IGNOU MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst



MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q. 1. What is organisational change? Discuss the forces influencing the organisational change? “As the change is introduced in an organisation, it may face the resistance by the organisational members”. Elaborate.

Ans. Organisational change can be described as the change that takes place in an organisation. These changes are aimed at prospering of an organisation.

The organizational change refers to setting-up new production methods, producing new products, restructuring of organisation, adoption of information technology and change from public to private ownership and vice-versa.

Today, organizations operate in a very dynamic and changing environment. In order to become competitive, they make suitable changes from time-to-time to serve customers better.

It also makes these organisations on par with the latest technology and helps in maintaining or improvising their existing levels of profits.

All such forces that initiate changes can be broad divided into two categories and they are Internal Forces and External Forces. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Internal Forces

(i) Change in Leadership: If there is change in leadership of an organisation then this may result in change in perceptions, strategies, activities and results.

(ii) Change in Employee’s Profile: There are some changes in the profiles of employees that are inevitable because of death, retirement, transfer, promotion, discharge or resignation.

In modern organisations, women employment is on the increase and their strength has increased manifold in recent years.

In this era of globalisation, employees are recruited from different national and cultural backgrounds. The human resource policies and practices have to be reoriented to suit this type of assorted workforce.

(iii) Change in Employee’s Morale and Motivation: The changes in leadership, policies and practices may affect the morale and motivation of the employees. It can result in the declining productivity, production and profits.

(iv) Union Influence: Despite the implementation of policies of liberalisation by many governments, the influence of the union on many organisations in respect of recruitment, service conditions, wage rates etc. is still perceptible.

The management is desired to make suitable changes in response to demands of the union.

(v) Implementation of new Technology: The technological developments in an organisation result in change of job, production process, and also in the profile of the employee. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It results in substantial changes like adding of more computers, automation; and reengineering programmes in most of the organisations.

The fast growing technology of broadband and internet has its profound impact on the markets of number of organisations. The field of biotechnology has also created large numbers of products.

External Forces :

(i) Competition: The global competition has played vital role in modern-day organisations. It has resulted in the merge and acquisitions trends and they have been increasing year by year.

The organisations have to make suitable changes in response to the demands from the competition they face in the global market.

Organisations should acquire the capacity of developing new products rapidly and market them quickly.

These competitive challenges can be faced by short production runs, short product cycles by equally flexible and responsive systems.

(ii) Economic Fluctuations: The economic fluctuations in the security markets, interest rates, exchange rates etc., continue to impose drastic changes on organisation.

(iii) Social Trends: The changing social trends like increase in college attendance; delayed marriages by young couple; economic upliftment of women and backward communities etc. are to be considered by organisations. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

These types of changes in social trends results in fluctuations in the demand for products used by these set of groups.

(iv) Global Politics: Global politics lay great emphasis in modern-day organisations and its working, Global political activities like 9/11 incident, collapse of Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany,

the policies of W.T.O., U.S attack on Afghanistan and Iraq etc have made their strong impact on the business of different organisations, where there activities were directly related to such developments.

Resistance to change can be described as an attitude or behaviour that shows disinclination or reluctance to approve a particular change.

This resistance is to be overcome for successful change. There are occasions when resistance to change serves as a feedback to reconsider the proposed change.

As a result, resistance to change can also be used for the benefit of the organisation. The real meaning of constructive approach to resistance is to consider objections raised and make suitable amendments and educate the employees about the proposed change.

Resistance can be overt, implicit, immediate and differed.

When the resistance is overt and immediate the management can take inmediate remedial steps to deal with such resistance. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The implicit resistance may result in loss of loyalty, loss of motivation, increased mistakes, increased absenteeism etc.

When substantial amounts have already been invested in carrying out the change in due course of time, differed resistance create problem to the management.

The resistance to change may be introduced by the organisation, the individual or both.

MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment
MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. “Stress is psychological concept leading to both biological and behavioural disorders and is caused by a host of factors”. Discuss and explain the different stressors.

Ans. Stress is an adaptive response, to be reconciled by a person’s characteristics and the psychological procedure that is the result of any exterior action, situation or event that places special physical and psychological demands of a person.

Schuler defines stress as a self-motivated state in which a person is dealing with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she needs and for which the outcome is supposed to be both uncertain and important.

Stress has both psychological and physical aspect. It is familiar to both the genders. It is the outcome of the deviation of prospect from genuine state of affairs.

