A SURVEY COURSE IN 20TH CENTURY CANADIAN LITERATURE
MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. It is important to know the history of a nation in order to understand its literature. Keeping this in mind trace the different stages of Canadian history from the First settlers to the present age.
Ans. The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians.
Throughout Canada’s history, its culture has been influenced by European culture and traditions, mostly by the British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures.
Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada’s immigrant populations have become incorporated to form a Canadian cultural mosaic.
Certain segments of Canada’s population have, to varying extents, also been influenced by American culture due to shared language (in English-speaking Canada), significant media penetration and geographic proximity,
Canada is often characterized as being “very progressive, diverse, and multicultural”. Canada’s federal government has often been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration.
Canada’s culture draws from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote a just society are constitutionally protected.
Canadian Government policies such as publicly funded health care; higher and more progressive taxation; outlawing capital punishment; strong efforts to eliminate poverty; an emphasis on cultural diversity, strict gun control; MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
the legalization of same-sex marriage, pregnancy terminations, euthanasia and cannabis – are social indicators of the country’s political and cultural values.
Canadians identify with the country’s institutions of health care, military peacekeeping, the national park system and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
The Canadian government has influenced culture with programs, laws and institutions.
It has created crown corporations to promote Canadian culture through media, such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) and the National Film Board of Canada (NFB), and promotes many events which it considers to promote Canadian traditions.
It has also tried to protect Canadian culture by setting legal minimums on Canadian content in many media using bodies like the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).
Q 2. The experience of wrestling with a rigorous climate and wilderness have shaped the Canadian imagination. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans. “The environmental threat to our world is greater than any time in human history. Just look around. We’re already seeing the impacts of climate change seared across the world.” MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Mention Canada to anyone almost anywhere and several things spring immediately to mind. Famously polite people. Very, very good hockey players. A culture of inclusion. And Tim Horton’s.
It’s also unbelievably beautiful: From the temperate Pacific rainforests of British Columbia to the old French architecture of Montreal, the chilly, vital Arctic to Banff National Park, considered by many to be “the zenith of the entire Rocky Mountains,” the country is full of wonder.
But all that wonder is at risk.
“The environmental threat to our world is greater than any time in human history. Just look around.
We’re already seeing the impacts of climate change seared across the world,” says the Honourable Catherine McKenna MP, Canada’s minister of environment and climate change.
Climate Reality recently spoke to Minister McKenna via email to discuss how the climate crisis is impacting Canada – and what the nation is doing about it.
Setting the scene, she does not mince words.
“Average temperatures in Canada have already increased by 1.7 degrees Celsius since 1948. Continued amplification of warming at high latitudes is projected under all scenarios of future climate change,” she explains. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
“Along with higher temperatures and increased rainfall, we will see rising sea levels. Warmer waters and ocean acidification are expected to become increasingly evident over the next century.”
The nation has experienced a higher rate of warming than most other regions of the world, particularly in its far-north and west.
This warming has been most pronounced in the winter and springtime, and it’s leading to a number of major impacts across the country.
These include permafrost and ice melt in the Arctic, sehfpa-level rise, and more frequent and severe extreme weather, such as once-uncommon heat extremes and major changes in precipitation.
Q 3 Write a detailed note on the genre of the Canadian long poem.
Ans. Canadian poetry is poetry of or typical of Canada. The term encompasses poetry written in Canada or by Canadian people in the official languages of English and French, and an increasingly prominent body of work in both other European and Indigenous languages.
The earliest works of poetry, mainly written by visitors, described the new territories in optimistic terms, mainly targeted at a European audience.
One of the first works was Robert Hayman’s Quodlibets, composed in Newfoundland and published in 1628.MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
The minority French Canadian poetry, primarily from Quebec, blossomed in the 19th century, moving through Modernism and Surrealism in the 20th century, to develop a unique voice filled with pasion, politics and vibrant imagery.
