IGNOU BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BSOE 141

URBAN SOCIOLOGY

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q 1. Define and describe the concept of urban and highlight its nature and scope.

ANS: Urban geography is the study of urban places with reference to their geographical environment.

Broadly speaking, the subject matter includes origin of towns, their growth and development, their functions in and around their surroundings.

The subject of urban geography has gradually taken a special place among the various branches of geography in the period after the Second World War in various foreign and Indian universities and colleges.

With the increase of population globally, towns and cities have become magnets of economic, social and political processes.

Nature:

In the first quarter of this, century, the theorizing and research of the sociologists established the main direction of much of the work in the following decades. Two major currents came to characterize urban sociology in the early period.

The first came from the sociologists at the University of Chicago, emphasizing the demographic and ecological structure of the city, the social disorganization and pathology of the urban normative order and the social psychology of urban existence.

The second current has come to be called ‘community studies.’ It consists of broad-gauged ethnographic studies of the social structure of individual communities and the ways of life of the inhabitants. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

These two orientations are divided into the culturalists’ approach and the structuralists’ approach in the urban sociology.

The culturalists emphasize on how urban life feels, how people react to living in urban areas, and how the city life is organized.

This approach tries to study and explore the culture, organizational and social psychological consequences of urban life. Louis Wirth’s works belong to this approach.

Scope:

The scope of urban sociology is very vast and multidimensional. Urban sociology relies on the related sciences and borrows from history, economics, social psychology, public administration and social work.

As stated already, the subject-matter of sociology is cities and their growth, and it deals with such problems like planning and development of cities, traffic regulations, public waterworks, social hygiene, sewerage works, housing, beggary, juvenile delinquency, crime and so on.

Thus as urbanism is many-sided so is urban sociology.

The scope of urban sociology becomes wider as it not only tries to study the urban setup and facts but also tries to give suggestions to solve problems arising out of dynamic nature of the society. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Under reformatory scope of urban sociology, the problems of urbanism are studied.

This includes some of the important issues such as the impact of urbanization on urban society leading to urban disorganization, urban planning and development.

Thus, the scope of urban sociology is much wider as it covers the whole spectrum of urban life and its changing environments.

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment
BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 How does the city and its spaces understood in urban sociology in an ecological sense?

ANS: Urban ecology is the study of community structure and organization as manifest in cities and other relatively dense human settlements.

Among its major topics, urban ecology is concerned with the patterns of urban community sorting and change by socioeconomic status, life cycle, and ethnicity, and with patterns of relations across systems of cities Of particular concern is the dynamic evolution of cities and contrast in urban structure across time periods, societies, and urban scale.

The notion of community is central to urban ecology, a premise of the ecological approach is that the aggregation of persons into communities has important implications for their life chances, for the behavior of groups, and for aggregate outcomes.

A further aspect of community organization lies in its geographic manifestation, although a mere geographic reductionism would not accurately capture the theoretical or empirical approach of the ecological perspective. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

A sub area of human ecology – a social science paradigm that seeks to understand the relationship between human organization and its environment, both in terms of physical set ting and sustenance – the study of urban ecology has been interdisciplinary.

Work in ecology has touched on sociology, demography, geography, economics, and anthropology, usually emphasizing the urban sectors of those disciplines.

And at various times, human urban ecology has been more or less connected to biological ecology.

As Franklin Wilson argued, ecology is one of the oldest specializations within sociology and the intellectual roots of urban ecology can be found in the origins of sociology itself.

For example Emile Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society (1893) argued that modern societies are comprised of functionally interdependent units that are necessary for their survival and progress.

As an explicit sociological approach, urban ecology is particularly associated with the Chicago School of sociology in the early twentieth century, even though the connection extends to a wide range of scholars and groups interested in cities and in population processes.

The massive growth of cities at this time, fueled by the immigration of diverse origin populations, helped spur the interest in urban form and function, and hence urban ecology as a subject of interest.

Studies at this time of specific urban communities, such as Louis Wirth’s The Ghetto (1928) and Harvey Zorbaugh’s The Gold Coast and the Slum (1929), and of city form and sub communities more generally, such as Robert Park, Ernest Burgess and Roderick McKenzie’s

The City (1925),offer key illustrations of early treatments by the Chicago School, also known as the classical position. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Additional concern in this era was with land rents and gradients, which not only helped explain the distribution of social groups, but also connected to the evolving interest in urban economics.

These early notions of human ecology gave way to more statistically intensive and geo graphically driven analyses of human organization in urban physical space.

Considerable analysis was devoted in the middle to late twentieth century to the dimensions of urban social structure.

These included extensive analyses of patterns of residential segregation, urban growth, and differentiation.

