IGNOU BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

BSOG 173

RETHINKING DEVELOPMENT

BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Q 1. How the industrialization paved the way of modernization? Discuss.

ANS: Modernization is a continuous and open-ended process. Historically, the span of time over which it has occurred must be measured in centuries, although there are examples of accelerated modernization.

In either case, modernization is not a once-and-for-all-time achievement. There seems to be a dynamic principle built into the very fabric of modern societies that does not allow them to settle, or to achieve equilibrium.

Their development is always irregular and uneven. Whatever the level of development, there are always “backward” regions and peripheral” groups.

This is a persistent source of strain and conflict in modern societies. Such a condition is not confined to the internal development of individual states.

It can be seen on a global scale, as modernization extends outward from its original Western base to take in the whole world.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The existence of unevenly and unequally developed nations introduces a fundamental element of instability into the world system of states. Modernization theory can be viewed as a description and explanation of the routes of transformation from underdeveloped societies to modern societies.

It is the process of change towards those types of social, economic, and political systems such as those that have developed in Western Europe and North America from the seventeenth century to the nineteenth and have then spread to some European countries and in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries to the South American countries, Asian countries and in some African countries.

The theory of modernization has been argued to be one of the major perspectives in the sociology of national development and underdevelopment since the 1950s.

Industrialization are the main ingredients in the processes of economic growth.

So, Modernization theorists basically study the social, political, and cultural consequences of
economic growth and the conditions that are important for industrialization and economic growth to take place.

It is worth noting that modernization does not necessarily refer simply to becoming current or up to date but to specific processes of societal changes in the course of national development.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

It is also important to note that though modernization, industrialization and development are mostly used interchangeably however they actually refer to different situations.

Modernization is a much broader term than industrialization, whereas development can be argued to be a more general term.

Industrialization generally involves the use of power to mechanize production and it also involves growth in manufacturing, wage labour, levels of income and occupational variation.

Industrialization on the other hand may or may not be present in situations where there is political, social and cultural modernization and conversely, it may exist in the absence of other aspects of modernization.

BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment
BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Analyse the feminist critique of the policies of development.

ANS: Feminism thinking today must be emancipatory. It must be rooted in the diversity and potential of life and have a holistic perspective, looking at the whole picture.

To reach its goal of becoming an emerging revolutionary movement, it must analyse the various dimensions of power in connection with each other, and hence any feminist critique of development will have an integrative approach.

This contribution to the feminist debates about development brings together various dimensions, including the environment, economics, the productive model, colonialism and patriarchy.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

Another important debate in the various feminist movements which is critical of development – particularly for discerning the way towards alternatives to development – is ecofeminism.

This contends that there are important historical, cultural and symbolic parallels between the oppression and exploitation of women and of nature.

In patriarchal arguments, the dichotomy between women and men often corresponds to that of nature and civilisation, emotion and reason, and even tradition and modernity; the first half of the combination is always deprecated.

Ecofeminism arose as a counter-culture in the 1970s. It condemned the degrading association that the patriarchy establishes between women and nature.

It also criticises the left-wing movements for not taking this into account and questions the paradigm of progress of “real socialism” and movements within the communist parties.

The feminist critique of development emerges in the debate between the two distinct strands within ecofeminism, i.e. essentialism and its rejection.

The proponents of essentialism argue that owing to their feminine essence, women are closer to nature than men. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

For the conservation of nature, according to essentialism, women emerge as a ray of hope. Reason is simple – Because of their maternal instincts women are more likely to possess an ethic of care and protect living beings.

But then another set of ecofeminists like Maria Mies, Bina Agarwal and Vandana Shiva among others reject essentialism.

They agree that women do have greater compatibility with nature but the reason lies not in the nature itself but in the ways gender is constructed socially and historically in a given culture.

According to them at the heart of the gendered environmental awareness lies the division of labour and social role construction.

For example: Women in most of the societies have been traditionally doing household chores including collection of firewood, water, tending animals, orchards.

This exposes them to nature more than men, leading to their gradual proximity to nature. Like their post-colonial counterparts, the anti-essentialists also view development as a Western colonisation strategy, with its roots in domination over women and nature.

Vandana Shiva argues that in the last five decades of the twentieth century have been marked by what she calls as ‘badly directed development’.

