INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY
BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q. 1. Discuss the emergence of modern social anthropology.
Ans. Social anthropology is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe (France in particular), where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.
In the United States, social anthropology’s commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology (or under the relatively new designation of sociocultural anthropology).
In contrast to cultural anthropology, culture and its continuity (including narratives, rituals, and symbolic behavior associated with them have been traditionally seen more like the dependent variable by social anthropology, embedded in its historical and social context, including its diversity of positions and perspectives, ambiguities, conflicts, and contradictions of social life, rather than the independent (explanatory) one.
Topics of interest for social anthropologists have included customs, economic and political organization, law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, kinship and family structure, gender relations,
childbearing and socialization, religion, while present-day social anthropologists are also concerned with issues of globalism, ethnic violence, gender studies, transnationalism and local experience, and the emerging cultures of cyberspace, and can also help with bringing opponents together when environmental concerns come into conflict with economic developments.
Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, and Classics, among others.
Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Taylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890-1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, and the introduction of French and German social theory.
Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long-term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people.
This development was bolstered by Franz Boas’s introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values.
Museums such as the British Museum weren’t the only site of anthropological studies: with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended “laboratories”, especially the so-called “ethnological exhibitions” or “Negro villages”.
Thus, “savages” from the colonies were displayed, often nudes, in cages, in what has been called “human zoos”. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
For example, in 1906, Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoo, labeled the missing link” between an orangutan and the “white race”-Grant, a renowned eugenicist, was also the author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916).
Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racism, which the first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau’s An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853-55).
In 1931, the Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the “indigenous village”; it received 24 million visitors in six months, thus demonstrating the popularity of such “human zoos”.
Anthropology grew increasingly distinct from natural history and by the end of the 19th century the discipline began to crystallize into its modern form–by 1935, for example, it was possible for T.K. Penniman to write a history of the discipline entitled A Hundred Years of Anthropology.
At the time, the field was dominated by “The Comparative Method”. It was assumed that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process from the most primitive to most advanced.
Non-European societies were thus seen as evolutionary “living fossils” that could be studied in order to understand the European past.
Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
It was during this time that Europeans first accurately traced Polynesian migrations across the Pacific Ocean for instance although some of them believed it originated in Egypt
Q. 2. Examine the linkages between sociology and history.
Ans. As a mother of social sciences sociology has a close and intimate relationship with all other social sciences.
Accordingly, it has a close relationship with history. Because present society bears symbols of the past. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The relationship between the two is so close and intimate that scholars like G. Von Bulow have refused to acknowledge sociology as a science distinct from history.
Sociology is the science of society. It is a study of systems of social action and their inter-relations. Sociology is a science of social groups and social institutions.
History studies the important past events and incidents. It records men’s past life and life of societies in a systematic and chronological order.
It also tries to find out the causes of past events. It also studies the past political, social and economic events of the world.
It not only studies the past but also establishes relations with the present and future. That is why it is said that “History is the microscope of the past, the horoscope of the present and telescope of the future”.
However, both the sciences are closely interrelated and interdependent on each other. Both study the same human society.
Their mutual dependence led G.H. Howard to remark that, “History is past Sociology and Sociology is present history.” BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Both take help from each other. At the same time, one depends on the other for its own comprehension.
History helps and enriches sociology. History is the storehouse of knowledge from which Sociology gained a lot.
History provides materials sociologists use. History is a record of past social matters, social customs, and information about different stages of life.
Sociology uses this information. Books written by historians like A. Toynbee are of great use for Sociologists. To know the impact of a particular past event sociology depends on history.
Similarly, sociology also provides help to history and enriches it. A historian greatly benefited from the research conducted by sociologists.
Historians now study caste, class, and family by using sociological data. Sociology provides the background for the study of history.
Now history is being studied from a sociological angle. Every historical event has a social cause or social background.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
To understand that historical event history need help from Sociology and Sociology helps history in this respect. Sociology provides facts on which historians rely on.
Thus history and sociology are mutually dependent on each other. History is now being studied from a Sociological angle and Sociology is also now studied from a historical point of view.
Historical sociology now become a new branch of Sociology that depends on history. Similarly, sociological history is another specialized subject based on both the Sciences.