The application of factor analysis, or “factorial ecology” in the nomenclature, identified life cycle, socioeconomic status, and ethnicity as key dimensions of urban ecological sorting.

The ecological approach then came under criticism from various quarters, the most notable early critic being Milla Alihan.

The biological metaphor was seen as strained, limiting the crucial elements of human volition and cognition.

Urban ecology was also at risk of appearing spatially deterministic and attention to the relative spatial position and mapping of social phenomena lent credence to the critique.

Furthermore, ecological approaches were criticized methodologically, even generating a phrase, “the ecological fallacy,” that has traversed into general social science parlance.

The fallacy is the error of making inferences about individual behavior from analysis of phenomena at the aggregate level. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

In the middle of the twentieth century, human (and hence urban) ecology received additional formulations, with perhaps the broadest theoretical treatment arising in Amos Hawley’s Human Ecology (1950).

This treatise emphasized the study of the community and the dynamic connections among individuals, human organization, and the environment.

Around the same time the widely adopted POET frame work came to the fore: Population, Organization, Environment, Technology.

This POET paradigm is also part of the neoclassical or neo orthodox approach and it provides an intellectual rubric for organizing the thinking about urban phenomena and community processes within them.

Assignment – II

Q 3 What do you understand by urban political economy? Discuss.

ANS: Urban political economy emerged as a critique of the urban ecology paradigm, particularly the latter’s explanation for the growth and structure of cities and regions.

By emphasizing the spatial competition for resources by individuals, groups, and institutions, urban ecology has viewed political hierarchies, economic actors and laws, and other social institutions as expressions of more fundamental and pre conscious forces.

Its corollary that city governments, local business elites, urban planners, or racist neighborhood associations, for example, are not the “real” agents of urban structure and relations had long struck a cadre of conflict oriented urban sociologists as a problematic denial of social power.

By the 1950s and 1960s, urban ecology’s inability to understand critically the problems of white flight and urban poverty in the US as well as urban and political unrest throughout the world created a breaking point for many urban sociologists.

Consequently, a first generation of urban political economists began to emphasize the role of economic structure and social power in explaining urban relations.

Urban political economy updates the theoretical legacy of Karl Marx around the urban condition, a topic he did not address extensively in his nineteenth century writings.

First, neo Marxians explained the city’s evolution as structural expressions of historical relations of production. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Beginning in the early twentieth century, their argument goes, industrial capitalists promoted the flight of manufacturing to the urban periphery and the growth of residential suburbs to advance their class interests in, respectively, avoiding the costs of aging and inflexible urban infrastructure and dispersing urban hotbeds of labor unrest.

Industrialists promoted these interests in the political and cultural realms via federal policies and cultural sentiments promoting homeownership, suburban development, and the encouragement of growth in America’s “Sunbelt region (where the union tradition is much weaker than in the older “Rustbelt’).

In urban sociology, these early neo Marxian claims appeared in the 1970s and 1980s alongside other intellectual agendas that, although not necessarily sharing the same conflict orientation, put urban class relations at the forefront of the field.

Research on dual labor markets, immigrant entrepreneurs, ethnic niches, and related issues have all benefited from the neo Marxian insight that economic forces do not merely express social relations but in fact drive them as well.

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment
BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Q 4 Explain the significance of network in urban sociology.

ANS: Urban sociology is the sociological study of life and human interaction in metropolitan areas. An important aspect of urban sociology is community.

Community is an area in which feeling of fellowship with others, as a result of sharing common attitudes, interests, and goals occurs usually where the person resides.

There are many inequalities in urban areas even today. One of these areas which inequality still exists is with gender and sexuality. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

However, as a means to find resonance with other members in the gay and lesbian community, these people find ways to reside in communities with people who are also homosexual.

An urban community may be defined as a group of people having a certain specialized economic recognizable characteristics. In the above definition of an urban community the social characteristics is the most distinguishing & vital.

The following are the special or distinctive features of urban community,

. Social heterogeneity
. Moderate social contacts
. Social tolerance
. Moderate control
. Social dynamism
. Voluntary association
. Importantersonality
. Lack of communal feeling
. Lease morals
. Unbalanced individuals
. Prevalence of crimes
. Dynamic life
. Rapid change and
. Artificiality in life

After the industrial revolution, sociologists such as Max Weber, and particularly George Simmel in works such as The Metropolis and Mental life (1903), focused on the increasing process of urbanization and the effects it had on feelings of Social alienation and anonymity.

The first came from the sociologists at the University of Chicago, emphasizing the demographic and ecological structure of the city, the social disorganization and pathology of the urban normative order and the social psychology of urban existence.

The second current has come to be called ‘community studies.’ It consists of broad-gauged ethnographic studies of the social structure of individual communities and the ways of life of the inhabitants. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Q 5 Mention some of the social consequences of migration on urban society.