In this, she believes that in the name of development, unsustainable Western industrial paradigm has been exported to the South. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

In a patriarchal argument, the dichotomy between women and men often corresponds to that of nature and civilisation, emotion and reason, and even tradition and modernity, the first half of the combination is always deprecated.

Ecofeminism arose as a counter-culture in the 1970s. It condemned the degrading association that the patriarchy establishes between women and nature.

It also criticises the left-wing movements for not taking this into account and questions the paradigm of progress of “real socialism” and movements within the communist parties.

The feminist critique of development emerges in the debate between the two distinct strands within ecofeminism, i.e. essentialism and its rejection. The proponents of essentialism argue that owing to their feminine essence, women are closer to nature than men.

For the conservation of nature, according to essentialism, women emerge as a ray of hope. Reason is simple – Because of their maternal instincts women are more likely to possess an ethic of care and protect living beings.

But then another set of ecofeminists like Maria Mies, Bina Agarwal and Vandana Shiva among others reject essentialism.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

They agree that women do have greater compatibility with nature but the reason lies not in the nature itself but in the ways gender is constructed socially and historically in a given culture.

According to them at the heart of the gendered environmental awareness lies the division of labour and social role construction.

For example Women in most of the societies have been traditionally doing household chores including collection of firewood, water, tending animals, orchards.

This exposes them to nature more than men, leading to their gradual proximity to nature. Like their post-colonial counterparts, the anti-essentialists also view development as a Western colonisation strategy, with its roots in domination over women and nature.

Vandana Shiva argues that in the last five decades of the twentieth century have been marked by what she calls as ‘badly directed development’.

In this, she believes that in the name of development, unsustainable Western industrial paradigm has been exported to the South.

In a kind of ‘environmental apartheid’, Western multinational companies, backed by the governments of economically dominant nations, try to conserve the economic development of the North by exporting the environmental costs to the Third World.

Mies contends that after subjugation of nature and colonisation of states, women’s bodies have become a ‘third colony’ for the imperial powers. She looks at alternatives to development. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The alternatives that may have an appeal to women’s environmental awareness. According to her alternative model of development, reproductive activities would not only be shared by women and men; but would also include other stakeholders like nature, which were excluded in the development discourse.

She further suggests overcoming the antagonism between nature and labour; and prioritizing local and regional economies over global markets to recover the place of women in the discourse of development

Q 3 What is the alternative of development?

ANS: Some of the alternative theories are concerned with local development. Dependency theory, one of alternative to the mainstream development theories, is concerned with structural macroeconomic changes in the non- western societies in the line of western societies.

There is another alternative development approach that emphasises the capacity of people to bring about change with development.

This development approach depends on different means: participatory action and people centred development. It does not depend on the other societies or countries for its own development.

Since 1970 onwards alternative development approaches have emerged as people centred development. This development is geared to the satisfaction of needs of the people for whom development is directed.

The alternative development is also known as endogenous development. This approach has its own distinct methods associated with it. Usually participatory method is also used for such approach. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The participatory method initiates development process within the community and take into consideration the basic needs of the people for their development.

The alternative developments are different from the earlier development approaches in respect of their methodology; a participatory, endogenous, self-sufficient and objectives oriented.

Therefore, development here must be undertaken from within the people and geared to their basic needs.

Hettne believes that these are mainstream approaches. He puts least emphasis on the idea of de-modernisation and anti-development theories.

it does not embrace any clear ideology and this could be absorbed by the mainstream development ideology.

Hettne presents “another development” which is combination of the basic needs, self-reliance, sustainable and endogenous development. But this could not be developed as a paradigm or alternative model.

Today there is not much differences between the approaches of alternative development and mainstream development.

The components of alternative development approach like, participation and sustainability have been adopted by the mainstream development.

There is no difference in principles. Gradually, this approach has become popular as Mainstream Alternative Development (MAD).BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment
BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

Q 4 Describe Rostow’s historical approach of development.

ANS: Karl Marx envisaged that economy passes through the stages of slavery, feudalism and capitalism. These stages, in fact, represent transition of economy from agrarian to industrial, following technological development.

Later, W.W. Rostow’s thesis also advocates that economy must pass through a historical evolutionary sequence from one stage to another.

Walt W. Rostow’s Theory of Stages of Growth is the second variant of the index approach. In The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, Rostow (1960) identified certain intermediate stages of growth within the gap between the underdeveloped and developed world.

