IGNOU MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

MHI 02


MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 3. What do you understand by bureaucratization? Analyze the process of bureaucratization in trade unions.


Bureaucratisation could be said to encompass the processes both of the centralization and expansion and of the professionalization of all institutions and this happens as much in government as in the other principal structures of power like political parties, trade unions, corporations, the armed forces, and the educational, religious, legal, and medical and other technical establishments, as also what has come to be known as the non-governmental organizations.

Its principles are well-known. It consists in centralizing decision-making through a tight chain of command, appointing professional “experts” through uniform criteria of examination and certification, demanding impersonal adherence to rules and laws, and attempting a nearly full calculability of action.

An official in any one of these hierarchies acts impersonally, on the basis of expertise, and obeys and issues instructions which are “legitimate”, that is, framed in accordance with the law and the rules and regulations that derive from the law.

The individual official may be replaced effortlessly, and the system functions like a machine with moveable replaceable parts. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

It is immensely attractive to all modern rulers, who are always looking for instruments of rule that are effective, politically reliable, impersonal, and professional.

Process of bureaucratization in trade unions:

Unions is the other typically democratic institution of modern times, embodying the hopes of the “exploited” to secure a just distribution of power and wealth.

They are arguably also the first and most significant of the non-governmental organizations Their origins and formal procedures are quintessentially democratic: they were and are voluntary associations mostly of persons asserting their rights.

Through most of the nineteenth century they were just such bodies, sprouting in factories and workplaces as and when occasion demanded, usually to protect their wages or to demand higher wages and shorter working hours.

Factories were small in size, unions were also small, and the negotiations were highly personal, between a few workers and an employer.

But dramatic changes occurred from the eighteen seventies, with a new wave of industrialization, new technologies, and new structures of management.

Plant size became larger, technologies diversified and grew in sophistication, and management was separated from ownership, leading to the emergence of professional management.MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Workers’ protest actions likewise became all the more complex, larger in scope, covering many factories simultaneously, or a full industry or region, and negotiations between unions and management became more professional and less personal.

Along with the professional manager there emerged the professional union official.

Two new bureaucracies began to face each other, those of corporate management, and those of the unions.

Just as managers required academic qualifications, examination procedures for selection, and training programmes, union officials were now selected for their qualifications, subjected to competitive selection examinations, and were thereafter trained on the job.

They were no longer just workers representing other workers; they could be anybody chosen for their skills at organizing research, framing plans for action, committee work, and negotiation.

 MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Negotiating skills were especially decisive, and among them high competence in mathematics and economics, since union officials were expected to negotiate ceaselessly on costs of production, productivity, profits, wage rates, standards of living, insurances, welfare and the like.

But the demand went beyond negotiation.MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Unions had to prepare their plans on the basis of the state of the economy, not merely of a single factory or industry; their understanding of the economy and their capacity to convince a wider public about the impact of their actions on the economy and on the rest of the population became vital.

Q 4. What is de-colonization? Explain the various approaches towards de-colonization.


De-colonization is about “cultural, psychological, and economic freedom” for Indigenous people with the goal of achieving Indigenous sovereignty the right and ability of Indigenous people to practice self-determination over their land, cultures, and political and economic systems.

Colonialism is a historical and ongoing global project where settlers continue to occupy land, dictate social, political, and economic systems, and exploit Indigenous people and their resources.

It is a global endeavor. For the purposes of clarity, this series will focus primarily on decolonization in the context of North America and Canada, although the movement to decolonize expands far beyond these national (settler-imposed) borders.

Various approaches towards de-colonization:
The explanations of decolonization have been classified as follows:

The Nationalist Approach:MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

In the nationalist view indigenous resistance and anti imperialist struggle led to independence.

According to D.A. Low, the primary factor behind the end of empire was anti-imperialist movements the metropolitan response only influenced the nature of this confrontation, not the outcome.

According to the nationalist approach the resistance movements of the colonial peoples determined the pace of decolonization.

Colonial rule became unviable once the groups which sustained it withdrew support, often under nationalist pressure or influence.

The British imperialists presented the unraveling of empire as an orderly and rational process but the messy reality was much less consistent and unavoidable, as John Darwin has pointed out.

In short, far from a planned withdrawal from the empire, there was the irreversible erosion of position as imperial powers struggled to retain power by one means or another, conciliation or repression.

For example, in India, from the 1930s onwards, there was a swing of the pendulum from repression to conciliation. This had demoralizing consequences for the officials who had to implement both poles of policy.MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

International Context Approach:

According to the approach highlighting the international context of decolonization, empires could not survive in the new world order after the Second World War.

As John Darwin put it, in the Cold War era “colonial empires appeared as quaint survivors of a prewar age, to be quickly dismantled lest they be knocked to pieces in the turbulent wake of the superpowers.”

The changed international climate was reflected in the Atlantic Charter issued by the Allies during the War which called for the independence of colonial peoples.

