IGNOU MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment 2022-Helpfirst

MHI 01

ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL SOCIETIES

MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Section – A

Q 1 Write a note on consequences of agriculture and invention of tools and discovery of fire in the development of human society.

Ans: Consequences of agriculture in the development of human society:

The beginning of agriculture and its spread to large parts of the earth had far reaching consequences for the human societies. We discuss a few of these in this section:

Birth of Village Culture: Hunter-gatherers moved their homes according to the seasonal migration of animals and availability of fruits and roots.

Unlike hunting gathering, agriculture requires that the farmer stays in one place for a long period.

Increase in Population and Expansion of Settlements: Settled agricultural populations tend to expand both numerically and territorially. Population growth is higher among sedentary communities.

Crops provided farmers with more dependable supplies of grain based weaning foods such as gruel and porridge, as well as milk, once the goats and sheep began to be milked.

Emergence of Tribal Communities: Coming of agriculture is also related to the emergence of long terms patterns of cooperation.

Hunting-gathering groups need cooperation for organising hunt. Once the hunt is over and game has been shared the group ceases to exist. Agriculturists need cooperation from sowing to harvesting

New Epidemics and Diseases: The coming of agriculture had some important consequences for the health and hygiene of people.

While a regular supply of food seems to have increased their longevity (Australopithecus lived for 25 years only), sedentary life created ideal environments for mosquitoes especially when they started storing water, irrigating crops, or settling near swampy or marshy land.

New Forms of Order and Dispute: Permanent houses meant substantial investments in labour. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Similarly, agricultural fields too required a considerable investment of labour. Agricultural communities would defend their fields and homes much more than the foraging groups.

Invention of tools and discovery of fire in the development of human society:

Tool making is considered a defining feature of humankind. Although some other animals like chimpanzees and crows are known to use tools, they do it rarely and in an episodic fashion.

They do not shape their tools either. Australopithecines were probably the first tool makers.

The earliest tools might have been made of bone or wood. They have not survived to the present. The earliest tools were probably made by women to make gathering more efficient.

In addition, women devised containers to facilitate the transportation of gathered food and for hauling infants during gathering.

About 2.5 million years ago our ancestors discovered that stone could be used as weapons. With stone tools they could kill animals and break shells of edible seeds.

Tool making by our ancestors marked the beginning of technology. Food can be cooked only if fire is available.

The first evidence for fire is found 500,000 years ago at Zhoukoudien cave, China. It is associated with Homo erectus.

The control of fire is one of the most important developments in human history. By doing so our ancestors could cook food and thus make it more digestible through chemical transformation.MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

For example, starches in roots could be broken down and made easier for complete digestion. Toxins in plants could be destroyed; bacteria and other harmful agents in putrefied meat could be destroyed with heat.

In addition, fire allowed expansion into new environments by providing light, warmth, and protection from predators.

The potential for environmental change was present if the fire was employed to hunt game and to burn plant communities.

MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Give a detailed account of the process of urbanization in the Bronze Age civilizations.

Ans: Process of urbanization in the Bronze Age civilizations:

First phase:

The first phase of urbanization is represented by the planned cities of the Bronze-age Harappan civilization from the 4th to 2nd millennium BCE.

The rise of towns in the Indus zone was based on agricultural surplus, the making of bronze tools, various other crafts and widespread trade and commerce.

The main features of the Harappan cities were the rise in the density of population, close integration of economic and social processes, careful planning for urban expansion, flourishing of several crafts, growth of trade and commerce, and scope for artisans and craftsmen.MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Some scholars have termed the rise of Harappan civilization as an urban revolution that was possibly based on a strong centralized political authority, specialized economic organization and also socio-cultural unity.

Planned lay-out of streets, large-scale drainage system and strong citadels were the features indicating a strong government.

These traits, in totality, helped in the first urbanization in India.

Although this culture was confined to the Indus region and the major part of the subcontinent remained unaffected by this urbanism, as it left no legacy beyond the middle of the 2ndmillennium BCE.

Second phase:

The second phase of urbanization spanned from around 6th century BCE to the end of 3rd century CE, in the area in and around the middle Gangetic plains.

The towns in this phase were distinguished by crafts and commerce and reached their height of prosperity in the period between 2nd century BCE and the 3rdcentury CE.

This phase witnessed stages of internal growth and horizontal expansion of cities which
was reflected in the distribution of two elements: multifunctional syllabic script and coinage.

The increase in craft production, local and long-distance trade in costly goods and the availability of agricultural produce from the hinterland boosted urbanization in the post-Maurya times.MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

There was also an enormous expansion of trade networks in this phase when India’s contact with Central Asia and Roman world reached its saturation.