Montreal, with its exposure to both English and French poetry, became a hotbed of poetic progress with movements such as the Montreal Group and Les Automatistes, and notable poets such as Irving Layton and Leonard Cohen.
Toronto (centered on the Bohemian Embassy Coffee House and bpNichol’s grOnk) and Vancouver (with the Downtown Poets and the TISH group) also developed as important poetry centers.
In the later 20th century, a growing awareness of Native identity coupled with the struggle for Indigenous rights, fostered the growth of writing by Native Canadians.
The earliest works of poetry, mainly written by visitors, described the new territories in optimistic terms, mainly targeted at a European audience. One of the first works was Robert Hayman’s Quodlibets, composed in Newfoundland and published in 1628.
Q 4 Attempt a detailed analysis of the poem ‘Envoi’ by Eli Mandel.
Ans. Eli Mandel was a Canadian poet, editor of many Canadian anthologies, and literary academic. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Eli Mandel died in relative obscurity. A series of strokes had left him unable to write and, as a result, Mandel had receded from public view long before his death.
He was born Elias Wolf Mandel in Estevan, Saskatchewan, Canada to Russian Jewish parents who had emigrated from the Ukraine, and grew up the Canadian prairies during the Great Depression.
 After a job working for a pharmacist who, landed him a position serving in Canada’s Medical Corps during World War II,
it has been said Mandel returned a forever emotionally distraught man who was destined to live the rest of his life without a sense of belonging. This helps explain the alienation that is illustrated throughout his writings.
He studied English at the University of Saskatchewan attaining a Master of Arts degree in 1950. He received a PhD from the University of Toronto in 1957.
From 1953 to 1957, Mandel taught at the Royal Military College Saint-Jean. Later, he taught English and creative writing at the University of Alberta, University of Victoria, University of Toronto, and York University. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
He also taught Canadian studies at the University of Calgary Besides his poetry, he wrote other critical works such as his 1969 essay on fellow poet Irving Layton.
He was married to his first wife, Miriam Mandel, for 18 years. The couple had two children, Evie and Charles. In 1967 they divorced and he married Ann Hardy.
They had one child, Sara Publishing poetry in the early 1950s, Eli Mandel’s first significant collection was entitled Minotaur poems (1954), and it appeared in the contact press anthology Trio (1954).
His poetry was published in 1954 in Trio, an anthology of poems by Mandel, Gael Turnbull, and Phyllis Webb published by Raymond Souster’s Contact Press.
His first book was Fuseli poems (1960).
Q 5 What are the major themes present in the novel Surfacing.
Ans. Surfacing is a novel by Canadian author Margaret Atwood. Published by McClelland and Stewart in 1972, it was her second novel.MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Surfacing has been described by commentators as a companion novel to Atwood’s collection of poems, Power Politics, which was written the previous year and deals with complementary issues.
The novel, grappling with notions of national and gendered identity, anticipated rising concerns about conservation and preservation and the emergence of Canadian nationalism. It was adapted into a movie in 1981.
The book tells the story of a woman who returns to her hometown in Canada to find her missing father.
Accompanied by her lover, Joe, and a married couple, Anna and David, the unnamed protagonist meets
her past in her childhood house, recalling events and feelings, while trying to find clues to her father’s mysterious disappearance, Little by little, the past overtakes her and drives her into the realm of wildness and madness. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Separation is a major theme of Surfacing. This is established in the first chapter, when the narrator is shown to be politically dispossessed as an English-speaker in Quebec, at a time in which Quebec was aspiring to become an independent French-speaking nation.
The narrator also feels disconnected from the people around her, equating human interaction with that of animals.
For example, while overhearing David and Anna have sex, the narrator thinks “of an animal at the moment the trap closes”.
The mouthpiece for feelings of nationalism is extremist David, who claims Canada would be better without the “fascist pig Yanks” and suggests they be driven from the country by attack beavers.