ANS: One important consequence of rural out migration is the change in the value orientation of the migrants and its effects on their families left behind.

The migrants usually keep contact with their families to maintain personal links and family tradition.

This is an important source of exchange of values between their traditional place of origin and relatively modernized destination.

The migrants are now exposed to the urban great tradition. It is through exposure that they imbibe new social and material values, new skills, experience, knowledge and an active way of urban life.

The internalized urban values are consciously transmitted and fed back into the native place through their contacts. They are required by and used for their family’s social, cultural and physical progress.

The village community as a whole is also benefitted by the social and material gains of migration. But the village out migration reduces the manpower required for agricultural productivity. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

At the same time it promotes rural development in addition to urban growth in terms of social prestige and the resource base of the village by way of spreading new urban values.

The capital generated by migration raises rural income stimulating technological change in the village. It also helps in developing the capacity of villages in improving the agriculture.

Migration has also changed the demographic profile of the rural areas. Since migration has a lowering effect on fertility behavior it has reduced the family size among the migrants as compared with the non-migrants.

It is higher in the rural areas where spouses live together rather than the separated family where the wife stays back in rural areas and husband goes to work in urban areas.

The change in the social status from non-migrant to migrant causes change in norms and values,attitude and behavior, motivation and expectation, material and social status, social priority and change in the circle of interaction

All these changes have a negative effect on fertility level and family size. It is due to these changes that the fertility level among the married but separated migrants is the lowest.

The fertility behavior of migrants’ changes when migrants are exposed to the urban way of life. The modern urban influences stimulate them to accept new family norms, post pone child bearing and raise the age of marriage. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

The migrants gradually stimulate their relatively younger siblings and the kins to migrate. This enlarges their family network that reinforces the traditional reproductive models among them in urban areas.

Another social consequence of migration is the change in the occupational status of the migrants. Migration ensures horizontal and vertical mobility and related changes.

The migrants in the new urban social setting are at an advantage and get diversified work opportunities but they are also in a disadvantageous position as compared to the urban folks for the available opportunities.

The urban folks are relatively better educated, trained, skilled, experienced and active. The migrants find it difficult to compete with them for better jobs.

The migrants from the lower socio-economic backgrounds are a work and earn oriented group without any occupational choice.

Their urban employers on grounds of quality of education, skill, efficiency, caste and class backgrounds also discriminate against them.

An important social consequence of migration is its effect on the processes of acculturation and adjustment and integration of migrants in the receiving areas.

In the new urban setting the migrants get accultured into the urban ways of life and adjusted to it by their ability to participate and perform new roles and activities.

It is through these related processes that the new values, roles and cultural traits, behavior patterns and the new social conditions of living are acquired and internalized by the migrants. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

They gradually become adjusted and integrated into the urban society. These processes act as medium of cultural transformation. They promote cultural adoption, adaptation and change in already internalized values of the place of origin.

The migrants of different class backgrounds find themselves between the two cultural patternsthe internalized culture of the place of origin and the culture of the place of destination to be internalized.

Among the upper class migrants there is no cultural tension between the two cultural patterns because of the similarities between the culture already internalized and the culture to be internalized.

Contrary to this among the lower class migrants there is clear conflict and social tension between the two because of the dissimilarities between the culture already internalized and the urban culture to be internalized.

BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment
BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

BSOE 143 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22 CLICK HERE

Assignment – III

Q 6 Pull factors and push factors in migration. Explain.

ANS: There are many economic, social and physical reasons why people emigrate and they can usually be classified into push and pull factors.

What are push and pull factors? BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

. Push factors are those associated with the area of origin
. Pull factors are those that are associated with the area of destination
. Economic reasons

Economic motives loom large in all human movements, but are particularly important with regards to migration.

. Pull Factors
. More jobs
. Better jobs
. Higher wages
. The promise of a “better life”

Sometimes this is encouraged by the destination country for example, the 1960’s employment campaign in the Caribbean by London bus companies that actively recruited to London to work as bus drivers, who were then often followed by their families.

Another example might be the “brain drain” to America that occurred in the latter half of the 20th century from several other western countries.
. Push Factors

Economic push factors tend to be the exact reversal of the pull factors:

. Overpopulation
. Few jobs
. Low wages

This lack of economic opportunity tends to push people to look for their futures outside the area of their origin.

An example of this is the migration of Mexicans and people from other Central American countries into the US, where they often work low-wage, long-hour jobs in farming, construction and domestic labour. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

It’s difficult to classify this case purely with push factors though, because often the factors associated with the country of origin are just as important as the factors associated with the country of destination.

Forced migration has also been used for economic gain, such as the 20 million men, women and children who were forcibly carried as slaves to the Americas between the 16th and 18th centuries.