It is indicative of various tensions physically as-well-as mentally. Stress becomes visible with the symptoms. If the potential stress is ignored it leads to actual stress.

It occurs only when an individual feels intervention of the internal or external factors. Stress is connected to the attitude of the person.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Stress is linked with certain biological disorders such as heart attack, stroke, diabetic, blood pressure, neurological disorders etc.

Stress is caused when an individual has needs, desires, wishes and expectations and certain forces prevent. All these factors determines the fact that stress is both physiological as well psychological.

Organisations help in easing out various programmes to help in reducing the stress. The theoretical management of stress should be eminent from practical management.

The various individual techniques correlate to the personality of the individuals. There are certain techniques that demands individuals to sacrifice the self-concept and comfortable levels.

So, it becomes difficult to promote the individuals to adapt the stress reduction strategies. It has to be understood that it is not an impossible task.

To create a stress free environment, it requires a thorough investigation of the stressors, understanding, analysing the implications, appraising the costs and benefits and above all bring commitment to the programmes by changing the attitude.

Anxiety is transformed into stress and ultimately it leads to job suffer exhaustion. In fact for most of the time persons are accountable for stress.

Nevertheless, organisations also create stress on the persons. Stress is a condition of uneasiness experienc 4 by a person. It is the loss of emotional stability.

It is usually evident when the person experiences a biological disorder.
To handle the stress means to know the biological and body situation.

In order to examine the hereditary uniqueness habits like smoking and drinking, life-styles and body conditions help in understanding the physiological conditions.

By managing physiological relaxation one can overcome stress. Physical exercises might be immediate or practical. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Non-aggressive physical exercises like walking, jogging, swimming, riding, aerobics and playing games significantly increases heart capability, provide mental diversion from work pressures and increases heart competence to survive stressful situations.

The probability of heart attack, adverse blood pressure and diabetics reduce.

To relax the mind by doing meditation, hypnosis and biofeedback as they enable to reduce mental tensions.

Meditation is observed noiselessly sitting on the ground taking deep inhalation and chanting mantra. It helps to take the mind into deep relaxation.

It enables to relax the muscles and mind. It also brings important changes in heart rate, blood pressure, lung capacity and other biological organs of the body.

Transcendental meditation, Soul management, Atma yoga, Anthahakarana. It is one of the greatest tool to stress buster.

Q. 3. (a) Bureaucratic theory

Ans. Bureaucracy is a social device which is ideal during the industrial revolution in order to organise and direct the activities of a firm. It explains a system wherever the Government is run by officials, directly or indirectly. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Bureaucracy is defined as a system of organisation where roles, tasks and relationships among people and positions are visibly clear, cautiously approved and controlled in accordance with formal authority and with no deviations from rules and regulations laid down by the superiors.

The bureaucratic theory was developed by Max Weber. He has termed his formulation of organisation as an ideal type.

According to him, each organisation can be defined as a structure of activities which are directed towards the achievement of certain objectives and goals.

Every organisation builds up a system of specialisation and a set of systematic rules and procedures to make the most of efficiency and productivity.

Weber emphasized that the bureaucratic form is able to attain the highest degree of efficiency and is formally the most rational means of carrying out power over human beings in any organisation.

It is better than any other form in respect of accuracy, stability, discipline and reliability.

Weber has tried to identify various reasons and circumstances that have given assistance in the growth of bureaucracy. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Advancement in the modern organisation and corporation has led to the development and considerable spread of bureaucracy in organisations.

Bureaucracy is an essential feature irrespective of its inherent evils for the running of complex organisations.

Secondly, it is an important factor which is responsible for the dominance of bureaucracy as it plays a significant role in expanding technical knowledge and the development of modern technology.

Bureaucratic specialisation is essential to achieve a high-level of organisational efficiency. Thirdly, Weber has constantly emphasized the fact that the capitalist system has probably played a major role in the development of modern bureaucracy.

The proper implementation of a capitalist system necessitates a stable state and a well organised administration.

The characteristics of bureaucracy are:

(i) Division of Work and Specialization: Specialization which is on the basis of division of labour is a milestone of bureaucracy. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It is based on the specialised skills groups or individuals in order to perform effective division of labour, to provide adequate remuneration to the deserving candidates and have definite situations to act upon by the specialised group to handle the same.

