GLOBALISATION AND ENVIRONMENT
MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
MED 8 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1. Analyse the changing nature of globalization and its effects on the environment.
Ans. Changing nature of the globalization: Globalization has changed the definition of trade, technology and financial system of economy. Globalization can be defined as a policy that leads to the opening up of economy to ensure unrestricted flow of goods and services, capital, technology, natural and human resources while transcending the boundaries.
The economic phase of globalization has begun in 1980, and it removes all the barriers and rapidly increases the flow of trade, investment, services and real estate vacross the borders.
There is a great impact of technology, trade and financial capital on globalization today.
Role of Technology
Technological changes are the principal drivers of globalization. Before, globalization, the trade and technology were surrounding in limited area and thus, the price of goods and services were very high.
On the contrary, the technology has resulted in facilitating structural changes in industry. It brings transformation of nature of goods and services provided to the customer.
For example, in 1930 the cost of three minute telephone call was costed 245 dollar from New York to London, whereas it fell up to 3 dollar in 1990s.
Role of Trade MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Since 1980s the world trade had accelerated in many folds. The growth of capital and funds flows has been faster than the growth of world trade.
The Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) policy featured the growth of investment which was substantial in big bulk of investment flows among the developed countries, the developing countries are increasingly becoming the receipts of FDI.
China recorded more than 12 times higher FDI than India in 2004. India is receiving the FDI from USA, Mauritius, Germany, Japan, South Korea and others.
Role of Financial Capital
The globalization is characterized by the rapid growth and development in financial market. Many developed countries like USA, UK etc. are keen to invest in developing countries like India, and China. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Therefore, in 1991, the Indian FDI policy was liberalized and since 1980, the foreign collaboration and investment is constantly increasing.
Global Climatic Change
It is essential to understand the relationship between economic globalization with environment. The global change is a long-term change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods of time that range from decades to millions of years.
It may be a change in the average weather conditions or a change in the distribution of weather events with respect to an average, for example, greater or fewer extreme weather events.
Various gases affect the weather and climate of earth and create changes in the atmosphere which create stress mortality and diseases could increase as the tropical habitat.
Globalization and Environment
Globalization brought about inter-nationalization of economic activities, especially with US and UK taking to greater interest in market coordination during 1980s.
Globalization has increased the demand and supply of products across the globe which resulted fast production and using intensive techniques to meet the demand.
They perceive globalization as harmful to the environment in many ways. In fact it kills the natural resources and neglects the environment in the same way.
Free Trade and Environment MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Globalization emphasis on free trade across the globe and hence, with increasing pressure from world monetary and trade organizations many countries succumbed to the pressure to liberalize their economies.
But there are many factors which directly or indirectly perceive harmful effect on the environment.
The investment and globalization of production has been emphasizing on fast growing technology which leads to reduce the environment-friendly technologies in many countries
Terms of Trade and Environment
From environmental perspective, trade liberalization can have a negative or a positive effect on the environment. But the direct effects of trade on the environment are very harmful, it is very harmful for trade. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
In 1987, the Brundtland Report, formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), alerted the world to the urgency of making progress toward economic development without depleting natural resources or harming the environment.
The commission was created to address growing concern about the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development.
The Brundtland Report was primarily concerned with securing a global equity, re-distributing resources towards poorer nations while encouraging their economic growth.
The report also suggested that equity, growth and environmental maintenance are simultaneously possible and that each country is capable of achieving its full economic potential while at the same time enhancing its resource base.
There are instances of extensive environmental destruction unleashed by the corporate culture. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
The WTO (World Trade Organization) provides the platform on which trade relations, among members, evolve through collective debate, negotiation and adjudication.
The principal focus of the WTO’s work on trade and environment is contained in the Uruguay Round Final Act, under which ministers adopted a decision on trade and environment that called for the establishment of the Committee on Trade and Environment (CTE) and outlined its work programme.
There is a need to review both international trade and global environmental laws and agreements in the interests of both developing countries and advanced countries.
Q. 2. Explain the role of MNCs and TNCs in the era of economic globalisation.
Ans. TNCs in The Era of Neo-Libera Economic Globalization: Globalization has been increasing the interest of companies to become global.
Globalization, particularly the dismantling of trade barriers, has allowed companies to spread widely in search of cost efficiency and to implement integrated production strategies across regions and even continents. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
The transnational corporation is said to be a borderless company. A transnational corporation is a kind of multinational companies which operates worldwide without being identified with a national home base.
Transnationals are made possible by improved international communications which provide rapid containerized transhipment and foreign travel, easy communication of information, and international mobility of capital.
Whereas, multinational companies are the companies which operate in more than one country and represent the country’s origin. The multinational companies have a powerful impact on global business.