This phase also had an impact on peninsular India due to spread of trade and commercial activities in the Ganga valley.

After this boom there was a decline in two phases. Several causes are given for the first phase of urban decay that happened between the second half of 3rd century and 4th century CE.

Firstly, the decline of many urban centres coincided with the fall of two great kingdoms and the end of the Indo-Roman trade.

Secondly, the long-distance trade between the Romans, Chinese, Parthians, Kusanas and Satavahanas declined during the late 3rd century and 4th century CE.

Archeological excavations of several sites show evidence of what Sharma termed as ‘urban decay’.

This decline in trade led to a loss of income for the state, merchants, artisans and others. The ensuing social crisis during 3rd and 4th centuries CE, described as the ‘Kali Age’ in the Puranas, was manifest in the stoppage of the flow of taxes from the countryside and internal revolts in towns. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Sharma points out that the second phase of urban decay came after the 6th century CE and coincided with the decline of the Gupta empire.

Third phase:

The third phase of urbanization was represented by the rise of towns and cities in the early medieval period, i.e., from the 8th/9th to 12th centuries.

Q 4 Give a brief account of the economy and organization of government in the region of South Africa.

Ans:Economy and organization of government in the region of South Africa:
South Africa is a modern nation state, which is of recent origin in comparison to the long history of human civilization it had had.

It is hemmed in the north by Botswana and Namibia and surrounded by sea on other sides.

Economy in the region of South Africa:

The mixed-farming was the most productive economy, it was more productive than both the pastoralists and the hunter-gatherers.

The mixed-farming practices included not only agriculture and metallurgy but also a degree of pastoralism (cattle-rearing) as well as some amount of hunting and gathering.

The mixed farmers, therefore, had a stable and richer supply of food than the hunters or the pastoralists and had communities of denser population that created political units of chiefdoms.MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

The Bantu speakers, had harnessed the surface deposits of magnetite. They used to smelt it and by re-heating and hammering shape it as spear-heads, hatchets and hoes.

It was a major trade item also. They also had the skill to use the copper deposits found in northern Botswana and northern Transvaal, which was used to make hair ornaments, earrings, necklaces, bells, anklets and crowns.

In 1635, it was reported of some South African community that the women do all the work such as planting,tilling the earth with a stick etc.

A large number of Europeans have mentioned that women were overburdened with manual chores. The women used to take care of the entire agricultural operations after the land was cleared by men.

Organization of government in the region of South Africa:

The people south of Limpopo had distinct political institutions and identities. Most of the communities had kings’ or chiefs. They had all the characteristics of kingdoms.

The sizes of these kingdoms or ‘principalities’, varied. Nguni principalities were dispersed and smaller, apparently because water was available in plenty and the types of pastures (the sweet and the sour veld) were found close to each other.

The states of southern Sotho were also smaller and were largely on fertile river valleys as the Caledon. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

The chief settlement of the Thalping (southern Tswana), it was reported in 1801, was ‘as large in circumference as the Cape Town’.

The chief of these clans/communities/states were supposed to bring in good rain, which would ensure good harvest.

In case of a drought the authority of the chief was challenged and his people did desert him along with their cattle. Deserting the chief could also happen during a disputed succession.

The office of the chief was mostly hereditary, yet a few could acquire chiefdom by laying a claim to some chiefly lineage.

Joining of new followers or desertions could make a clan small or big. About the fusion and fission of the units of polities Elizabeth Isichei says,

“the conquest of a hero, the ambition of rival princely brothers” were some reason, “but it is likely that the underlying causes were often ecological, the pressure of a growing population and expanding herds on the resources.

Towards the 16th century the arrival of the colonial powers changed the entire situation for the people of the southern part of Africa as in other regions of Africa.

MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment
MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Section – B

Q 8 Give a brief account of textile production and glass making in the medieval period.

Ans: Textile production in the medieval period:

Textiles were the main item of export in Asia and Europe. The availability of raw material, dyeing and skill to manufacture bright coloured clothes created huge demand for Indian cotton fabric. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

The Europe dominated in the area of woollen textiles. The textile industry brought various parts of Europe together.

The woollen textile manufacture in England and a few other regions of Europe were of high quality as sheep were reared in many parts of Europe.

Various dyestuffs were imported for dying purposes. China led in the area of Porcelain and pottery making while glassware and metal crafts were preserves of Europe.

Cloth making in Europe can be traced back from the days of Roman Empire. In fact, every sheep rearing land produced cloth.Textile in Europe meant mainly woolen cloths which were required due to the weather condition.