All economies are considered as going through five stages of economic growth, in the development from fairly poor agricultural societies to highly industrialized mass-consumption economies. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

These stages are as follows:

1) Traditional societies are those where the production functions are limited; and output per head is low and does not tend to rise because of inaccessibility of science and technology.

Here family and clan groupings are emphasized. Perspectives on Development Values are ‘fatalistic and political power is non-centralised.

ii) The second stage is the development of a set of pre-conditions for economic ‘take-off”. This is a period of transition in which traditional institutions begin to change.

The economy gradually gets geared to the using of modern science and technology.

iii) ‘Take-off stage, where the old resistances to steady growth are overcome and growth becomes the normal condition of the economy.

iv) ‘Drive to maturity’, which is the stage of the increasing sophistication of the economy i.e. new industries are developed, there is less reliance on imports and more exporting activities start. Profit maximization becomes the need to survive.

v) Stage of high mass-consumption where there is an affluent population and durable and sophisticated consumers’ goods and services. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

All the basic needs are satisfied in this stage of society and more resources are utilized for social welfare and security. There is an emergence of welfare state.

Aid should be given to economies at the pre-take-off stages to get them to take off stage.

The necessary pre-condition for development refers to society’s increasing efficiency to promote savings and generate capital, develop managerial and entrepreneurial acumen of its people and make institutional and structural reforms to cope with the new challenges of economic growth.

The main flaw in the gap approach is that it does not take into account the international structure of development and underdevelopment, of which the domestic structure of underdevelopment is only a part

Q 5 Analyse the capability approach to human development.

ANS: The capability approach (also referred to as the capabilities approach) is a normative approach to human welfare that concentrates on the actual capability of persons to achieve their well-being rather than on their mere right or freedom to do so.

[1] It was conceived in the 1980s as an alternative approach to welfare economics.

[2] In this approach, Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum bring together a range of ideas that were previously excluded from or inadequately formulated in) traditional approaches to the economics of welfare. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The core focus of the capability approach is on what individuals are able to do (i.e., capable of).

Initially, Sen argued for five components in assessing capability: The importance of real freedoms in the assessment of a person’s advantage Individual differences in the ability to transform resources into valuable activities

The multi-variate nature of activities giving rise to happiness A balance of materialistic and nonmaterialistic factors in evaluating human welfare Concern for the distribution of opportunities within society

Subsequently, and in collaboration particularly with political philosopher Martha Nussbaum, development economist Sudhir Anand and economic theorist James Foster,

Sen has helped to make the capabilities approach predominant as a paradigm for policy debate in human development where it inspired the creation of the UN’s Human Development Index (a popular measure of human development, capturing capabilities in health, education, and income).

In addition, the approach has been operationalised with a high income country focus by Paul Anand and colleagues.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The approach emphasizes functional capabilities (“substantive freedoms”, such as the ability to live to old age, engage in economic transactions, or participate in political activities); these are construed in terms of the substantive freedoms people have reason to value, instead of utility (happiness, desire-fulfillment or choice) or access to resources (income, commodities, assets).

Poverty is understood as capability-deprivation. It is noteworthy that the emphasis is not only on how humans actually function but also on their having the capability,

which is a practical choice, “to achieve outcomes that they value and have reason to value”.

Q 6 Social environment

ANS: According to McIver, man lives under a total environment’, a concept of his ecology that comprehends his total existence.

As he lives in the plains or in the hills, and as he engages in agricultural or industrial activities, he lives a life that has been shaped by his social heritage.

He is born under it and, in his family, he learns first to get conditioned to customs and practices, beliefs and norms that are of his community.

In India, he first learns the “meaning of the festival of Diwali’ or ‘Id-ul-fitr’; and later he comes to know of the practices prevalent in foreign countries.

In a way, social norms sit so heavy upon his understanding that, while he is at work, he semi-consciously responds to their dictates.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

In India, the belief is transmigration of souls and the doctrine of ‘Karma’, according to which the conditions of his present life are to be determined by his work in the previous life, brings to his mentality a feeling of detachment and an attitude of resignation which is so unique to our indigenous population.

No matter how far we industrialize ourselves, this attitude remains at the back of all our activities.

The social environment presents to every individual the problem of adjustment.