Q. 3. Is political sociology a sub-field of sociology? Discuss.
Ans. Political sociology is the study of power and the relationship between societies, states, and political conflict.
It is a broad subfield that straddles political science and sociology, with “macro” and “micro” components. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The microfocus has centered on questions about nation-states, political institutions and their development, and the sources of social and political change (especially those involving large-scale social movements and other forms of collective action).
Here, researchers have asked big questions about how and why political institutions take the form that they do, and how and when they undergo significant change.
The micro orientation, by contrast, examines how social identities and groups influence individual political behavior, such as voting, attitudes, and political participation.
While both the macro-and macro-areas of political sociology overlap with political science, the distinctive focus of political sociologists is less on the internal workings or mechanics of the political system and more on the underlying social forces that shape the political system.
Political sociology can trace its origins to the writings of Alexis de Tocqueville, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber, among others, but it only emerged as a separate subfield within sociology after World War II.
Many of the landmark works of the 1950s and 1960s centered on micro questions about the impact of class, religion, race/ethnicity, or education on individual and group-based political behavior.
Beginning in the 1970s, political sociologists increasingly turned toward macro-topics, such as understanding the sources and consequences of revolutions, the role of political institutions in shaping political outcomes, and large-scale comparative historical studies of state development.
Today both micro-and macro scholarship can be found in political sociology.
Q. 4. Examine the sociological concepts and methods used in social psychology.
Ans. The Relationship: Most sociologists however have adopted various intermediate positions. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
According to Ginsberg many sociological generalizations can be more firmly established by being related to general psychological laws.
Similarly, Nadel argued that some problems posed by social inquiry can be illuminated by a move to lower levels of analysis viz psychology and biology.
German scholars like: Weber came to believe that sociological explanations can be further enriched if an attempt is made to understand social behavior in terms of underlying meanings.
Such understanding was conceived in terms of common senses psychology but Weber was not opposed to the development of scientific psychology in a broad sense and Weber was even sympathetic to some of Freud’s ideas.
Similarly, the interdependence of sociology and psychology for the study of human behavior is given still greater prominence.
The divergence between sociology and psychology can be illustrated from various studies. In the study of conflict and war, there have been mutually exclusive sociological and psychological explanations.
In the studies of stratification and political behavior, the two disciplines have remained divergent.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
According to Bottomore in almost every field of inquiry it can be shown that psychology and sociology continue for the most part and two separate universes of study.
However, some attempts have been made to bring them together. One of the most valuable works is of Gerth and Mills.
According to them the study of social psychology is an interplay between individual character and social structure and it can be approached either from the side of sociology or from the side of biology.
They have even suggested the concept of role to bridge the gap between the two sciences. A social role represents a meeting point of the individual organism and the social structure and it is used as a central concept and social structure in the same terms.
Yet in spite of these efforts, sociology and psychology continue to offer alternate accounts for behavior and if they are to be brought closer together, it will be necessary to work out more rigorously the conceptual and theoretical links between them.
Q. 5. What is gender socialisation? Explain.
Ans. Gender, Socialization, and Education: The socialization of gender within our schools assures that girls are made aware that they are unequal to boys.
Every time students are seated or lined up by gender, teachers are affirming that girls and boys should be treated differently.
When an administrator ignores an act of sexual harassment, he or she is allowing the degradation of girls. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
When different behaviors are tolerated for boys than for girls because ‘boys will be boys’, schools are perpetuating the oppression of females.
There is some evidence that girls are becoming more academically successful than boys, however, examination of the classroom shows that girls and boys continue to be socialized in ways that work against gender equity.
Teachers socialize girls towards a feminine ideal. Girls are praised for being neat, quiet, and calm, whereas, boys are encouraged to think independently, be active and speak up.
Girls are socialized in schools to recognize popularity as being important and learn that educational performance and ability are not as important.
“Girls in grades six and seven rates being popular and well-liked as more important than being perceived as competent or independent.
Boys, on the other hand, are more likely to rank independence and competence as more important.”BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
This socialization of feminity begins much earlier than in the middle grades. At very early ages, girls begin defining their femininities in relation to boys.
One study of a third-grade classroom examined four self-sorted groups of girls within the classroom: the nice girls, the girlies, the spice girls and the tomboys.
