SOCIOLOGY OF INDIA- I
BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. Do you think the Orientalists and Indologists played a crucial role in the emergence and growth of sociology ?
ANS: The difference lay mainly in their evaluation of Indian culture. While the Orientalists and Indological had immense admiration of an ancient Indian civilisation and were deeply aggrieved by the fall of Indian society from that ideal, the missionaries were of the view that there was no glorious past and it has always been filled with absurdities.
Unlike Indologists and Orientalists who tended to be from upper-class backgrounds and better educated, the missionaries, particularly the Baptists came from lower rungs of the British society with a zeal for reforming both their own and definitely the Indian society.
They were determined to change the social order in favour of Christianity unlike Indologists and Orientalists who held a certain respect for Indian traditional system.
In their analysis however, while the missionaries agreed with the Indologists and later the Orientalists (scholars of Eastern world) about the central principles of Indian society both did not attempt to fit the facts of political organisation, land tenure, actual legal systems and commercial structure of the society into it.
Orientalists and missionaries accepted and agreed that: Religious ideas and practices underlay all social structure; BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Primacy of the Brahman as the maintainer of the sacred tradition through Colonial Discourse his control of the knowledge of the sacred text; and Brahmanical theory of the four Varnas was accepted and saw the origin of the castes in the inter mixture through marriage of the members of the four Varnas (Cohn, 1987).
The difference lay mainly in their evaluation of Indian culture. While the Orientalists and Indologists had immense admiration of an ancient Indian civilisation and were deeply aggrieved by the fall of Indian society from that ideal, the missionaries were of the view that there was no glorious past and it has always been filled with absurdities.
According to Cohn, the approach adopted by missionaries can also be attributed to their social backgrounds.
Unlike the Indologists and Orientalists who tended to be from upper class backgrounds and better educated, the missionaries, particularly the Baptists came from lower rungs of the British society with a zeal for reforming both their own and definitely the Indian society.
They were determined to change the social order in favour of Christianity unlike Indologists and Orientalists who held a certain respect for Indian traditional system.
an elaborate census were in regard of the origin and functionality of caste in a sociological sense, unlike the question of historical origin posed by the Orientalists and some Indologists Henceforth, the official researchers of caste although recognised that origin of caste is rooted in the Brahmanical theory they assumed to arrive at a more functional, somewhat ‘field view of caste.
Nesfield regarded caste as having its roots in the division of labour and the occupation was the central determining factor in the system.
Risley argued for a racial origin of caste. Ibbetson saw the major force to the formation of caste in ‘tribal origins’. J.H. Hutton compiled a list of fourteen ‘more obvious factors which have been indicated as probably contributing to the emergence and development of the caste system’.
The ‘official view was not merely an outgrowth of the ways in which information was collected but also reflects anthropological interests and theories of the period 1870-1910.
The general theoretical books written about the caste system implicitly reflect the works of Morgan, McLennan, Lubbock, Tylor, Starcke and Frazer.
The attempt was to compare, classify and arrive at some general anthropological solution about the facts, of customs, myths, proverbs and practices collected from the field based studies. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Despite several research studies by Henery Maine and Baden-Powell on Indian villages that discussed village level conflict, regional variations of villages in terms of both structure and culture within India etc., the categorical and conceptual thinking about villages remained fixed at the stage where it was just a ‘type’ in the evolutionary progress of human society.
This directed attention away from internal politics at village, questions of social relations, patterns of wealth distribution.
That is in reality even as students of social anthropology they were not interested in the actual conditions of life in Indian villages but with general theoretical questions derived from the social theory of the day.
In the later decades of the nineteenth century we also find several emerging problems of famine, riots, land alienation etc., in the rural economy which deeply troubled the colonial masters, shaking their somewhat simplistic understanding of village India.
As a result, we find more extensive and important statistical data as well as suggestions for administrative and legislative changes for correcting the ground level faults.
Hence we find studies like that of Harold Mann based on data about “numerous economic and agricultural questions by the close study of a single village.”
The colonialists also attempted to arrive at an understanding of the urban structure in India. Both Walter Hamilton and Robert Montogomery Martin gave lists of cities with population estimated in 1820 and 1855 respectively but none were reflective of the reality.
These early observers greatly overestimated the populations of the larger cities, mostly because the European eye saw streets to be crowded and congested.
The narrow streets with buildings right up to the edge of the street; markets and pilgrim places crowded with people. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Q 2. Who were the subalterms? Discuss with suitable examples.
ANS: In postcolonial studies and in critical theory, the term subaltern designates and identifies the colonial populations who are socially, politically, and geographically excluded from the hierarchy of power of an imperial colony and from the metropolitan homeland of an empire.