(ii) Hierarchy: It means to have a clear cut distribution between the superiors and the subordinates.

The remuneration should also vary from level to level and in accordance with the responsibilities laid down. Increments and rewards should be made on the basis of seniority and merit of the employees.

(iii) Rules: Rules are made to implement the proper functioning of the organisation. Personal favouritism should not tak place while evaluating the work accomplished by the team or employees.

Deserving candidate should be rewarded suitably.

(iv)Rationality: It is the easier way of evaluating the results of the organisation because division of labour gives specialises. output and thus results in the high degree of efficiency and control in the organisational work. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(v) Impersonality: There is no place for irrational or personal emotions at the workplace. Bureaucracy means to conduct the work in the practical and result oriented manner.

It should have high degree of operational impersonality.

(vi) Rule Orientation: Employees are expected to follow the rules and regulations while accomplishing the work assigned to them.

(vii) Neutrality: Bureaucracy means a manager needs to be neutral and political in organising and administrating control over its subordinates.

Yes, Bureaucracy does improve the efficiency of an organisation as the entire functioning is based on the specialisation of skills and systematic division of labour which gives effective and efficient output.

There is proper hierarchy system maintained which helps in maintaining strict discipline among the superiors and the subordinates. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Rules and regulations are expected to be maintained in order to avoid any discrepancy in the work culture of the organisation.

Rationality in bureaucracy adds flavour to the efficiency of the organisation as it become easy to evaluate results.

The rewards and remuneration given to the employees are not on the basis of favouritism but on the output given by an employee.

It gives a lot of moral support to the deserving candidate and he is motivated to do the effective and efficient work for the organisation.

(b) Team effectiveness

Ans. There are some teams in an organisation that are very scecessful and work effectively than other teams. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It brings According to Steven and Mary, the team effectiveness is the extent to which the team accomplishes its goals and accomplishes the needs and objectives of its members and maintains its high standards over time.

The elements of team effectiveness are organisational and team management, team design and team processes.

(i) Organisational and Team Environment: Organisational and team environment relates to the elements like Reward System, Communication, Systems, Physical Space, Organisational Environment, Organisational Structure, and Organisational Leadership.

(ii) Team Design: It involves elements like task characteristics, team size, and team composition.

(iii) Team Processes: It includes elements like team development, team norms, team roles and team cohesiveness. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(c) Theory of Attribution

Ans. Attribution is a significant theory for understanding perception, because it is connected to judging the causes of others behaviour.

An inexact attribution may guide to inexact perception. Our perceptions of what is taking place in the surroundings depend very much on our attributions.

Attribution theory explains that when persons examines behaviour, they endeavour to establish whether it is caused due to internally or externally factors.

Internally caused behaviour is when persons are believed to be under the individual control of the person. Externally caused behaviour is seen while ensuing from outside causes over which the individual has no control.

Kelly’s Theory of Causal Attribution explains that in determining about others’ behaviour curtails mainly from internal or external causes, we spotlight on three kinds of information:

(i) Distinctiveness; (ii) Consensus; and (iii) Consistency.

(i) Distinctiveness: It is the level to which a person behaves in the similar way at various circumstances. If one acts the same way in new situations, distinctiveness is low but if one behaves in a different way, distinctiveness is high. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

If a particular behaviour is unusual, an observer is likely to give the behaviour an external attribution. If the action is not unusual, it will be perhaps judged as internal.

(ii) Consensus: It is the level to which new group behaves in the same way as the person we are judging. If others perform similar behaviour, consensus is measured, high; if they do not, consensus is considered low.

If consensus were high, it would expected to give external attribution and if consensus is low, it will tend to give internal attribution.

(iii) Consistency: It is inclination to react the same way from time-to-time. Consistency can be high or low. The more consistent the behaviour, the more the observer is prone to attribute it to internal causes and vice-versa.

While judging about the behaviour of new group, we have inclination to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors, in case of less than optimum performance by the others.

This is called the fundamental attribution error. There is also a propensity for persons to attribute their own success towards internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the responsibility for failure on external factors such as luck.

This is called the self-serving partiality.

(d) Models of men

Ans. (1) Rational Economic Man Model: Classical theories have been able to formulate the balance of the economic man model. It is the oldest model. It is the foundation on the principle of maximisation of self-interest.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

According to this model, an individual makes steadiness between expenses and settlement of his proceedings. He is more worried with computation of value for his attempt in terms of financial rewards and maximising it.