Primitive man did not find a variety of conditions before him to which he was required to adjust himself; but modern man has a complex social set-up before him which makes greater demands for adjustment.

Q 7 Sectoral Development

ANS: Sectoral Development recognizes and supports Sustainable Development Goal accomplishment through interventions to reduce poverty, increase financial and/or gender inclusion, and build resilience. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

These initiatives rely on natural resource exploitation and sustainable use forms of a cornerstone of all programs. on the basis of ‘unit of development, as mentioned earlier, three approaches are envisaged, viz., sectoral development, area development and target group development.

Sectoral development approaches refers to formulation and execution of schemes for development, of a particular sector of economy like agriculture or industry.

For instance, the Indian planners thought of developing industries just after the Independence.

Therefore they made plans to develop technology or borrow it from other countries. Stress was laid on technological education.

Many institutes and colleges were established, independently or in collaboration with other countries, such as the United States of America, Russia and England.

On the other side, funds were made available for heavy industries such as textile, steel and cement. Later on, when the country faced a food problem in the early sixties, the planners thought of developing the agricultural sector.

As a result, many agricultural universities were set up, which helped in evolving high yielding varieties of crops, insecticides and pesticides, and farm implements, like thrashers.

Extension services were made available to educate and persuade farmers, to adopt new agricultural technology, and loans were advanced to farmers quite liberally.

You have seen the results of these efforts in the form of the green revolution. The country is now almost self-reliant in food.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

Q 8 HDI

ANS: The HDI was created to emphasize that people and their capabilities should be the ultimate criteria for assessing the development of a country, not economic growth alone.

The HDI can also be used to question national policy choices, asking how two countries with the same level of GNI per capita can end up with different human development outcomes.

These contrasts can stimulate debate about government policy priorities. The Human Development Index (HDI) is a summary measure of average achievement in key dimensions of human development: a long and healthy life, being knowledgeable and have a decent standard of living.

The HDI is the geometric mean of normalized indices for each of the three dimensions.

The health dimension is assessed by life expectancy at birth, the education dimension is measured by mean of years of schooling for adults aged 25 years and more and expected years of schooling for children of school entering age.

The standard of living dimension is measured by gross national income per capita.

The HDI uses the logarithm of income, to reflect the diminishing importance of income with increasing GNI. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

The scores for the three HDI dimension indices are then aggregated into a composite index using geometric mean. Refer to Technical notes for more details.

The HDI simplifies and captures only part of what human development entails. It does not reflect on inequalities, poverty, human security, empowerment, etc.

The HDRO offers the other composite indices as broader proxy on some of the key issues of human development, inequality, gender disparity and poverty.

Q 9. Welfare approach to development

ANS: The Welfare approach focuses on individuals as beneficiaries or targets of all development activities.

It advocates state and non state agencies to invest in social sector spending and supply welfare products for development.

It focuses on the identification of basic needs of individuals in food, clothing, shelter and drinking water etc. and engaging in direct public provisioning action to fulfil these needs.

This approach thus focuses on individuals as passive recipients of development. In contrast, the capability perspective recognises the correspondence between the capabilities of individuals and their needs. BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

In doing so it takes into clue the differences in positioning of individuals in relation to their age, gender, caste, class and race and other characteristics, which may influence exercising similar set of capabilities for the realisation of various needs.

Q 10. Emigration

ANS:Emigration is the relocation or process of people leaving one country to reside in another. People emigrate for many reasons, include increasing one’s chance of employment or improving quality of life.

Emigration affects the economies of the countries involved in both positive and negative ways, depending on the current state of the countries’ economies.

When people leave a country, they lower the nation’s labor force and consumer spending.

If the country they are leaving has an oversaturation of the labor force, this can result in the positive effect of relieving unemployment rates.

On the other hand, the countries receiving the emigrants tend to benefit from more available workers, who also contribute to the economy by spending money.

While emigration usually represents people leaving a country, immigration is the process of a country receiving people who left another country.

In other words, immigration is the result of emigration for the receiving country.

For example, people might say they immigrated to the United States, which is where they now have permanent residence, but they emigrated from Spain.

Many countries regulate the number of people that can emigrate or immigrate from one country to another.BSOG 173 Free Solved Assignment

BSOG 171 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22

Leave a Comment

error: Content is protected !!