Through interviews researcher, Diane Reay found that ‘nice girls’ was considered a derogatory term indicating, “…An absence of toughness and attitude.”
Furthermore, the girlies were a group of girls who focused their time on flirting with and writing love letters to boys, the tomboys were girls who played sports with the boys, and the spice girls espoused girl-power and played ‘rate the-boy’ on the playground.
Reay’s research shows that each of the groups of girls defined their own femininities in relation to boys.
A permissive attitude towards sexual harassment is another way in which schools reinforce the socialization of girls as inferior.
“When schools ignore sexist, racist, homophobic, and violent interactions between students, they are giving tacit approval to such behaviors.”
Yet boys are taunted for throwing like a girl, or crying like a girl, which implies that being a girl is worse than being a boy. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
According to the American Association of University Women report, “The clear message to both boys and girls is that girls are not worthy of respect and that appropriate behavior for boys includes exerting power over girls – or over other, weaker boys.”
Clearly, the socialization of gender is reinforced at school, “Because classrooms are microcosms of society, mirroring its strengths and ills alike, it follows that the normal socialization patterns of young children that often lead to distorted perceptions of gender roles are reflected in the classrooms.”
Yet gender bias in education reaches beyond socialization patterns, bias is embedded in textbooks, lessons, and teacher interactions with students.
This type of gender bias is part of the hidden curriculum of lessons taught implicitly to students through the everyday functioning of their classroom.
In Myra and David Sadker’s research, they noted four types of teacher responses to students: teacher praises, providing positive feedback for a response;
teacher remediates, encouraging a student to correct or expand their answer; teacher criticizes, explicitly stating that the answer is incorrect; teacher accepts, acknowledging that a student has responded.
The Packers found that boys were far more likely to receive praise or remediation from a teacher than were girls. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The girls were most likely to receive an acknowledgment response from their teacher.
These findings are confirmed by a 1990 study by Good and Brophy that ..Noted that teachers give boys greater opportunity to expand ideas and be animated than they do girls and that they reinforce boys more for general responses than they do for girls.”
Gender bias is also taught implicitly through the resources chosen for classroom use.
Using texts that omit contributions of women that tokenize the experiences of women, or those stereotyped gender roles, further compounds gender bias in schools’ curriculum.
While research shows that the use of gender-equitable materials allows students to have more gender-biased knowledge, to develop more flexible attitudes towards gender roles, and to imitate role behaviors.
Clearly the socialization of gender roles and the use of a gender-biased hidden curriculum lead to an inequitable education for boys and girls.
What changes can be made to create a more equitable learning environment for all children? First, teachers need to be made aware of their gender-biased tendencies.
Next, they need to be provided with strategies for altering the behaviour. Finally, efforts need to be made to combat gender bias in educational materials.
Gender bias in education is an insidious problem that causes very few people to stand up and take notice. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The victims of this bias have been trained through years of schooling to be silent and passive, and are therefore unwilling to stand up and make noise about the unfair treatment they are receiving.
“Over the course of years the uneven distribution of teacher time, energy, attention, and talent, with boys getting the lion’s share, takes its toll on girls.”
Teachers are generally unaware of their own biased teaching behaviours because they are simply teaching how they were taught and the subtle gender inequities found in teaching materials are often overlooked.
Girls and boys today are receiving separate and unequal education due to the gender socialization that takes place in our schools and due to the sexist hidden curriculum students are faced with every day.
Unless teachers are made aware of the gender-role socialization and the biased messages they are unintentionally imparting to students every day, and until teachers are provided with the methods and resources necessary to eliminate gender bias in their classrooms, girls will continue to receive an inequitable education.
Q. 6. Discuss the difference between political sociology and sociology of politics.
Ans. Differences Between Sociology and Political Science: In spite of the above relationship, both sociology and political science are however different from each other in certain respects:BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
1 Sociology is the science of political science; on the other hand, it is the science of state and government.
Sociology studies society as a whole and man as a social being whereas political science deals with a particular aspect of society, which is regarded as a politically organized unit.
Therefore, political science is a more specialized science than sociology.
2 Sociology has a wider scope than of political science. Sociology deals with social, political, economic, cultural, and other aspects of society and studies will be the social institutions such as family, marriage, religion, kinship, caste and so on.