The United Nations General Assembly went a step further in 1960 in its Declaration on the granting of independence to colonial countries and peoples.

It sharply condemned colonial rule as a denial of fundamental human rights in contravention of the United Nations Charter.

Domestic Constraints Approach:

The metropolitan or domestic constraints approach focuses on how the colony became too big a burden on the mother country.

From being the proverbial goose that laid golden eggs a time came when it was not worth expending money and men on it. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

British colonialism, it is argued by Holland, ‘became dysfunctional to the operational necessities of the metropole.

In this explanation the end of empire is seen as a political choice made under pressure of domestic constraints and calculations of national interest.

The mother country’s will to rule slackened once empire became too much of a nuisance, financially, militarily and in international relations.

 MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Q 5. Write short notes on any two of the following in about 250 words each.

i) Science versus religion.

Ans:Science versus religion:

The relationship between religion and science is the subject of continued debate in philosophy and theology.

To what extent are religion and science compatible? Are religious beliefs sometimes conducive to science, or do they inevitably pose obstacles to scientific inquiry?

The interdisciplinary field of “science and religion”, also called “theology and science”, aims to answer these and other questions. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

It studies historical and contemporary interactions between these fields, and provides philosophical analyses of how they interrelate.

Science is a search for knowledge as well as method for solving problems. Both religion and science are forms of human understanding.

Thus science and religion and human ways of relating themselves to reality. Science and religion try to make exploit the world of the unknown.

Religion is more collectively oriented than science, but science too emphasises team-spirit and co-operation of the scientific community.

Both science and religion claim access to truth. On many occasions in the past as well as present, in many a war, science and religion have acted against humankind.

Both religion and science prescribe qualifications for their personnel. Science insists that all phenomena that is observed should not be accepted at face value.

Its value and meaning can be discovered through experimentation. All factors (time, place, persons, equipment, etc.) that can affect the results of such experiments are controlled in laboratory conditions. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Science differs from religion because it believes in neutrality and objectivity. Scientific method is claimed to have annulled subjective biases.

Science believes in precision and measurement, which is not possible for religion. Science brings the unknown to the level of observable reality.

Religion cannot bring god to the level of observable phenomenon. Scientific knowledge has more concrete application in the form of technology, which might help in manipulating nature.

Religion cannot establish such concrete and immediate results. Scientific knowledge and method are valid universally, whereas principles of religious life differ from society to society.

iv) Humanism.


The most dominant theme of the Italian Renaissance was humanism. This was a term that was used by the 19th century historians to describe the concerns of the Renaissance thinkers who turned their attention and focused upon the dignity of man and his privileged position in this world.

This humanist movement was based on Neo-platonic philosophy which emphasised the primacy of human values over those of feudal and ecclesiastical institutions.

The humanists’ believed that the human mind was capable of thinking for itself without relying on divine authority and traditional institutions.

In brief, humanism made man the measure of all things in society. However, this new focus on man and the world should not be seen as a loss of faith in God. It was in fact
a critical reassessment of the ideas of medieval theologians.

Petrarch, Boccaccio and Dante were the forerunners of the Renaissance ideas which gained ground over a period of time.MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Humanism was the basic source of inspiration for all the cultural changes of the Renaissance, heavily influencing art, literature, history, and political ideas.

Humanist scholars devoted themselves to Studia Humanitas which included the study of rhetoric, grammar,poetry, and ethics.

Geographically, humanism originated in Italy spreading through the peninsula from its original centre in Florence. Neo-Platonism emerged in fifteenth-century Italy.

Initially, it was a philosophical movement deriving its inspiration from Plato’s Republic which was in marked contrast to the medieval form of theology and philosophy known as scholasticism.

The aim of humanists was to prepare man to take his place in society.

The objective was not to make man a highly trained scholar, but rather to develop correct social values and right forms of expression.

Humanism gave importance to the pursuit of worldly concerns and endeavors. It stood for a new way of life that accepted the existence of god, but stood for a direct connection between man and god. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

                             Section - B

Q 7. What is colonialism? Discuss the different stages of colonialism.

Ans: Colonialism:

Colonialism is the internal disarticulation and external integration of the rural economy and the realization of the extended reproduction of capital not in the colony but in the imperialist metropolis.

Colonialism is as modern a historical phenomenon as industrial capitalism.

It describes the distinct stage in the modern historical development of the colony that intervenes between the traditional economy and the modern capitalist economy.

It is a well structured whole, a distinct social formation in which the basic control of the economy and society is in the hands of a foreign capitalist class.

The form of the colonial structure varies with the changing conditions of the historical development of capitalism as a world wide system.

Different stages of colonialism:

There were three distinct stages of colonialism. Some countries went through one or two stages only. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

India went through only the first and second stages, Egypt only through the third stage, and Indonesia the first and third stage.

These stages lasted over two hundred years. The forms of subordination changed over time as did colonial policy, state and its institutions, culture, ideas and ideologies.