Antonio Gramsci coined the term subaltern to identify the cultural hegemony that excludes and displaces specific people and social groups from the socio-economic institutions of society, in order to deny their agency and voices in colonial politics.
The terms subaltern and subaltern studies entered the vocabulary of post-colonial studies through the works of the Subaltern Studies Group of historians who explored the political-actor role of the men and women who constitute the mass population, rather than re-explore the political-actor roles of the social and economic elites in the history of India. 
As a method of investigation and analysis of the political role of subaltern populations, Karl Marx’s theory of history presents colonial history from the perspective of the proletariat; that the who? and the what? of social class are determined by the economic relations among the social classes of a society.
Since the 1970s, the term subaltern denoted the colonized peoples of the Indian subcontinent, imperial history told from below, from the perspective of the colonised peoples, rather than from the perspective of the colonisers from Western Europe.
By the 1980s, the Subaltern Studies method of historical enquiry was applied to South Asian historiography. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
As a method of intellectual discourse, the concept of the subaltern originated as a Eurocentric method of historical enquiry for the study of non-Western peoples (of Africa, Asia, and the Middle East) and their relation to Western Europe as the centre of world history.
Subaltern studies became the model for historical research of the subaltern’s experience of colonialism in the Indian Subcontinent. 
In postcolonial theory, the term subaltern describes the lower social classes and the other social groups displaced to the margins of a society; in an imperial colony, a subaltern is a native man or woman without human agency, as defined by his and her social status.
Postcolonial theory studies the power and the continued dominance of Western ways of intellectual enquiry, the methods of generating knowledge.
In the book Orientalism (1978), Edward Said, conceptually addresses the oppressed subaltern native, to explain how the Eurocentric perspective of Orientalism produced the ideological foundations and justifications for the colonial domination of the Other.
Before their actual explorations of The Orient, Europeans had invented imaginary geographies of the Orient; predefined images of the savage peoples and exotic places that lay beyond the horizon of the Western world.
The mythologies of Orientalism were reinforced by travellers who returned from Asia to Europe with reports of monsters and savage lands,
which were based upon the conceptual difference and strangeness of the Orient; such cultural discourses about the Oriental Other were perpetuated through the mass communications media of the time, and created an Us-and-Them binary social relation with which the Europeans defined themselves by defining the differences between the Orient and the Occident. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
As a foundation of colonialism, the Us-and-Them binary social relation misrepresented the Orient as backward and irrational lands, and, therefore, in need of the European civilizing mission, to help them become modern, in the Western sense; hence, the Eurocentric discourse of Orientalism excludes the voices of the subaltern natives, the Orientals, themselves.
The cultural theorist Stuart Hall said that the power of cultural discourse created and reinforced Western dominance of the non-Western world.
That the European discourses describing the differences between The West and The East, applied European cultural categories, languages, and ideas to represent the non-European Other.
The knowledge produced by such discourses became social praxis, which then became reality, by producing a discourse of difference,
Europe maintained Western dominance over the non-European Other, using a binary social relation that created and established the Subaltern native, realised by excluding The Other from the production of discourse, between the East and the West.
Q 3 Discuss the classification of the Nationalist Movement given by Prof. A.R. Desai.
ANS: 1) The First Phase
In the first phase, the Indian nationalism had a narrow social base. The educational institutions were established during the first decade of the 19th century by the British could produce a set of new educated Indians who studied western culture and greatly assimilated its democratic and nationalistic values.
Those educated intelligentsia formed the first stratum of Indian nationalism. Raja Ram Mohan Roy was the first exponent of the idea of Indian nation.
He and his group also propagated idea. The various social Indians were been religious reform movements propagated his ideas. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The idea of the educated remould the “Indian society and religion in the spirit of the new principles of democracy, rationalism, and nationalism.
In fact, these movements were the expression of the rising national democratic consciousness among a section of the Indian people” (ibid: 409).
They also spoke about freedom of press as well as put demand for inclusion of voice in the administration. The first phase ended by 1885 finished with the formation of Indian National Congress.
2) Second Phase
The second phase roughly covered the period 1885-1905. The liberal intelligentsia who ran the Congress were the leaders of the national movement.
During this period due to the expansion of western education as well as growth of trade in India and outside India a new merchant class and educated elites developed in India.
The rise of the modern industrial set up in India resulted in growth of industrial class. This class started gaining strength.
This class became close to the Congress which adopted the “programme of industrialisation of the country and in 1905 actively organised the Swadeshi campaign”.
This phase witnessed the Indianisation of services as well as many Indians associated themselves with the administrative and state machinery. This phase also saw rise of militancy in India. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
3) Third Phase
The third phase identified by Desai between 1905-1918. In the third phase liberals were replaced by the extremists.
It was a period of militancy and inclusion of lower middle class. The extremist could instil a feeling of national self respect and self confidence.
