MASTER’S DEGREE IN ENGLISH
MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q.1. Write a note on the significance of the title of the poem Mother Serious’.
Ans. The title of the poem tells us that the poem is about a mother. The word serious is used in Telugu when someone is severely sick.
Putting the meaning together we see that the title of the poem informs us that the poem is about a mother who is severely ill.
Putting in feminist context we can also draw the meaning that the poem is about the suffering of the mother and that the suffering is not only physical but also mental.,
A Critical Appreciation of the Poem Mother Serious :
The first interesting thing about poem is its English title. In Telugu use the word Serious to refer to critically ill condition of a person. So here the title refers to the critically ill condition of mother.
The poem not only tells about the physical suffering of her but also the mental agony she undergoes. The poet creates a new idiom through the emotion which present behind the expression of the words.
The poem is narrated by an aged ailing old mother, who is bedridden and waiting for her death.
She tells her son that she does not have any desire to live and also that she will give an explanation to his question unasked. She is very well aware of the fact that everyone is waiting for. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
She can see hollowness underneath their solicitous enquiries. And she also knows that everyone is waiting for the relief that her death will bring to them. Though, she does not say these lines but make powerful suggestions.
She tells her son that the little water he makes her gulp is not just water but a life force. Then we hear the interior monologue of the mother.
She remembers the time when she breastfed her son even when he was half asleep.
The son asks her mother to identify the people around her, in order to test her consciousness. The mother feels offended and says that while she is quite near to her death, her son has provided her with a problem to solve.
She suggests her son to consult her pillow and her heart. Pillow because it has offered all her dreams. Together pillow and heart will give him all her woes heaped up on a platter, as it were. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
She wants her son to realize the pain of her existence. In the last few lines of poem we see the collapsing of the mother.
The poet has made an effective use of metaphors and similes to make the poem authentic. Her uses of expressive devices are beyond the traditional figure of speech.
Q. 2. Bring out the distinctive features of Amrit Rai’s biography of Premchand.
Ans. Biographical writing does not have much stand in India as it is in west. In the preface of the original text Rai laments the absence of good biographies in Hindi.
He holds the view that this work should have been done by someone else and much earlier. He writes, “In all the developed countries the genre of biography writing has made considerable advance.
But our language Hindi is famished in this respect. Either we don’t know what good biographical writing is or we have an idee fixe in our mind that it is not a creative genre.
Or else fear, just fear of the impediments in the way’. He then goes on to say that almost all the writers and scientist and artists have more than one biography written on them.
He asserts that biographical writing is no less creative than of the novel.
In the similar vein, Ramchandra Guha in his essay ‘Why South Asian don’t write good biographies’ he says, “we know how to burn our dead with reverence or bury them through neglect but not to evaluate, judge and honour them.’
(Himal South Asian, October, 2002). He says that the reason that the art of biography writing remained undeveloped is the Indian tendency either to eulogize a person or condemn him/her completely. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
It should be understood that biographical writing is an amalgamation of both historical facts and esthetics of literature, which makes it one of the most difficult writing genre.
It is important that the biographer should be sympathetic to the person he/she is writing about but at the same time he/she must not be blind and should be able attain a critical attitude where required.
The idea should be to present the complete picture of the life of the person and world around him/her.
And that is why the biography written by Rai is considered to be the masterpiece in the genre of biographical writing.
Rai’s biography of Premchand brings the author as a person of extraordinary talent and fervor for social cause but still a simple and humble man at heart.
At the beginning of the introduction of the biography Rai uses three anecdotes to stress the utter simplicity of Premchand even after being established as a successful writer.
The most famous example of his simplicity is the photograph in which we see him seating on a chair wearing dhati and kurta and canvas shoes.
It is clear that the shoe of his left leg is torn and his toes can be seen protruding. A well-known Hindi satirist, Hari Shankar Parasi has even written a piece on this photograph called Premchand ke Phate Voote, MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
To say that Rai relation with Premchand has affected his writing would be an accusation which Rai does not deserve.
Here is no doubt that Rai has drawn the life of the author with a complete objective stance without getting involved in it subjectively.