But political science deals with political aspects and studies a specific political institution like state and government only.
Thus, sociology is regarded as a general science while political science is viewed as a specialized social science.
3 Sociology studies forms of associations and institutions whereas polítical science dealt with the state and government which are known as specific forms of association.
That is why professor Garner remarks “Political science is concerned with only human form association such as state, sociology deals with all forms of association.”
4 Sociology studies all kinds of social relationships in a general way. But political science studies only the political aspect of social relationships in a particular way.
5 Sociology studies both organized and disorganized societies. But political science studies only the politically organized societies.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
6 Sociology deals with both formal as well as informal relations of the society, which are based on customs, traditions, folkways, mores, norms, etc.
But political science deals only with formal relations based on laws and order of the state.
7 Sociology is the study of all means of social control. Political science, on the other hand, is the study of only government-recognized means of control.
Q. 7. Distinguish between primary and secondary socialization.
Ans. Primary Socialization: Primary socialization refers to the socialization of the infant in the primary or earliest years of his life.
It is a process by which the infant learns language and cognitive skills, internalizes norms and values.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The infant learns the ways of a given grouping and is moulded into an effective social participant of that group.
The norms of society become part of the personality of the individual. The child does not have a sense of wrong and right.
By direct and indirect observation and experience, he gradually learns the norms relating to wrong and right things. The primary socialisation takes place in the family.
Secondary Socialization: The process can be seen at work outside the immediate family, in the ‘peer group’.
The growing child learns very important lessons in social conduct from his peers. He also learns lessons in school. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Hence, socialisation continues beyond and outside the family environment. Secondary socialization generally refers to the social training received by the child in institutional or formal settings and continues throughout the rest of his life.
Q. 8. What is social institution?
Ans. Any account of social institutions must begin by informally marking off social institutions from other social forms.
Unfortunately, as noted above, in ordinary language the terms “institutions” and “social institutions” are used to refer to a miscellany of social forms, including conventions, rules, rituals, organisations, and systems of organisations.
Moreover, there are a variety of theoretical accounts of institutions, including sociological as well as philosophical ones.
Indeed, many of these accounts of what are referred to as institutions are not accounts of the same phenomena; they are at best accounts of overlapping fields of social phenomena.
Nevertheless, it is possible, firstly, to mark off a range of related social forms that would be regarded by most theorists as being properly describable as social institutions; and, secondly, to compare and contrast some of the competing theoretical accounts of the “Social Institutions” in question.
Social institutions need to be distinguished from less complex social forms such as conventions, rules, social norms, roles, and rituals.
The latter is among the constitutive elements of institutions.
Mac Iver defines institutions as “Established forms or conditions of procedure characteristic of group activity.” An institution consists of a concept (idea, notion, doctrine or interest) and a structure -Sumner.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
An institution is a set or web of interrelated folkways more and law that enters in some function or functions – Green.
Social institutions also need to be distinguished from more complex and more complete social entities, such as societies or cultures, of which any given institution is typically a constitutive element.
A society, for example, is more complete than an institution since a society – at least as traditionally understood – is more or less self-sufficient in terms of human resources, whereas an institution is not.
Thus, arguably, for an entity to be a society it must sexually reproduce its membership, have its own language and educational system, provide for itself economically and at least in principle be politically independent.
The five major institutions are listed below:
• Political institutions are institutions that regulate the use of and access to power. • Economical institutions serve to produce and distribute goods and services.
• Familial institutions are though involved in marriage, reproduction, and socialization of children.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
• Cultural institutions are very much related to religious, scientific, and artistic activities.
• Stratification institutions determine the distribution of positions and resources.
Social institutions are often organisations (Scott 2001). Moreover, many institutions are systems of organisations.
For example, capitalism is a particular kind of economic institution, and in modern times capitalism consists in large part in specific organisational forms-including multi-national corporations-organised into a system.
Further, some institutions are meta-institutions; they are institutions (organisations) that organise other institutions including systems of organisations).
For example, governments are meta-institutions.
The institutional end or function of a government consists in large part in organizing other institutions (both individually and collectively);
thus governments regulate and coordinate economic systems, educational institutions, police and military organisations and so on largely by way of (enforceable) legislation.