Economic rewards standardize the behaviour. Rational Economie model assume that man is forced by economic rewards and his behaviour can be restricted by difference in economic rewards.

Thus, it is pertinent to design the appropriate strategies of motivation and control. It is helpful in formating reward systems.

It suggests that human energy is removed by providing more monetary rewards. As increased economic rewards persuade production, there is no conflict between management and workers.

This leads to creation of good industrial relations system. This model measured as a practical depiction of human behaviour. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(ii) Organizational Man Model: William Whyte has given and explained the concept of organisational man.

An organizational man gives up for the sake of organisations interest. A person possessing an idea that social contentment is influential tool to accomplish objectives instead of competitive struggle falls under this category.

Organisational man model propose that individual behaviour is leaning towards loyalty, belongingness, conformity and sacrifice of individual interest in th realisation of organisational goals.

Consequently, individual’s attitude is developed towards determination of conflicts. Organisational man model is useful m. formation of an organisational structure to provide satisfaction to individuals.

Therefore, organisational strategies take care of people’s interest. Leadership is extremely democratic.

Communication is open and controls are based on self-control rather than fact controls. Motivation is positive and assurance is guaranteed.

MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment
MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 4. (a) Classical conditioning and Operant conditioning

Ans. Operant Conditioning theory of learning was given by Skinner. The operant theory supports and believes that a learner’s response is instrumental in producing a reinforcing stimulus. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It signifies that the response that produces the reinforcement becomes stronger and the response that does not produce reinforcement becomes weaker.

Skinner explained the theory of operant conditioning with the help of simple box where liver was fitted at its ends.

The liver is like a switch that operates as food-delivering mechanism. A hungry rat was placed inside at the box. It was observed earlier that the rat is sitting idle in the box.

Gradually, he starts exploring for food inside the box. While searching for food inside the box, he presses the liver (food-delivering mechanism).

A piece of food was released at the press of a liver. The rat repeated the same act of pressing liver and food started coming in the box. He eats the food every time it came in the box.

In this case, the delivery of food constitutes the reinforcement and reinforcement is dependent upon the operation of the lever.

The box was arranged in such a way that every response i.e., pressing of liver, may not release the food. There were occasions when some response may release the food and some may not release. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It was termed as partial reinforcement. The arrangements can be made in such a way tha pressing of lever may result in a shock to the rat.

It was termed as negative reinforcement. The response that fulfils the desir 7 need of the rat is termed as positive reinforcement.

At the same time, the response may also lead to escape from the painfuu situation that is known as negative reinforcement.

The operant theory of learning focuses on the fact that reinforcement follows a response. It means that response becomes instrumental in achieving the appropriate goal.

It also suggested that the manipulation of response and reinforcement may increase or reduce or can lead to the extinction of the behaviour.

Classical Conditioning:

Classical conditioning is an important learning theory where the learning that takes place through the connection between unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus.

These two stimuli are paired to bring out the desired response. The mental stimulus that does not elicit the response is conditioned stimuli.

The response that is elicited by the conditioned stimulus can be termed as conditioned response. The conditioned stimulus also starts eliciting the response when it is paired with unconditioned stimulus. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

In this process, a stimulus-response bond is developed between a conditioned stimulus and a conditioned response.

It is done through the repeated linking of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.

The classical conditioning theory has been criticised on the ground that it considers the learner to be a passive element.

According to this theory, the learner notices the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus and forms an association.

It also explains the simple reflexive behaviour. In most of the organisations, people are actively involved in executing their behaviour and are not passive.

It was observed that behaviours were not elicited but are emitted. These behaviours are under workers control. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(b) Formal and Informal Work Groups

Ans. Formal work groups are the groups that are formed by the organisations. These groups are formed and aim at achieving specific organisational goals.

The goals of formal work group are determined as per the needs of the organisation. The formal groups can be of the different like purchase committee, quality control group, disciplinary action committee etc.

These types of formal groups are established to accomplish certain organisational goals like increasing product quality, safety, discipline, etc., in an organisation.

Informal work groups are the groups that emerge or materialize naturally in organisations. It can be called as the shadow the formal organisation.

They are called informal groups because organisational perceive that it is difficult for their organisations to formally fulfil some of the bare needs.