One example is in the episode wherein he deals with the charges of plagiarism against Premchand for Rangbhoomi.
Here, we see that he does not try to defend Premchand at all, rather he tries to bring the entire controversy as it was.
Another instance of this objectivity is in the Rai’s criticism of Premchand’s obsession with the idea of acquiring his own press.
He says that Premchand’ financial condition was not strong enough to support this venture but still he put everything on stake to support it, which was not likely to succeed.
The entire biography is filled with such instances where we can literally witness the objectivity retained by the Rai while putting his father’s life on the pages.
Some of the distinctive features of Rai’s biography of Premchand are:
(a) His graphic presentation of Premchand’s transition from the reader of magic and fairy tale to a writer of social cause. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
(b) His style is unaffected and unhurried.
(c) The presence of humour.
(d) The author’s readiness to reflect and soliloquize on his own behalf as well, at times, his subjects.
(e) The objectivity maintained by the biographer throughout the biography.
(f) Rai’s style to produce the evidence first and then draw the conclusion from it.
Q. 3. Discuss The Compromise by Vijaydan Detha as an aliegory.
Ans. Allegory is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself.
The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy.
Thus, an allegory is a story with two meanings, a literal meaning and a symbolic meaning. Considering this we can say that the story is an allegory, as in the story we have the conscience of the protagonist personified in terms of Aaskaran inside the mirror.
We see the two selves getting engaged in accusation and counter accusations, conversational and argument and finally they realize that the presence of one would be a threat for the other. And they come to an agreement to break the mirror.
Once the mirror is broken the protagonist now is free from the voice of his conscience and can go on to pursue an immoral life.MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
The story of The Compromise is of a student named Aaskaran who on a continuous basis talks to his conscience in the mirror.
Both he and his other self, indulge in argument making accusations and counter-accusations. After sometime they realize the fact that the existence of one is a threat to the other and finally they decide to break the mirror.
The mirror is broken and Aaskaran is freed from his conscience. He is free now to lead an immoral and corrupt life.
The author of the story is trying to say that like Aaskaran we all have killed or destroyed our conscience and do not feel any sense of regret after we commit an immoral act.
And that is what happens in modern society.
In a way the story is a critic of loss of faith in modern society and tells us that we must not forget our inner conscience in the very fast developing society.
The story The Compromise makes us re-think the values and moral standards of our life that we all are losing in the pursuit of development. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
It becomes utterly important that we stop and look inside ourselves that what we are doing is right or wrong or can it be questioned.
In the story we see that the protagonist talks to his conscience in the mirror, when finally he decides to break it as he cannot tolerate it any more.
And once the mirror is broken, his conscience is dead, he can then pursue a life of immorality and corruption. The story is important today because, in a way we all are following the path of Aaskaran.
The story starts with the author giving description about himself. It seems that story is in first person.
But when the protagonist is being introduced in the story, and we start hearing bis conversation between him and his inner conscience, the story becomes a third person narration. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
At the end of the story once again the ‘T’ of the story comes in and tells us about the development in the character of the protagonist.
Other than this change the narrative technique the author has also made use of different folk elements in the story.
During the course of the story, we see that Aaskaran sees his image in the mirror horned like goat, or long-eared like donkey, which vanish eventually during the story.
Furthermore, the author has used the story as an allegory to remind us of losing values and moral in modern life.
Q. 4. Write a note on the contemporary relevance of Tughlaq.
Ans. The theme of Tughlaq has contemporary relevance. Tughlaq wants to be a ruler who does not differentiate between Hindu and Muslim.
He wants to establish a secular state. Tughlaq also looks at the power as a game of chess, which is about someone.
Tughlaq also tries to bridge a Hindu-Muslim divide back in the 14th century, which persists even today. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
His exercise of impartial justice and equal human treatment to the Hindus alienate him from the mainstream Muslim subjects and priesthood.
Hi, exercise of tyrannical power can be seen as his release of his metaphysical anguish. His cruelty arises from his anguish, which he wants to impose over the scapegoat.