The values and norms of an institution are not only influence individuals but others too to follow the values and norms which help inchanging the personality.
The term “institution” connotes a certain gravity not connoted by the term “organisation”; so arguably those institutions that are organisations are organisations that have a central and important role to play in or for society.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Being central and important to a society, such roles are usually long lasting ones; hence institutions are typically trans-generational.
Having informally marked off social institutions from other social forms, let us turn to a consideration of some general properties of social institutions.
Here, there are four salient properties, namely, structure, function, culture and sanctions.
Q. 9. What is status?
Ans. Social status, also called status, the relative rank that an individual holds, with attendant rights, duties, and lifestyle, in a social hierarchy based upon honour or prestige.
Status may be ascribed – that is, assigned to individuals at birth without reference to any innate abilities – or achieved, requiring special qualities and gained through competition and individual effort.
Ascribed status is typically based on sex, age, race, family, relationships, or birth, while achieved status may be based on education, occupation, marital status, accomplishments, or other factors.
The word status implies social stratification on a vertical scale, People may be said to occupy high positions when they are able to control, by order or by influence, other people’s conduct; when they derive prestige from holding important offices, or when their conduct is esteemed by others.
Relative status is a major factor in determining the way people behave toward each other. One’s status tends to vary with social context.
For example the position of a man in his kin group helps determine his position in the larger community. BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The Native American Hopi lineage, although unnamed, contains the mechanism for transmitting rights to land, houses, and ceremonial knowledge and is thus vital to personal status.
Among the Tallensi of Ghana, a boy who has lost his father is head of a household and therefore counts as an elder; a middle-aged man living under his father’s roof is formally a child.
Status may be governed by occupational considerations; thus, in parts of sub-Saharan Africa blacksmiths commonly form a separate group of low status.
In the Hindu caste system, sweepers are at the bottom of the scale because they handle excrement.
Most people associate status with the prestige of a person’s lifestyle, education, or vocation. According to sociologists, Status describes the position a person occupies in a particular setting.
We all occupy several statuses and play the roles that may be associated with them. A Role is the set of norms, values, behaviors, and personality characteristics attached to a status.
An individual may occupy the statuses of student, employee, and club president and play one or more roles with each one.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Example: Status as a student
Role 1: Classroom: Attending class, taking notes, and communicating with the professor
Role 2: Fellow student: Participating in study groups, sharing ideas, quizzing other students Status as employee
Role 1: Warehouse: Unloading boxes, labelling products, restocking shelves
Role 2: Customer service: Answering questions, solving problems, researching information Status as club president
Role 1: Administrative: Running club meetings, delegating tasks to club members
Role 2: Public: Distributing flyers, answering questions, planning community volunteer activities
At any given time, the individual described above can also occupy the statuses of athlete, date, confidant, or a number of others, depending on the setting.
With each change of status, the individual plays a different role or roles.
Q. 10. Differentiate between culture and civilization.
Ans. The following points are noteworthy, so far as the difference between culture and civilization is concerned:
• The term ‘culture’ refers to the embodiment of the manner in which we think, behave and act.
On the contrary, the improved stage of human society, where members have a considerable amount of social and political organisation and development, is called Civilization.
• Our culture describes what we are, but our civilization explains what we have or what we make use of Culture is an end; it has no measurement standards.
As against this, civilization has precise measurement standards, because it is a means.
• The culture of a particular region can be reflected in religion, art dance, literature, customs, morals, music, philosophy, etc.
On the other hand, the civilization is exhibited in the law, administration, infrastructure,
architecture, social arrangement, etc.
• Culture denotes the greatest level of inner refinement, and so it is internal. Unlike, a civilization that is external, i.e. it is the expression of the state of the art technology, product, devices, infrastructure, and so forth.BSOC 131 Free Solved Assignment
• Change in culture is observed with time, as in the old thoughts and traditions lost with the passage of time, and new ones are added to it which are then transmitted from one generation to another.
On the flip side, civilization is continuously advancing, i.e. the various elements of civilization like means of transportation, communication, etc. are developing day by day.
• Culture can evolve and flourish, even if the civilization does not exist. In contrast, civilization cannot grow and exist without culture.
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