It forces to them to feel that membership in a group can help them to achieve their goals and meet their needs. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

For instance, a group of five to six organisational members forms a group to go out for holidays, picnic, movie etc to satisfy their common need for affiliation and friendship.

There are instances of forming informal groups when some employees share some ideological similarity like caste, creed, religion etc.

(c) Power and Authority

Ans. In every organisation, the concept of power and politics plays significant part. Every person from top to bottom should known the importance of power and politics in an organisation.

It helps them to manage and get managed properly. Power is one common concept that exists in all social situations and prevails significantly in all types of organisations.

Power can be defined as the ability of one person or group to cause another person to do that they might not have done on their own.

It resides in individuals and is the ability to influence others successfully in the desired fashion. In organisations, manager’s ability to get work done depends upon the power possessed by him or her. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The knowledge of power plays vital role in smooth functioning of the organisation as the peoples can manage their activities in proper ways.

Power and authority are two different terms and have their own meaning and significance. If power refers to influencing others successfully then authority means right to command.

Authority is major source of power and is positional, concerned with position and legitimate. Authority moves downwards only but power moves in all directions depending upon the usage of power being used by the person in the organisation.

Power is termed positive” when it is used to help the organization. In such cases, individuals try to maintain equilibrium of their personal interest and organisational goals.

The term “power” has no “negative” association in organisational context. It turns negative when the powers possessed by individuals are used for their personal advantage.

(d) Organisation Culture and Organisation Climate

Ans. Organisational culture is a system that determines the way members of organisation interact with each other and outsiders. It provides system of shared meaning among members. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Organisational culture must be created and sustained in a way that it can develop congenial environment in the organisation.

Organisation culture has basic elements of culture and they ? artifacts, espoused values and basic assumptions. Organisational culture is expressed in terms of norms, values, attitudes a. beliefs shared by organisational members.

Organisational culture has its major functions and they include sense of identity, enhancement of commitment and reinforcement of behaviour.

Organisational climate is a measure by which members perceive the organization. It consists of set of characteristics and factors that are perceived by the employees about their organization.

It is like an indicator that determines the employee’s attitude towards organisational life. It serves as a major force in influencing employee’s behaviour towards their organisation.

Organisational climate works on some main factors and they are job description, organisational structure, performance and evaluation standards, leadership style, challenges and innovations, motivation, communication, goals, control process.

A healthy and effective organisational climate is expected to have characteristics that work in effectiveness of organisations. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

These characteristics primarily includes the integration of organisational goals, flexible structure with nature of authority appropriate leadership, mutual trust, recognition of individual differences and attributes, attention to job design and quality of a working life, equitable systent of rewards, etc

Q. 5. (a) Redesigning jobs based on feedback is also a technique of job redesign.

Ans. Some of the technique of Resigning job are: Job enrichment, Job enlargement, Job Rotation and Job Reengineering. Job Reenginering is pased on the feed back for designing.

There are several factors which are considered in the process of job reengineering. They are information system, government policies, organizational policies technology, competition, appraisal of costs and benefits and prospective challenges.

Job reengineering is a significant method of job redesign in the modern organisations.

It has a number of probable benef they are improved customer service, increased growth opportunities, improved decision-making, and learning skills, easy and comfortable attainment of tasks, effective inter personal interaction, inter-personal communication and improved inter-personal relationships.

Lastly, it should be eminent that alteration brought by globalization, liberalization and privatization have forced organization to go for job re-engineering.

This is for the reason that successful re-designing of managerial practices and organization structure adds importance to the product and service of the organization.

Furthermore, re engineering give out with conventional methods of work procedure.

(b) Informal channel is the result of the operation of social forces at work place.

Ans. The term “grapevine” is used for the informal channel of communication. It is the result of the operation of social forces at work place.

Any rumour in the working place can take the shape of a grapevine. If formal communication exists to meet the serviceable needs of the organisation then the informal communication is the process by which people carry on social, nonprogrammed activities within the formal boundaries of the system.

The informal channel of communication or “grapevine” exists outside the official network, though continuously interacting with it. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

This informal channel is generally multiple in natures. It means that same person is having social relationships with various number of people while working in the same organisation.

It also satisfies the communication needs of the various persons in the organisation. It works well specifically for those persons who mix up with others freely and rely upon informal relationships.

There are four types of informal communication channels that have been identified and they are: Single strand, gossip, probability and cluster.

(i) The individual in the single strand network communicates with other individuals through intervening persons.

