity.

The break with the past was seriously restricted in nature and remained for the most part at the scholarly level. MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

The vast majority of the educated people did not have the bravery to execute even at their own particular individual levels the standards they lectured.

Also, those, as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, who openly crusaded for their goals, confronted ceaseless disappointments.

Much of the time, the same customary scriptural expert was looked to determine authorize for their arrangements and practices against which the intelligent people propelled their ideological battle.

In addition, this scholarly development stayed bound to an elitist Hindu system which did exclude the issues and substances of the lower positions and Muslims.

The social strengths, which could have given the thoughts a strong base and moved them in the innovator bearing, were absent.

The pioneer control remained a definitive certification for the execution of the changes proposed by the masterminds.MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

However, the provincial state was not exactly quick to take radical measures for the dread of estranging the traditionalists who framed the colossal greater part.

This prompted dissatisfaction among the aficionados for the changes and the development all in all withdrew and declined by the late nineteenth century.

A portion of the Marxist students of history who have condemned the idea of the “Renaissance” in Indian setting are: Barun De in the articles

‘The Colonial Context of Bengal Renaissance’ (1976) and “A Historiography Critique of Renaissance Analogs for Nineteenth Century India’; Asok Sen in his book Iswar Chandra Vidyasagar and His Elusive Milestones (1977),

Sumit Sarkar in his articles ‘Rammohan Roy and the Break with the Past (1975), ‘The Complexities of Young Bengal (1973), and “The Radicalism of Intellectuals’ (1977), all of which are currently gathered in a book

A Critique of Colonial India (1985); and K.N. Panikkar whose different articles on this subject from 1977 to 1992 have been gathered in the book Culture, Ideology, Hegemony (1995)MHI 03 Free Solved Assignment

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