IGNOU BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BSOS 185

SOCIETY THROUGH THE VISUAL

BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 1 What is ethnography and what kind of visuals can be considered ethnographic?

ANS: Ethnography (from Greek čovos ethnos “folk, people, nation” and ypáow grapho “I write”) is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures.

Ethnography explores cultural phenomena from the point of view of the subject of the study.

Ethnography is also a type of social research involving the examination of the behaviour of the participants in a given social situation and understanding the group members’ own interpretation of such behaviour.

Ethnographic research is a qualitative research approach that involves observing variables in their natural environments or habitats in order to arrive at objective research outcomes.

As the name suggests, ethnographic research has its roots in ethnography which is the in-depth study of people, cultures, habits and mutual differences.

This type of systematic investigation interacts continuously with the variables and depends, almost entirely, on the data gathered from the observation of the research variables.

Ethnographic research is sometimes referred to as a thick description because of its in-depth observation and description of the subjects. In recent times, ethnography has been adopted to the internet in the form of ethnography. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

This means that researchers can now study how online communities interact in order to identify social communication patterns.

Discussions of photography in the emergent traditions of visual socilology and anthropology have been concerned with two principal areas: the use of still photographs as a methodological tool in social research, and the use of photographs as a means of presenting social research.

Using pictures in social research requires a theory of how pictures get used by both picture makers and viewers.

In order to use photographs either as data or as data generators we need to have some notion of how viewers treat and understand photographic images, whether those viewers are informants or researchers.

Ruby (1973, 1976) has drawn attention to the pitfalls awaiting people who take up photography as a research tool with too little awareness of the social practices surrounding photographic production and use.

The following discussion offers a theoretical foundation for using photography in qualitative research. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

In his study of family photography, Musello (1980) found that his sample of middle-class –Euro-American” families approached photographs as -mechanical recordings of real events,” not as symbolic articulations.

The viewers he studied paid little conscious attention to the role or intentions of the photographer in the process of articulation.

The use of family snapshot photographs within a ‘home-mode” context placed a specific behavioral frame around the act of viewing which excluded consideration of the formal characteristics of the image.

Viewed as works of art, photographs are thought to embody the personal concerns of the photographer-artist.

These concerns can range from the exploration of formal aesthetic issues to the expression of the photographer’s inner emotions.

Viewed as records, photographs are thought to reproduce the reality in front of the camera’s lens, yielding an unmediated and unbiased visual report.

Approached from either of these perspectives, photographic meaning is conceptualized as being contained within the image itself. The photograph becomes a receptacle from which individual viewers withdraw meaning. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

However, these two perspectives fail to consider the role of the spectator in the process of constructing photographic meaning.

The viewing process is a dynamic interaction between the photographer, the spectator, and the image; meaning is actively constructed, not passively received.

Barthes (1964) characterizes photographs as “polysemic,” capable of generating multiple meanings in the viewingprocess. Byers describes photography similarly:

… the photograph is not a “message” in the usual sense. It is, instead, the raw material for an infinite number of messages which each viewer can construct for himself.

Edward T. Hall has suggested that the photograph conveys little new information but, instead, triggers meaning that is already in the viewer (1966, pp. 31).

The tendency to treat photographs as objective evidence ignores the convention-bound processes of both image making and interpretation.

In order to benefit social research, the use of photographic methods must be grounded in the interactive context in which photographs acquire meaning.

BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment
BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Discuss the role of subjectivity in visual research.

Ans: Qualitative research is an essentially interpretative endeavour. This is why researchers working in this tradition are often uneasy about including numeric data in their studies or in using computer software to analyse material.BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

This queasiness about numbers is understandable, but there is no reason why qualitative research cannot work with figures, with records of observations, or with statistics as long as it is able to keep in mind that such data does not speak directly to us about facts ‘out there that are separate from us.

Every bit of ‘data’ in research is itself a representation of the world suffused with interpretative work, and when we read the data we produce another layer of interpretations, another web of preconceptions and theoretical assumptions.

Numeric data can help us to structure a mass of otherwise incomprehensible and overwhelming material, and statistical techniques can be very useful here, but our interpretations are also part of the picture, and so these interpretations need to be attended to.