However, this did not mean that stages existed in a pure form. The older forms of subordination continued into the later stages.

First Stage: Monopoly Trade and Plunder Colonialism:

The first stage had two basic objectives. In order to make trade more profitable indigenously manufactured goods were to be bought cheap.

For this competitors were to be kept out, whether local or European. Territorial conquest kept local traders out of the lucrative trade while rival European companies were defeated in war.

Thus the characteristic of the first stage was monopoly of trade. Secondly, the political conquest of the colony enabled plunder and seizure of surplus.

For example, the drain of wealth from India to Britain during the first stage was considerable. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

It amounted to two to three per cent of the national income of Britain at that time. Colonialism was superimposed on the traditional systems of economy and polity.

No basic changes were introduced in the first stage.

Second Stage: Era of Free Trade:

The interest of the industrial bourgeoisie of the metropolis in the colony was in the markets available for manufactured goods.

For this it was necessary to increase exports from the colony to pay for purchase of manufactured imports.

The metropolitan bourgeoisie also wanted to develop the colony as a producer of raw materials to lessen dependence on non-empire sources.

Increase of exports from the colony would also enable it to pay for the high salaries and profits of merchants.

The industrial bourgeoisie opposed plunder as a form of appropriation of surplus on the ground that it would destroy the goose that laid the golden eggs.

Trade was the mechanism by which the social surplus was to be appropriated in this stage.

In this stage changes in the economy, polity, administration, social, cultural and ideological structure were initiated to enable exploitation in the new way.

Third Stage: Era of Finance Capital:MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

The third stage saw intense struggle for markets and sources of raw materials and food grains.

Large scale accumulation of capital in the metropolis necessitated search for avenues for investment abroad.

These interests were best served where the imperial powers had colonies. This led to more intensive control over the colony in order to protect the interests of the imperial power.

Q 8. Write a note on the consumerist movement as it developed in Europe.

Ans: Consumerist movement as it developed in Europe:

Rampant food shortages, hoarding, black marketing, adulteration of food and edible oil gave birth to the consumer movement in an organised form in the 1960s.

Till the 1970s, consumer organisations were largely engaged in writing articles and holding exhibitions MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Three factors that gave rise to consumer movement in India are as listed below: Necessity of protecting consumers against unethical practices of traders and shopkeepers.

Frequent shortages of food, hoarding and black marketing, which led to inflation. Adulteration of food which may lead to several health hazards.

The consumer movement is an effort to promote consumer protection through an organized social movement which is in many places led by consumer organizations.

It advocates for the rights of consumers, especially when those rights are actively breached by the actions of corporations, governments, and other organizations which provide products and services to consumers.

The dissatisfaction of the consumers as many unfair practices were being indulged in the sellers.. The terms “consumer movement” and “consumerism” are not equivalent.

The traditional use of the term MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

“consumerism” still practiced by contemporary consumer organizations refers to advancing consumer protection and can include legislators passing consumer protection laws, regulators policing these laws, educators who teach consumer policy, product testers who measure the extent to which products meet standards, cooperative organizations.

Though Consumer Co-operatives had great success in Europe, this did not result in formation of consumer organisations.

Basically, industrialization did not lead to the same degree of affluence in Europe as in the United States.

Consumer movement in Europe was fostered by the ‘Consumers’ Union’. More specifically, by the constant efforts of Colston Worne.

As early as 1939, he started to make enquiries about groups and individuals that he might try to interest.

In London he was referred to as the Householders’ Association. But he was disappointed. People were not at all enthusiastic about testing.

It took another two decades for U.K. to provide a congenial environment for consumer movement. MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Consumer movement in England began in a real sense only after the second world war. The common law did protect the consumer against aggressive selling, fraud and breach of promise.

The British National Standard Institute in U.K. played a significant role in arousing the interest of the consumers in 1925. Many consumer magazines and shoppers’ guides were published to educate the consumers.

Consumer Associations came into existence to expose undesirable as well as defective products.

It was Dorothy Goodman, an American living in London who along with Ray Goodman and Michael Young, founded the Consumers’ Association in 1956.

The first issue of its magazine ‘Which’ appeared in October 1951. Gradually, consumer organisations began to take shape in other countries.

Before 1960, three major organisations had been founded in Europe:

Press campaigns in favour of the consumer in these countries played a significant role in the creation of the concept of consumerism.MHI 02 Free Solved Assignment

Women’s organisations in these countries have been a mainstay of the consumer movement.

Poland was the first country in Eastern Europe to have independent consumer organisations. ‘Consumer Federation’ was set up in 1981 and Polish Home economics Association in 1990.

Now, there are many organisations awaiting registration: One is the Association of Polish Consumers 20 individuals with support of 1000 readers of Test Consumer Magazine.

The objective of the organisation is awareness generation among consumers of rights to safety, health, information and education and protection of economic and legal interests.



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