His cruelty and tyranny are almost seen as vehicles to help him to overcome existential alienation and sense of the absurdity of human existence.
He begins to console himself that his actions are justified. The realization that killings have not solved the problem and his knowledge of people’s anxiety about his death bring him remorse and frustration.
His inability to admit that he has gone wrong pushes him to the verge of madness. In fact, the play depicts a conflict between Muhammad within and the world without.
His turning to violence can be seen as his self-consolation and an escape from the feeling of guilt. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
The nature of experience in Tughlaq with its emphasis on despair, on the awareness of isolation from others and oneself and on a loss of meaning and value in one’s world certainly warrants a comparison with the Existential and Absurd drama.
Karnad’s interspersing the absurdity in historical figures and their resemblance with the modern man’s alienation and frustration makes this play relevant to the contemporary world.
Q. 5. Discuss how the narrative of Samskara has been organized.
Ans. The narrative of Samskara can be summarized as follows:
(a) The first part of novel contains ten chapters. In these ten chapters we have the opening of the novel and the first stage of development in the character of Pranesacharya. It ends with Pranesacharya failing to fulfil his Brahminical duty.
(b) The second chapter has six chapters and leads us to the second stage of transformation of Pranesacharya. It ends with death of Pranesacharya’s wife and his abandoning of everything and leaving Durvasapura.
(c) The third part of novel has two chapters. The second chapter of this part is the longest. This part ends with Pranesacharya going back to Durvasapura to confess and take responsibility of his actions. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
The Narrative: Three Important Features
The narrative of a novel is very important the understanding of theme as it holds and gives a new dimension to theme inherent in the novel. Let us look at the three important narrative features of the novel.
The narrator of the story is one who tells the story while the focalizer is the person whose vision is verbalized by the narrator.
In the novel Samskara, the narrator is also the focalizer as it is his vision which is being verbalized. So in that sense he is a narrator-focalizer.
There is no doubt that the narrator of the novel is not the part of actions happening in the novel. But still one can easily say where his sympathy lies? And when his tone becomes ironical?
This omniscient narrator can enter into anyone’s mind and tell us his thoughts and ideas. This narrator also proves to be helpful at the opening scene of the novel where, lots of conflict has been presented. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
It is through this voice we are being made aware that what is right and what is wrong. The narrator also tells us about the psychological conflicts going on in the mind of Pranesacharya since the beginning of the novel till the end of it.
Apart from the narrator Pranesacharya is also a focalizer as we see him not only watching himself but also other characters, like Naranappa, Chandri, Putta, and Padmavati. Another character who also is a focalizer is Putta.
The semiotic notion of intertextuality introduced by Julia Kristeva is associated primarily with poststructuralist theorists.
Kristeva referred to texts in terms of two axes: a horizontal axis connecting the author and reader of a text, and a vertical axis, which connects the text to other texts (Kristeva 1980, 69).
Uniting these two axes are shared codes: every text and every reading depends on prior codes. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
Kristeva declared that every text is from the outset under the jurisdiction of other discourses which impose a universe on it (cited in Culler 1981, 105).
She argued that rather than confining our attention to the structure of a text we should study its ‘structuration’ (how the structure came into being).
This involved siting it within the totality of previous or synchronic texts’ of which it was a transformation’.
The presence of intertexuality in Samskara, cannot be denied, in fact it is a very special feature of the novel.
It appears in form of many references to Indian tradition in the form of myths, parables, and characters from epic. There are some western references too, in the novel. Some of the references are:
(a) The story of Menaka
(b) The story of Matasyagandha
(c) Reference to Shakuntala
(d) There is an allusion to Urvashi in part two of the novel
(e) Then there is allusion to Trishanku. MEG 14 Free Solved Assignment
The structure of the novel can be outlined as follows:
(a) Part one contains ten chapters, which ends with the failure of Pranesacharya’s Brahminical mission.
(b) Part two has six chapters which end with the death of the wife of Pranesacharya.
(c) The third part of the novel has only two chapters, the first one short while the second one is the longest. This part ends with Pranesacharya going back to Durvasapura to confess and take responsibility of his actions to overcome his fear for lifetime.
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