The subjective plays an important role in the social sciences as it is often ultimately what the researcher seeks to uncover and understand how the social world is experienced, understood, and produced.

Visual research is a qualitative research methodology that relies on the use of artistic mediums to “produce and represent knowledge.”

These artistic mediums include, but are not limited to: film, photography, drawings, paintings, and sculptures. The artistic mediums provide a rich source of information that has the ability of capturing reality. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

They also reveal information about what the medium captures, but the artist or the creator behind the medium.

Using photography as an example, the photographs taken illustrate reality and give information about the photographer through the angle, focus of the image, and the moment in which the photograph was taken.

subjectivity in a research context, the author reminds readers of possible procedures as suggested in the literature.

Particular attention is given to the idea of peer debriefing. Inspired by psychoanalysis, the author expands on the concept of discussant or debriefer and suggests that by doing so, subjectivity can be better understood.

Qualitative methodology recognizes that the subjectivity of the researcher is intimately involved in scientific research.

Subjectivity guides everything from the choice of topic that one studies, to formulating hypotheses, to selecting methodologies, and interpreting data.

In qualitative methodology, the researcher is encouraged to reflect on the values and objectives he brings to his research and how these affect the research project.

Other researchers are also encouraged to reflect on the values that any particular investigator utilizes.

In subjectivism,all viewpoints are simply another way of approaching a thing. But none of them delivers any information about the thing itself.

Q 3. Write a note on the pioneers of ethnographic film.

Ans: An ethnographic film is a non-fiction film, often similar to a documentary film, historically shot by Western filmmakers and dealing with non-Western people, and sometimes associated with anthropology. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Definitions of the term are not definitive. Some academics claim it is more documentary, less anthropology, while others think it rests somewhere between the fields of anthropology and documentary films.

Since the first conference on ethnographic film was held at the Musée de l’Homme 30 years ago, the term has served a largely emblematic function, giving a semblance of unity to extremely diverse efforts in the cinema and social sciences.”

The genre has its origins in the colonial context. Ethnographic Film, which combines documentary filming and anthropological research, originated in the late 19 th century. Early on, anthropologists used film to record cultures.

Documentary filmmakers in the early 20th century developed different strategies, with technical developments aiding further advances.

In the 1950s to 1970s, intense debates among anthropologists, filmmakers and artists, many of whom met regularly at conferences and festivals, took place on the methodology of ethnographic filmmaking.

Their discussions were handed on by word of mouth, but rarely recorded or published. In 2001, the pioneers of ethnographic film met in Göttingen and put together their recollections of the genre’s Origins, thus giving an unusual insight into the development of ethnographic film. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Prospector, explorer, and eventual filmmaker Robert J. Flaherty is considered to be the forefather of ethnographic film. He is most famous for his 1922 film Nanook of the North.

Flaherty’s attempts to realistically portray Inuit people on film were considered valuable for exploring a little-known way of life. Flaherty was not trained in anthropology, but he did have a good relationship with his subjects.

The contribution of Felix-Louis Regnault may have started the movement. He was filming a Wolof woman making pottery without the aid of a wheel at the Exposition Ethnographique de l’Afrique Occidentale. He published his findings in 1895.

His later films followed the same subject, described to capture the “cross cultural study of movement.” He later proposed the creation of an archive of anthropological research footage.

The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits, initiated by Alfred Cort Haddon in 1898, covered all aspects of Torres Straits life.

Haddon wrote to his friend Baldwin Spencer recommending he use film for recording evidence. Spencer then recorded the Australian Aborigines, a project that consisted of 7,000 feet of film, later housed in the National Museum at Victoria.

In the 1930s, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead discovered that using film was an essential component of documenting complex rituals in Bali and New Guinea.

John Marshall made what is likely the most-viewed ethnographic film in American colleges, The Hunters, based on the Ju/’hoansi of the Kalahari (the !Kung-San) that spans from 1951 to 2000. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

His ethnographic film N!ai, the Story of a !Kung Woman is not only ethnography, but also a biography of the central character, Nlai, incorporating footage from her childhood through adulthood.