(ii) The individual in the gossip network communicates non-selectively.

(iii) The individual in the probability network communicates randomly with other individuals according to the law a probability.

(iv) The individual in the cluster network communicates with only those individuals whom he trusts. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Cluster is the most popular among these informal networks. The word “rumour” has been used as synonym for the entire informal communication but there is difference between the two of them.

Rumour can be termed as “grapevine information that is communicated without secure standard of evidence.

It is the injudicious and untrue part of the grapevine and in most cases is considered as incorrect information.

Rumour it is presumed to be the most undesirable feature of grapevine. It is a product of interest and ambiguity in a situation.

The rumour tens to change from person to person as perception of interest and ambiguity differs among individuals.

Each person subtracts or adds as per his interest to the original message through the process of elaboration and assimilation

On the other hand, informal communication has certain basic limitations as it is less orderly and less static. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

In many times, messages communicated through the informal channel are so erratic and inconsistent that any action based on these may lead to a complicated situation in the organisation

In such case, the most important factor is the irresponsibility of the persons communicating through the informal channel.

It is difficult to assign responsibility for false information or morale lowering rumours as it is difficult to locate and identify the origin and direction of flow of information.

The informal communication problems can multiply as each person conveying the message may add, subtract or change the original message according to his motive.

There may be probability that by the time a communication completes a complex journey, it may get completely distorted.

(c) Organisation Development is the modern approach to management of change for human resources development.

Ans. Organisational development interventions are the set of structured activities where selected organisational units gets engaged with task or set of tasks that are either directly or indirectly related to the development of the organisation.

These interventions can be clubbed into twelve groups and they are diagnostic, team-building, inter-group activities, survey feedback methods, education and training programmes, techno-structural activities, process consultation, the management grid, meditation and negotiation activities, coaching and counselling and planning and goal setting activities.

(i) Survey Feedback: It recounts to an approach survey through well planned assessment or interviews. It covers 1 9 feedback to the customer organisation. It has a demand and significance in a genuine situation. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The attitude survey can have. purpose to measure the process; for instance, communication, decision-making and leadership at different levels.

The data produced under this system is perceptual and attitudinal. A review of the product is prepared in a group discussion.

Generally,feedback of results is specific to the group which prepares the data. As a result strategies are planned to resolve the organisational problems.

Consequently, the process of survey feedback includes: Collection of data, feedback, development of action plan and follow-up. Therefore, to ensure authentic results the survey should be applicable and dependable.

(ii) Management Grid: The method urbanised by Robert Blake and Jane S. Mouton is a step to move toward. This grid represents a rational support of managing people.

Growth of management skills from beginning to end grid programme involves wide range of included and instrumented activities are the ways having investigational and planned conditions. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The members are secondary to be pleased about the advances to integrate people and their invention.

(iii) Team Building: Team building is an attempt to assist the work group to identify, diagnose and solve its own problems. Actually groups develop their own norms of behaviour which pressurize the persons and group behaviour.

Organisation is a system to interconnect with groups. Organisational Development considers that work groups are the teams which are spinning around to introduce changes in the organisation.

Team building actions are taken to develop a range of groups in an organisation like permanent work teams, task forces, committees etc.

Team building actions focus on finding, task achievement, team relationships and organisational process.

The component groups in team building activity are: The external advisors, the group leader and members of the group. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

In team building movement, associates meet and talk about troubles connecting to their course work It obtain sincere and courageous argument.

In the team building movements, the associate adds the sequence relating to their personal observation of issues, problems and task relationship.

(iv) Sensitivity Training: It is known as training being carried out by creating an experimental laboratory circumstances where workers will be brought together to do something together in a formless environment.

Sensitivity training helps in understanding people well again, to develop appreciation for others, to develop specific behavioural skills and to gain effective approach into the group development. It also aims at falling interpersonal confrontation.

The main aim of sensitivity training is to split all the methods through the bond of silence and ease the expression of associates to emphasize on the process of debate to a certain extent than to fulfil the instructions. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

It is a method which proposes to have brain washing of persons. This training is accepted by formless groups without any agenda, leader and pre-determined goals.

The group is given independence to expand their plans, contacts and on going process for interaction. Sensitivity training gives a technique to enable special knowledge and development.

(v) Four system management: Rensis Likert’s Four System Management has given four stages to represent the organisational values to include the essential collection of job bearing and people way.