. Social reasons
. Social reasons tend to involve forced migration
. Pull factors
. Principles of religious tolerance

For example the US attracted religious refugees, such as the Mennonites, who settled in Pennsylvania.

. Push factors
. Intolerance towards a certain cultural group
. Active religious persecution

Examples being the Huguenots in 16th century France, the Puritans in 17th century England and the Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany.

. Physical reasons
. Pull factors
. Attractive environments, such as mountains, seasides and warm climates

For example the Alps pull French people to eastern France. Spain attracts migrants, especially retirees, who seek warmer winters

. Push factors
. Natural disasters BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Q 7 Distinguish urbanization and urbanizinism.

ANS: Urbanization:

Urbanization is the movement of population from rural to urban areas and the resulting increasing proportion of a population that resides in urban rather than rural places.

Thompson Warren (Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences) has defined it as “the movement of people from communities concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture to other communities, generally larger whose activities are primarily centred in government, trade, manufacture, or allied interests”.

According to Anderson (1953:11), urbanization is not a one-way process but it is a two-way process.

It involves not only movement from villages to cities and change from agricultural occupation to business, trade, service and profession, but it also involves change in the migrants’ attitudes, beliefs, values and behaviour patterns.

He has given five characteristics of urbanization: money economy, civil administration, cultural changes, written records and innovations.

Urbanism:

Urbanism is a way of life. It reflects an organization of society in terms of a complex division of labour, high levels of technology, high mobility, interdependence of its members in fulfilling economic functions and impersonality in social relations

Q 8 What are slums?

ANS: What is a slum?

Slum is a contiguous settlement where the inhabitants are characterized as having inadequate housing and basic services. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Cities Alliance Action Plan describes slums as neglected parts of cities where housing and living conditions are appallingly poor.

Census of India 2011 explained slums as residential areas where dwellings areunfit for human habitation by reasons of dilapidation, overcrowding, faulty arrangements and design of such buildings, narrowness or faulty arrangement of street, lack of ventilation, light, or sanitation facilities or any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health

The slum is an inevitable part of modern urbanization and the urban poor are active agents serving the non-slum dwellers and contribute to economic growth

Slums in India- Statistics:

. Out of 4.041 Statutory Towns in Census 2011 Slums reported from 2,543 Towns (63%)

. Largest number of slums reported from Maharashtra (21,359)

. People who are living in slums increased from 52 million in 2001 to 65.5 million 2011

Q 9 Mention some of the types of cities.

ANS: Segment 1: Developed Economy, Legacy City

Examples: London, Detroit, Tokyo, Singapore BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Characteristics: Any intervention in a legacy city has to dismantle something that existed before – a road or building, or even a regulatory authority or an entrenched service business. Slow demographic growth in developed economies creates a zero-sum situation

Segment 2: Emerging Economy, Legacy City

Examples: Mumbai, São Paolo, Jakarta

Characteristics: Most physical and institutional structures are already in place in these megacities, but with fast-growing populations and severe congestion, there is an opportunity to create value by improving efficiency and livability, and there is a market of customers with cash to pay for these benefits.

Segment 3: Emerging Economy, New City

Examples: Phu My Hung, Vietnam; Suzhou, China; Astana, Kazakhstan; Singapore (historically)

Characteristics: These cities tend to have high population growth and high growth rates in GDP per capita, demographic and economic tailwinds that help to boost returns.

Segment 4: Developed Economy, New City BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

Examples and characteristics: Such cities are very rare. All the moment, almost all selfproclaimed “new cities” in the developed world are in fact large, integrated real-estate developments with an urban theme, usually in close proximity to a true municipality.

Q 10 Foucault and his concept of power in cultural politics in urban areas. Explain.

ANS: The work of twentieth-century French philosopher Michel Foucault has increasingly influenced the study of politics.

This influence has mainly been via concepts he developed in particular historical studies that have been taken up as analytical tools; “governmentality” and “biopower” are the most prominent of these.

More broadly, Foucault developed a radical new conception of social power as forming strategies embodying intentions of their own, above those of individuals engaged in them; individuals for Foucault are as much products of as participants in games of power.

To summarize Foucault’s thought from an objective point of view, his political works would all seem to have two things in common:

(1) an historical perspective, studying social phenomena in historical contexts, focusing on the way they have changed throughout history;

(2) a discursive methodology, with the study of texts, particularly academic texts, being the raw material for his inquiries. BSOE 141 Free Solved Assignment

As such the general political import of Foucault’s thought across its various turns is to understand how the historical formation of discourses have shaped the political thinking and political institutions we have today.

BSOC 134 FREE ASSIGNMENT 2022

BSOE 143 FREE ASSIGNMENT 2022

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