Marshall ended his career with a five-part series, A Kalahari Family (2004), that critically examined his fifty-year involvement with the Ju/’hoansi. Napoleon Chagnon and Tim Asch’s two famous films,

The Ax Fight and The Feast (both filmed in the 1960s), are intimately documented ethnographic accounts of an Amazonian rainforest people, the Yanomamo.

The genre flourished in France in the fifties due to the role of ethnographers such as Marcel Griaule, Germaine Dieterlen, and Jean Rouch.

Light 16 mm cameras synchronized with light tape-recorders would revolutionise the methods of both cinema and anthropology.

Rouch, who had developed the concept in theory and practice, went against the dogma that in research the camera person must stay out of the event or distance him/herself as an observer. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

He decided to make the camera interfere as an actor, developing and popularizing Cinéma vérité. This was earlier deemed the “observer effect” by Gregory Bateson, who was perhaps unaware of the dogma Rouch was attempting to violate.

Bateson, as one of the earliest to write about using cameras in the studies of humans, was not only aware of the observer effect,but both he and his partner, Margaret Mead, wrote about many ways of dealing theoretically and practically with that effect.

BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment
BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Q 4. Bring out the relationship between self and photography.

Ans:Research Photography has a long and varied history in ethnography. Supported by different methodological paradigms, a camera has been an almost mandatory element of the ‘tool kit’ for research for several generations of ethnographers.

During the colonial period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, photography, seen as an objective recording Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable images by recording light,

either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

It is employed in many fields of science, manufacturing, and business, as well as its more direct uses for art, film and video production, recreational purposes, hobby, and mass communication.

The best way to direct neople is to show them what you want and if you can do it for a self portrait, you can show your subject how to pose for you.

Another benefit is you can move your lights, angle you camera, and just do plain crazy things a subject such as friends, family or a client might not have the patience for (unless you pay them well).

The major obstacle confronting selfesteem research has been the almost exclusive reliance on “paper and pencil” measures by the vast majority of researchers (McGuire, 1984).

Although these measures are valuable, there is a problem when researchers rely exclusively on such techniques.

As seen in Case Study #1, auto-photography can be used in conjunction with paper and pencil tests to build greater understanding. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

In most paper and pencil tests (normally in the classroom or laboratory), subjects are asked to rate how they feel about particular statements generated by researchers, for reasons that might or might not be tied to how individuals construct their sense of self.

The use of these limited measures is particularly problematic for minorities, who may face culturally biased instruments (Spencer & Markstrom-Adams, 1990).

Q 5 Examine the relationship between photography and modernity

Ans: Photography, like Pop painting, reassures viewers that art is not hard; photography seems to be more about its subjects than about art. Photography, however, has developed all the anxieties and self-consciousness of a classic Modernist art.

Photography, however, has developed all the anxieties and self-consciousness of a classic Modernist art.

Many professionals privately have begun to worry that the promotion of photography as an activity subversive of the traditional pretensions of art has gone so far that the public will forget that photography is a distinctive and exalted activity, in short, an art.

Ironically, now that photography is securely established as a fine art, many photographers find it pretentious or irrelevant to label it as such.

Serious photographers variously claim to be finding, recording, impartially observing, witnessing events, exploring themselves, anything but making works of art.

In the nineteenth century, photography’s association with the real world placed it in an ambivalent relation to art; late in the twentieth century, an ambivalent relation exists because of the Modernist heritage in art. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

That important photographers are no longer willing to debate whether photography is or is not a fine art, except to proclaim that their own work is not involved with art,

shows the extent to which they simply take for granted the concept of art imposed by the triumph of Modernism: the better the art, the more subversive it is of the traditional aims of art.

Photographers’ disclaimers of any interest in making art tell us more about the harried status of the contemporary notion of art than about whether photography is or is not art.

For example, those photographers who suppose that, by taking pictures, they are getting away from the pretensions of art as exemplified by painting remind us of those Abstract Expressionist painters who imagined they were getting away from the intellectual austerity of classical Modernist painting by concentrating on the physical act of painting.

Much of photography’s prestige today derives from the convergence of its aims with those of recent art, particularly with the dismissal of abstract art implicit in the phenomenon of Pop painting during the 1960’s.