The transnational corporation companies command enormous financial resources possess vast technical resources and have extensive global reach and termed as profit-seeking organizations. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
TNCs are probably the major foree affecting world-wide shifts in economic activity, since the largest have a turnover greater than the GNP of many less developed nations.
The growth in the number and size of transnational corporations since the 1950s has generated controversy because of their economic and political power and the mobility and complexity of their operations.
The number of transnational Corporations in the world has jumped from 7,000 in 1970 to 40,000 in 1995.
Given their dominance of politics, economics and technology, it is not surprising to find the big transnationals deeply involved in most of the world’s serious environmental crises.
On the one hand, it was recognized that the transnational corporations played a positive role as effective instruments of development in both developed as well as the developing countries and that this dimension needed to be strengthened.
On the other hand, there was the realization that given their all-pervasive nature of operations, the transnational corporations needed to be controlled by setting effective guidelines for their conduct. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
The result was an effort to establish a balanced code that prescribed standards of corporate conduct and principles for the treatment of transnational corporations.
The transnational corporations, developed countries also saw merit in adopting a multilateral approach for formalizing the norms and standards for the behaviour of the corporations.
“Globalization can, then, be defined as intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events, many miles away and vice versa”.
When we look at cultural globalization in connection with economic globalization, it becomes clear that the expansion of the capitalist market hinges on the integration of local markets facilitated by the global transformation of local cultures.
Globalization seeks to build upon absolute homogenization of values and cultures. Cultural globalization constantly seeks to integrate local and national cultures with global culture mainly dominated by the West. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Globalization, as a cultural expression, refers to compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole.
The rise of information age must be seen as concomitant to the culturalization process across the globe.
In fact, economic globalization will place continuous pressure on developing nations to abandon local traditions and dismantle programmes geared to developing more self-sufficient economies.
Q 3. Discuss the origin of NGOs and their impact on global politics in protection of environment.
Ans. The main role of any NGO is to lend a helping hand to the government in its fight against any social evil and in its endeavour to work for social upliftment. The NGOs can conduct awareness programmes even in remote villages.
In the Western countries many NGOs have their advocacy programmes, counselling and treatment centres, half-way homes, day care centres and rehabilitation centers.
NGOs are now an important part of the civil society and legitimate negotiators on behalf of the people. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
The World Bank reports on development acknowledge NGOs as part of the civil society and often negotiate with them on the implementation of various important programmes.
With the processes of globalization since 1990s, the NGOs are seen as important actors in the implementation of structural adjustment programmes of the World Bank and IMF.
NGOs have become professional, managerial bodies with structures and organizations that do not concern themselves with power, politics, and state but with delivery systems for structural adjustment.
The very large NGOs are not accountable to either government bureaucracy or peoples representatives. NGOs have also been accused of lack of accountability and transparency
As receivers of funds from outside, often their accountability is to the donor agencies. Thus, government NGOs became tools for a new delivery system.
Another example of such NGOs with inspiration from donor agency is the World Bank funded Watershed Development and Joint Forest Management Programmes
NGOs today are a fact of the developmental, socio-political scene. Today, a number of NGOs are implementing government projects when governments and state are fast losing their autonomy. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level but the diversity of activities of NGOs makes their classification somewhat complex.
NGOs cannot be discussed without mentioning other non-party political processes as these are part of the same continuum with interplay, inter-relationships and contradictions.
NGOs are institutional in nature receiving funds from donor agencies from outside and governed by long-term perspectives.
The conventional NGO monitoring, evaluation and impact assessment tools are inadequate for addressing such complex processes as changes in socio-economic wellbeing,
the adoption and diffusion of introduced technologies, local participation, or the environmental impacts of aid. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in pushing for sustainable development at the international level. They are focusing their energies on government and inter-governmental processes.
NGOs have begun to fix their sights on powerful corporations – many of which can rival entire nations in terms of their resources and influence.
SECTION – II
Q. 6. (a) Seed Suicides in India
Ans. Seed Suicides (India): Seed suicide is a term which has been reflects the problems and challenges facing by Indian farmers. Hundred of poor farmers have been fighting against the international seed companies which force them to invest in agriculture.
Over the past decades, we have seen that many poor farmers had committed suicide because of agricultural loans.
According to Indian environmentalist Vandana Shiva, the Indian farmers of rural areas are worst affected by the trade liberalization of Indian agriculture.
The privatization of seed distribution had put the farmers on stake, under the policy of trade liberalization. In the past experience, it has been seen that farmers had committed suicide or taken extreme step to avoid risk of crop failure. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
On the word of globalization the multinational companies had been using chemicals and other fertilizers to get quick agriculture and sell them in market at higher price.
Whereas, the poor farmers do not get the market exposure and sell their agriculture on very low prices.
Thus, World Trade Organization (WTO) and international lending institutions such as World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Asian Development Bank and others has emerged a view that global trade and capital movement benefit only multinational companies and not the farmers alone.