Every region had distinct features. For instance, Renaissance Italy developed skills in the field of dyeing and had an expertise in finishing of clothes.

There was also setting up of large-scale woolen industry in southern Italy using local wool. In Low Countries, initially textiles were produced from the native raw material.

This raw material was sourced from pastures of Artois, French Flanders and Hainault where sheep were reared.For dyeing, madder was obtained from France.

Imported wool from England was also utilized in this textile industry. In his study of woolen cloth industry of England, Lipson has made four observations:

1 Raw material was raised at home. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

2 It was the most widespread of English manufactures as every town, village and hamlet was involved in it. Weaving was the main household occupation having bearing on the entire community.

3 It was the first industry to be regulated by the state.

4 Its history was connected with various stages of growth exhibiting domestic system, guild system and the factory system.

5 It also remains a fact that textile industry had its low and high phases.There was decline in the twelfth century and the growth of the Flemish cloth industry was restricted by emergent English industry.

Glass making in the medieval period:

Glass is manufactured from melting and thereafter cooling of sand and wood. Europe had its knowledge since antiquity. Its use became widespread in the decoration of windows during the thirteenth century.

It was the time when beautiful cathedrals were built in Italy, especially Rome. However, it became a widespread industry only in the sixteenth century.

The art of stained glass flourished between 1150 and 1500 CE. German Monk Teophilus in his text On Diverse Arts provided details on the making of stained glass.

It entailed close study of glaziers and glass painters.

In the manufacturing stage when glass was still molten, certain powdered metals were added and liquid wasflattened into sheet.

For making of window, first the picture of proposed design was drawn on a board. Then various pieces of stained glass were assembled on the board.

These were fitted into H-shaped strips of lead called cames. The panel was secured by placing each piece closely.MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Once the panel was ready it was inserted between each glass and lead cames for water proofing. The entire composition was stabilized with an iron frame and mounted on the window.

Q 9 Explain various factors leading to changes in demography in Europe in the medieval period.

Ans:Various factors leading to changes in demography in Europe in the medieval period:

When we consider Europe during the High Middle Ages, we see buoyant optimism everywhere.

Europe was striking out against its neighbors within the movements of the Crusades, there was an unprecedented period of economic process, and therefore the age saw the soaring of great architecture-first Romanesque then Gothic-cathedrals and churches everywhere Europe.

New states were created, during a great arc running from the Celtic world, through Scandinavia, and on to the Slavic world.

It is a very dynamic and memorable period-one that might not are possible were it not for the remarkable increase.

Between about 900 to 1300, Europe experienced one among the longest periods of sustained growth in human history, seen in almost every aspect of life.

This growth was the crucial background to the political and cultural achievements of this era. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Explain various factors leading to changes in demography in Europe in the medieval period. How can we capture a way of the expansion during this period, and the way can we explain it?

The first fundamental fact was a long-term rise within the population. The evidence at our disposal indicates that probably by the center of the 8th century, but surely by the center of the 9th-during the Carolingian period—the population began rising.

Between about 1050 and 1200, there was an intense increase in population everywhere Europe. It gradually began to slow, between about 1200 and 1275, then it finally leveled off.

Evidence for this is often qualitative, not quantitative. We don’t have census data or the sorts of sources that demographers, those that study population groups, would need to study from the 17th or 18th centuries to this.

In earlier times, Explain various factors leading to changes in demography in Europe in the medieval period.

historians check out other forms of evidence and check out to assess the overall direction during which all of that evidence points.

Certain indicators lend clues to the present expansion. Wherever we’ve evidence of family size, families appear to be larger. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

It doesn’t appear that more babies are being born, but rather that more of them are surviving and other people were living longer.

There was no plague or significant famine throughout this era . Generally speaking, this was a period of warm, dry climate through much of Europe, when enormous amounts of latest land were brought under cultivation.

People didn’t bring new land under cultivation for no reason. Explain various factors leading to changes in demography in Europe in the medieval period. there have been mouths to feed and diets improved.

More and more land was given over to crops that were rich in iron and protein in order that people were simply eating better.

They were healthier; they might do more work; they were more productive; they lived longer-the population curve marched upward thanks to these gains.

Second element of the expansion and expansion of Europe during this period is technological innovation and dissemination.

The Romans weren’t curious about technological gains; there wasn’t much within the way of important technological achievement during the Roman period.

The medieval period, on the opposite hand, was one that was fairly rich in technological innovation. MHI 01 Free Solved Assignment

Stereotypes contribute to the thought of the center Ages because the Middle Ages, as having descended from the heights of classical antiquity.

If we were talking about technology, we’d need to flip the polarity of that old equation and say that the center Ages were rather cleverer.

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