Q 6 Write a detailed note on ‘Naturalism’ and show how it is reflected in the novel ‘The Tin Flute.
Ans. She immortalises the St. Henri district as Joyce had irnmortalised Dublin in Ulysses (1922). MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
The main difference is that Roy does not use the stream of consciousness technique so favoured Joyce. She shares with by Joyce the trait of ‘naturalism’.
She differs from realists like Fielding and Dickens in that comic effects are not sought by her in the way they are sought by those two.
She avoids caricature and maintains a certain kind of seriousness with regard to her materials.
The element of ‘play’ is kept to a minimum or is virtually not there. In this respect also she differs from Joyce and postmodernist practioners of magic realism.
The Tin Flute is a novel written by Gabrielle Roy. This work is her first novel, and it was published originally in French in 1945. It was originally named Bonheur D’occasion, which translates into chance, or secondhand happiness.
It was translated into English in 1947, and the title was changed into The Tin Flute, which is a toy that Daniel receives when he is near death.MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
This novel, though her first, is completely filled with Roy’s unique sense of empathy and understanding, resonating throughout her narration of a struggling family in Montreal.
The Tin Flute won several awards, including the Governor General’s Award as well as the Prix Femina of France. In addition, the novel was made into a movie in 1983.
Q 7 Write in detail how modernism and post modernism is reflected in the novel The English Patient.
Ans. Fragmented Humanity Michael Ondaatje’s The English Patient, through the lens of Postmodernism Fragmentation, being the major tool of Postmodernism; the concept of fragmented identity has its due importance.
The humanity was in a great search for identity after the World War II. Michael Ondaatje’s novel The English Patient reads the pulse of the postmodern era.
The idea of fragmentation is dealt exclusively in the novel. The distinct nature of post modernity is analyzed through the various forms of fragmentation employed in the novel.
The ideology of postmodernism seems very much like modernism. But in the case fragmentation, the dividing line occurs. In modernism fragmentation is mourned and is lamented over. Postmodernism, in contrast. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
“Identity is a construct: the ways an individual understands what it is to belong to a certain genderlerace or culture.
Identity is initially constructed by the discourses operating in society which naturalises certain ways of knowing what it is to belong to this social group.
In The English Patient Ondaatje writing in the 1990’s about the Second World War questions the very notions of identity, showing how the dominant discourse of Western imperialism and civilisation have dispossessed those people of different races and cultural.
At the outset of the novel the reader learns that the patient does not know who he is, even though Hana keeps asking him that all the time.
The enquiry into the patient’s identity is continued by Caravaggio, who has his own suspicions about the burned-beyond-recognition pilot.
He thinks that the English patient is not an Englishman at all, but the notable African explorer Count Almásy, who was the German spy-guide in the desert during the war.
He is very anxious about identifying the patient, while Hana is merely curious, though their aim is the same – to learn who he really is. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
The answer seems to be at hand – they just have to follow his stories and organize them into a logical and unified chronology. For the stories of the English patient do not come in a chronological way.
Q 8 After reading the story “Where is the Voice Coming From”, would you say that history has been distorted by the Whites?
Ans. When Mrs. Gannett told Alva that lunch should be laid, instead of saying “yes, madam”, she said, “All right”.
Alva was not rude, but a country high-school girl couldn’t be expected to have the manners of a trained maid.
Alva was still quite clumsy in her work, and used to admire the elegance and superiority of Mrs. Gannett’s demeanor.
Filling themselves with food and drinks, people would become excited as well as relaxed. But it was not allowed for Alva to show a little relaxation or excitement Of course, she was not drinking, except from the bottom of glasses when they were brought back.
But the feeling of unreality, of alternate apathy and recklessness, became very strong in the house by the middle of the afternoon. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Alva would compare the large spacious rooms of the house with her own small, over crowded rooms..She also felt a bit out of touch with reality
As she carried the dishes Alva wanted to look presentable before the high society guests. The guests would carry their dessert plates and coffee cups back to the kitchen.