According to Likert, management philosophy can be classified into four systems they are:
(a) Exploitative-Autocratic System

(b) Benevolent Autocratic System

(c) Consultative Democratic System, and

(d) Participative Democratic System.

This theory explains that three basic concepts of system has four management which will help making the organization effective they are:

(a) To use the principle of supportive relationship in the organisation;

(b) To use the group decision-making and group methods of supervision in the organisation, and MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(c) To emphasize more on the high performance goals.

(vi) Management by Objectives (MBO): It is another important tool of Organisational Development and involves the process of educating the concerned persons about M.B.0, agreement upon clear cut quantifiable objectives, evaluation of objectives and feedback for deviation and coercive action.

M.B.O is wide-ranging overall managerial philosophies that focuses upon joint goal setting and synthesize the individual’s goal to organisational goals.

The entire organiszation will have the feeling of unity as all levels of management of an organization are involved in goal setting.

The programmes relating to M.B.O can be effective if they are properly implemented and needs the support of the top management.

(vii) Process Consultation: It can be described as the set of activities on the part of the consultant that helps the client to perceive, understand and act upon the process events that take place in the client’s environment. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Process consultation concentrates on the analysis of process of activities like communication, leadership etc.

It also aims to attempts to develop initial contacts, define relationships, selecting the method of work, collection of data and diagnosis.

Process consultation is a method of intervening in an on-going system and is designed to change attitudes, values, interpersonal skills, group norms, cohesiveness and other process variables.

(viii) Contingency approach: This approach was given by P. Lawrence and J. Lorseh. It is based on the principle that an organisation is a multi-faceted social system.

Its behaviour must be included into a united effort to enable it to cope with the environment. Theoretically, individuals in different departments have different orientations related to the tasks they perform.

Genuinely, the organisational units in their regular operations they are differentiated along with their direction.

It appears that with the task discrimination co-ordination is not possible. According to contingency approach separation and combination are possible for total organisation’s effectiveness with the help of integrative devices.

To sum up, high organisational presentation is well-suited with the existence of both separation as well as combination which are required as per the stress of their immedia environment. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The contingency approach can be useful as an Organisational Development intervention in industrial organisation in the form of inter-group argument meetings of concerned departmental persons.

(ix) Role Analysis: In the presentation of their individual roles persons manifest certain behaviour which may upset team efficiency.

At times it is established that the persons are unambiguous about their own expected behaviour from the view point of other members of the team.

In these circumstances the role analysis procedure is used to clarify the role expectations and obligations of the members of a team.

The ensuing role requirements and the expected behavioural mechanism of each other help the member enjoy an equally acceptable behavioun in the team work.

In this technique, the individual role players analyze the focal role of the individuals.

(x) Inter-group Activity: Meager interpersonal relations are not unusual features in organisational performance. Under these circumstances, inter-group motion spotlights to improve the relationships between the groups.

lt helps in the interaction and communication between the work groups which eventually avoids dysfunctional inimical competitiveness among them.

Inter-group team building entails the procedure of discrimination and combination

(xi) Organisation Mirroring: It monitors the activities of group of members and gets the feedback from the members of several other groups about how is it being professed.

Organisational mirroring is used when there is complexity with other department in the organisation. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

A meeting is called and response is sought from other department. During the meeting the correct picture emerges which will determine many mistakes committed between two groups.

(xii) Third Party Peace Making Intervention: This intervention is the foundation of the thoughts to understand the conflicts and their resolutions at the interpersonal level.

It helps to confront the method of resolving the conflicts takes place between two parties who are aware of the existence of the conflicts and want to confront the issues.

The advisor as a third party must be accomplished in the art of identifies the conflicts and use confrontation as technique.

This process focusses on four basic elements of conflicts they are:

(a) The conflict issues,

(b) The contributory circumstances,

(c) The conflict related behaviour, and

(d) The results of the conflict.

xiii) Job Design/Redesign: It is task-technology connected approach and aims at making changes in the work procedure of the groups of employees.

Job design occupies a well planned reorganisation of a job. On the whole it focusses to develop worker’s motivation, commitment, performance, job satisfaction etc., through job enrichment, job engineering, job rotation, job enlargement and socio-technical system.

(xiv) Quality circles: Quality circles are semi-autonomous work groups with six persons who volunteer to talk about and solve feature related problems during working hours.