Appreciating photographs is a relief to sensibilities tired of the mental exertions demanded by abstract art. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Classical Modernist painting, that is, abstract art as developed in different ways by Picasso, Kandinsky, and Matisse presupposes highly developed skills of looking and a familiarity with other paintings and the history of art.

Q 6. Daguerre type photography

Ans: Daguerreotype, first successful form of photography, named for LouisJacques-Mandé Daguerre of France, who invented the technique in collaboration with Nicéphore Niépce in the 1830s.

Daguerre and Niépce found that if a copper plate coated with silver iodide was exposed to light in a camera ,

then fumed with mercury vapour and fixed (made permanent) by a solution of common salt, a permanent image would be formed. Equipment for making daguerreotypes

The video on a complete daguerreotypist set shows an original daguerreotype camera with a lens manufactured by the Parisian optical firm Lerebours et Secretan around 1850.

This equipment belongs to the collection of the Physics Cabinet of the museum of the Fondazione Scienza e Tecnica in Firenze. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

It is accompanied by a typical daguerreotype kit including a tripod, a box for treatment with mercury vapor, boxes for fuming with iodine and bromine, a soft buckskin pad for buffing the plates and a box of unexposed silvered copper plates ready for use.

Q 7. Jean Rouch

Ans: Jean Rouch was a French filmmaker and anthropologist. He is considered one of the founders of cinéma vérité in France.

Rouch’s practice as a filmmaker, for over 60 years in Africa, was characterized by the idea of shared anthropology.

Influenced by his discovery of surrealism in his early twenties, many of his films blur the line between fiction and documentary, creating a new style: ethnofiction.

The French New Wave filmmakers hailed Rouch as one of their own. Commenting on Rouch’s work as someone “in charge of research for the Musée de l’Homme” in Paris, Godard said, “Is there a better definition for a filmmaker?”.

Q 8. Reflexivity

Ans: In epistemology, and more specifically, the sociology of knowledge, reflexivity refers to circular relationships between cause and effect, especially as embedded in human belief structures. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

A reflexive relationship is bidirectional with both the cause and the effect affecting one another in a relationship in which neither can be assigned as causes or effects.

Reflexivity is a means of doing just that. However, reflexivity also gives rise to several new dilemmas. Potential Pitfalls of Reflexivity.

The reflexive process is a great tool that can help you validate qualitative research. With that said, it is possible to place an overemphasis on reflexivity.

Q 9. Visual anthropology

Ans: Visual anthropology is a subfield of social anthropology that is concerned, in part, with the study and production of ethnographic photography, film and, since the mid-1990s, new media. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

More recently it has been used by historians of science and visual culture.

Although sometimes wrongly conflated with ethnographic film, Visual Anthropology encompasses much more, including the anthropological study of all visual representations such as dance and other kinds of performance, museums and archiving, all visual arts, and the production and reception of mass media.

Histories and analyses of representations from many cultures are part of Visual Anthropology: research topics include sandpaintings, tattoos, sculptures and reliefs, cave paintings, scrimshaw, jewelry, hieroglyphics, paintings and photographs.

Also within the province of the subfield are studies of human vision, properties of media, the relationship of visual form and function, and applied, collaborative uses of visual representations.

Multimodal anthropology describes the latest turn in the subfield, which considers how emerging technologies like immersive virtual reality, augmented reality, mobile apps, social networking, gaming along with film, photography and art is reshaping anthropological research, practice and teaching. BSOS 185 Free Solved Assignment

Q 10. Haptic cinema

Ans: Haptic films often have close ups, blurred images, so the spectator has to put his senses at work to experience what is happening in the film.

The themes are very similar to mine, reality, imagination, brain and body. For me it was a revelation that this exist.

Haptic cinema is thus a form of cinematic tactility which according to Barker “occurs not only at the skin or the screen, but traverses all the organs of the spectator’s body and the film’s body” (Barker, 2009, p.2).

Haptic visuality in Under the Skin (Glazer, 2014) Marks writes that “[t]he opening credits sequences of many movies take place over haptic images, as though to ease

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