Therefore, the World Trade Organization, had recommended reducing subsidiaries to farmers, increase government involvements, privatization of public sector units etc.
It has the implication that in order to use high yielding patented varieties of seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, the users have to pay a fee to the respective agriculture holders.
(b) Toxic Wastes
Ans. Toxic Wastes: Toxic waste is waste material and poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. It can cause health problems, death or injury to living creatures. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Direct and indirect exposure of toxic waste may create numerous adverse effects on humans or all living creatures.
Because, it spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers. It can pose a long-term risk to health or environment.
These wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. Toxic wastes containing organic carcinogens can be destroyed by incineration at high temperatures, which is very expensive.
Disposal of Toxic Wastes
Toxic wastes are generally the product of industry or commerce, but come also from medical facilities, residential use, agriculture, radioactive sources, and the military and light industry, such as dry cleaning establishments.
It is very important to dispose off this toxic waste properly otherwise it will again cause problems to the living beings. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
Generally, these toxins buried in the ground, in stream runoff, in groundwater that supplies drinking water, or in flood waters, as happened after Hurricane Katrina. Some toxins, such as mercury, persist in the environ-ment and accumulate.
Over a period of time, the illegal traffic in hazardous wastes poses a serious threat to the environmental and human health in the developing countries.
But there are International Trade Organizations like FAO, UNEP and PIC which help participating countries to learn more about dangerous effects of hazardous chemicals and proper disposition as well.
Further the cleaner productions can help both leadership and learning companies understand and embrace the many opportunities to turn environmental responsibility and cleaner production into bottom-line success.
The cleaner production encompasses with reduction in the use of toxic substances, extension of product durability and conservation of energy and raw materials.
Q. 9. (a) Mining project in Sri Lanka
Ans. Mining Project (Sri Lanka): The people of Sri Lanka had raised their voice against the mining project initiated by US based transnational company. Many scientists, socialists, trade unions and farmers had participated to protest the government decision.
In 1971 the Geological and Mines Bureau discovered vast deposits of phosphate, ranging from 25 million to 60 million metric tons, in the Eppawala village of Talawa A.G.A.
Division in the administrative district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
The Ministry of Industrial Development has apparently overlooked this vital aspect of the whole subject-matter in a “seemingly big hurry” to commence the project through a foreign multinational corporation, Freeport-McMoran Resource Partners in the United States.
The case of Eppawala was extended for more than a decade.
Alternatives MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
In continuation of anti-globalization movement, the world social forum has come up with a very strong support and alternatives against imperial globalization.
The world social forum, it is held by members of the globalization movement who come together to coordinate world campaigns, share and refine organizing strategies, and inform each other about movements from around the world and their issues.
The World Social Forum has, especially in recent years, been strongly criticized for replacing popular movements of the poor with non-governmental organizations.
Movements of the poor in poorer parts of the world, like Africa, have argued that they are almost completely excluded from the forum and in countries like Kenya and
and South Africa they have protested against donor funded NGOs that, they argue, determine and dominate African representation at the forum.
It has also been argued that NGOs sometimes compete with popular grassroot movements for access to the forum and for influence there. MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
(b) Food Security and Indicators of Sustainability
Ans. Sustainability of Food Security: Sustainability of food security is very important to provide sufficient access to economic and physical condition of the country.
Here, we will discuss the important indicator of sustainability of food security.
Sustainable Food Security Indicators
Sustainable indicator is a valuable source of indicator to show index to choose policies and programme for future development and maintaining the existing levels.
Based on these index and reports, the states should maintain the food security levels especially where they suffer low levels of food security.
The State should maintain the balance between present security and sustainability and adopt eco-friendly methods. The aim should be clean environment, water and surroundings.
Indicators of Sustainability of Food Security MED 8 Free Solved Assignment
There have been seventeen indicators which show sustainability of food security. These indicators has been divided into three headings and further distributed in other different categories.
The main three headings include – availability index, access index and absorption index. The other categories includes:
(a) Weighted Net Sown Area: This indicator shows the base of agricultural land and amount of food production.
(b) Percentage change in net sown area over 8 years: This indicators shows the anticipated extended areas for agriculture.
(c) Production foodgain Per Capita: This indicates per capita the foodgrain production.
(d) Per Capita Forest Cover: This indicator shows the watershed substance of per capita forest cover.
(e) Unexploited Surface Water available for Future Use: This indicator represents the unexploited surface water available which can be saved future purpose.
(f) Percentage of Area Degraded to Total Geographical Area: This indicator shows the total degraded area on geographical map and its total percentage
(g) Percentage of Leguminous Crops in the Gross Cropped Area: This indicator shows the sustainability of leguminous crops in the gross cropped area.
(h) Unexploited Ground-water available for Future Use: This represented the unexploited water which can be available from ground for future use.