It has impact on working conditions, employee’s commitment and selfdevelopment of employees.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(XV) Counselling: Counselling is the method to extend the help by a manager to his assistant to enhance his prospective.

It plans at hypothesizing and empathize with the workers. It assists to bring about self-consciousness in the worker about his capability. Single or group of interventions may be used to resolve the issues.

(d) The components of organisational effectiveness are managerial policies and practices, employee characteristics, organisational characteristics and the environmental characteristics.

Ans. Organisational effectiveness means to study the organisational structure in order to understand the basic working.

It helps in evaluating and analyzing the performance of the organisation. There are various components of organisational effectiveness they are:

(i) Managerial Policies and Practices

(ii) Environmental Characteristics

(iii) Employee Characteristics

(iv) Organisational Characteristics

(i) Managerial Policies and Practices: It helps to combine the organisation as a whole in order to maintain a balance between the various interest groups in an organisation and to accommodate them according to the environment of the organisation.

There are various policies and procedures which need to be formulated and implemented at various occasions of the organisation they are:

(a) Strategy: It refers to the plan in order to interact between the competitive companies to achieve the goals effectively.

These strategies are selected on the basis of environmental needs, and then are redesigned by the top management to achieve the desired results.

(b) Leadership: It enables to influence the employees towards the effective goal achievements. Leaders enable to identify the organisational goals and also try to initiate the steps towards them.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(c) Decision-Making Managerial decisions play a very important role in the success of an organisation which is taken out of the various alternatives available at a given point of time.

(d) Rewards: Rewards are given to the employees to recognize their efforts towards effective achievement of the organisational goals.

It is done to encourage the employees and boost their morale which enables them to improve the quality and quantity of work.

(e) Communication: It contributes a lot in the event of organisational change as it helps in the proper communication and linkage between the members of the organisation.

(ii) Environmental Characteristics: The external environment plays a very important role in achieving organisational effectiveness.

It has various characteristics of environment which helps in understanding the status of the organisation they are:

(a) Predictability: It refers to the state of certainty or uncertainty in an organisation towards supply of human resource human, raw material etc. Predictability is an element of external environment.

(b) Complexity: It refers to the heterogeneity and the range of activities that proves relevant to the operations in L… organisations.

(c) Hostility: It is an environment in which the foundation of the organisation is threatened. It refers to the view by which people view the organisation.

(iii) Employee Characteristics: It is an important characteristic as the source of human resources can make or break an organisation. MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

Employee characteristics reflects the success and failure of the organisation and its major characteristics are goals, skills, motives, attitudes and values.

(a) Goals: It refers to the direction in which an organisation is inclined to go. They can be termed to as intentions that an individual of an organisation would like to accomplish during his course of working.

It provides directional nature to behaviour of the people and guides their thoughts and actions.

(b) Skills: It refers to ability to engage in a set of behaviour that is related to one another. It is the ability that leads to a desired performance in a specified area and it can be technical, administrative, managerial, behavioural etc.

(c) Motives: It is an inner state of mind that helps a person to be energized, motivated and directed towards the accomplishment of a pre-defined goal.

It is observed that motivated employees have high zeal and enthusiasm to perform better to achieve their respective organisational goals.

(d)Attitudes: They are evaluative statements (favourable or unfavourable) concerning objects, events or people and influences job behaviour as well effectiveness of the organisation.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

(e) Values: It refers to as specific code of conduct or basic sincerity possessed by an individual in the organisation highly influential in individual attitude and behaviour.

It influences the motivation of an individual as well as his behaviour in the organisation.

(iv) Organisational Characteristics: It refers to the general conditions that exist within an organisation. The various characteristics that influence the effectiveness of organisations are structure, technology and size.

(a) Structure: It defines the formal division, grouping and coordination of the job tasks within the organisation. There are six important elements in an organisational structure that are needed for organisational effectiveness.

These six elements are work specialization, departmentation, chain of command, span of control, centralization, decentralization and formalization.

(b) Technology: It refers to the ways and means by which an organisation transfers its inputs into outputs. The organisational efficiency is largely dependent on the choice of technology and its use.

(c) Size: It refers to the number of people in an organisation In broader senses it can also be referred to as the physical capacity of the organisation,

the personnel available to the organisation, the organisational inputs or outputs and the optional resources available to an organisation.MCO 1 Free Solved Assignment

The effectiveness and efficiency of an organisation is dependent on the size of the organisation.


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