Mrs. Vance praised the potato salad and Mr. Vance, quite drunk, just kept repeating lovely, lovely.
He stood right behind Alva at the sink, so very close she felt his breath quite touch her.
“Going up north, Alva, upto Georgian Bay?” Mr. Vance said, and Mrs. Vance said, “oh you’ll love it, the Gannetts have a lovely place,’ and Mr. Vance said, ‘Get some sun on you up there, oh?’ and then they went away.
Q 9 What is the theme of the play The Ecstasy of Rita Joe?
Ans. The theme of The Ecstasy of Rita Joe is the destruction of an Indian woman by the urban white society and the general apathy of Canadian white; towards Native Indian Canadians. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
Two lines that underline this thematic thrust recur in the play. These are:
God was gonna have a laugh
An gave me a job in the city!
The Magistrate’s attitude is quite representative of the attitude of the whites. He refuses to see the obvious.
This means that he is quite oblivious to the plight of the Indians and the cruelty and injustice meted out to them.
He must interpret the law in a dogmatic way and refuses to see Rita’s actual suffering. Rita craves communion with the people and with the Magistrate.
She is frustrated in this.
Collectively the Magistrate, the Teacher and Mr. Homer contribute to the image of Rita as a vagrant, as a prostitute, as lazy, as a thief and so on.
For Rita there’s no escaping this kind of one-sided labeling. What ultimately happens to her is a culmination of this kind of process.
Jaimie Paul reacts quite vocally to all the injustice but his ultimate fate is no better. Rita’s father is weak. He can’t help much. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
The helplessness of Native Canadians in general and the dead-end nature of their life in general are also part of the thematic thrust of The Ecstasy of Rita Joe.
Q 10 Write a note on Northrop Frye’s ‘Conclusion’ to A Literary History of Canada.
Ans. Some years ago, a group of editors met to draw up the first tentative plans for a history of English Canadian literature. What we then dreamed of is substantially what we have got, changed very little in essentials.
I expressed at the time the hope that such a book would help to broaden the inductive basis on which some writers on Canadian literature were making generalizations that bordered on guesswork.
By “some writers” I meant primarily myself: I find, however, that more evidence has in fact tended to confirm most of my intuitions on the subject.
To study Canadian literature properly, one must out-grow the view that evaluation is the end of criticism, instead of its incidental by-product.
If evaluation is one’s guiding principle, criticism of Canadian literature would become only a debunking project, leaving it a poor naked alouette plucked of every feather of decency and dignity. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
True, what is really remarkable is not how little but how much good writing has been produced in Canada.
But this would not affect the rigorous evaluator. The evaluative view is based on the conception of criticism as concerned mainly to define and canonize the genuine clasics of literature.
And Canada has produced no author who is a classic in the sense of possessing a vision greater in kind than that of his best readers (Canadians themselves might argue about one or two, but in the perspective of the world at large the statement is true).
There is no Canadian writer of whom we can say what we can say of the world’s major writers, that their readers can grow up inside their work without ever being aware of a circumference.
Thus the metaphor of the critic as “judge” holds better for a critic who is never dealing with the kind of writer who judges him.
This fact about Canadian literature, so widely deplored by Canadians, has one advantage. It is much easier to see what literature is trying to do when we are studying a literature that has not quite done it. MEG 12 Free Solved Assignment
If no Canadian author pulls us away from the Canadian context toward the centre of literary experience itself, then at every point we remain aware of his social and historical setting.
The conception of what is literary has to be greatly broadened for such a literature.
The literary, in Canada, is often only an incidental quality of writings which, like those of many of the early explorers, are as innocent of literary intention as a mating loon.
Even when it is literature in its orthodox genres of poetry and fiction, it is more significantly studied as a part of Canadian life than as a part of an autonomous world of literature.
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