Desai sees that during this period the leaders attempted to base such consciousness on a Hindu philosophy.
Thus, it could weaken the secular character of the movement. At the same time the upper class Muslims also developed political consciousness and founded the political organization called Muslim League.
4) Fourth Phase
Fourth Phase of expansion of the nationalist movement, which was earlier limited to the middle class and lower middle class to the inclusion of masses.
Desai sees several factors which brought about national awakening among the Indian masses. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
He holds, “The post-war economic crisis, the disillusionment about the government promises, and the increased repression by the state had seriously affected the people including the peasantry and the working-class and they were in a state of great ferment”,
5) Fifth Phase
The fifth phase of Indian Nationalism and the Nationalist movement for freedom of India covers the period 1934-39, the year of outbreak of the World War II.
This phase shows the disappointment with Gandhi’s ideology by various groups specially the rise of various groups, inside Congress.
Many Congressmen lost their confidence in Gandhian ideology of Nonviolence and swadeshi.
The Socialist Party took the causes of workers and, peasants on the class lines. The rise of depressed classes, dissidents formed the Forward Bloc by Subhas Chandra Bose. We also see the rise of Muslim League during this period
Q 4 Describe the jajmani system found in India.
ANS. Jajmani system is considered as the backbone of rural economy and social order. It is a system of traditional occupational obligations. In rural India Jajmani system is very much linked with caste system. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
“A person by whom a Brahmin is hired to perform religious services, hence a patron, a client”.-Webster’s Dictionary
“The service relations which are governed by a hereditary tenure are called Jajman-Praja relations”. -N.S. Reddy
Advantages of Jajmani System:
Security of Occupation:
Security of occupation is guaranteed in case of jajmani system. Since this system is hereditary, the kamin is assured of his occupation.
He knows that if he breaks his family occupation he shall not be able to eam his livelihood.
It provides economic security to kamins as the jajman looks after all of their needs. The kamins are assured of their economic security.
In every monetary crisis the jajman helps the kamins. They extend all possible help to the kamins. So there is economic security in the jajmani system
- Close and Intimate Relationship:
There is close and intimate relationship between the jajman and kamin. This relationship is not purely economical but it is sentimental and internal.
A spirit of fellow feeling and brotherhood develops under this system. Both jajman and kamin know full well each other’s limitations as well as plus points.
So, they try to adjust each other. Jajmani system is hereditary and permanent, that is why both jajman and kamin sympathies for each other. This system creates an atmosphere conducive to peaceful living and co-operation. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
- Peacelui Living:
The cut-throat-competition for work or employment is almost absent in jajmani system. No jajman goes without service nor any kamin goes without food.
So this system creates an atmosphere of peaceful living by creating the spirit of fellow-feeling and co-operation.
Disadvantages of Jajmani System:
Source of Exploitation: Jajmani system is exploitative. The agricultural castes, which are invariably upper castes, seek the services of the occupational castes, which Eire generally lower castes.
The exploitation of lower castes continues under the garb of paternal ties. Like the caste system, this system has become a source of suppression, exploitation and discrimination.
Oscar Lewis has pointed out in his study of Jajmani system in Rampur village, whereas in the past it was based on personal relationship, it has now become an instrument of exploitation of kamins by jajmans.
Feeling of Superiority and Inferiority:
In this system, the kamins are considered low whereas the jajmems are placed high. This has resulted in social inequality and feeling of superiority and inferiority in the minds of both Jajman and kamin. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Because this system is based on heredity, the kamin cannot take other Job or occupation and the advantage of latest scientific developments to improve his economic condition
This system has resulted in lowering the economic standard of the kamins. They are treated as inferior.
They are sometimes exploited and abused by the JaJmans. They become helpless before the money power of their Jajmans. This is a system which is based on the sense of high and low.
- Impediment to Occupational and Social Mobility:
Jajmani system has stood on the way of occupational mobility and resulted in lowering economic standard of the kamins.
This system is hereditary, so there is no possibility of changing the occupation. In this way the system has checked social mobility. The conditions of the kamins remain miserable because of their economic weaknesses.
- Supported by Caste System:
Caste system is the basis of jajmani system. So this system suffers from all the evils of caste system. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Dr. Majumdar found in his study that the conditions of kamins are miserable and the upper castes subject them to great harassment and trouble.
Q 5 Discuss the role of religion in a capitalist society with reference to Max Weber.
ANS: Max Weber’s outlines his views on religion and capitalism in his book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism.
Weber held the important theory that an individual’s views are significant in promoting social change, not material things as believed by former theorists.
In his work, Weber compares two waves of the calling” as preached by different Protestant leaders and describes the teaching and spread of ascetic beliefs in followers.
This paper considers the context of the calling, explores the outward signs of grace which helped develop capitalism and, lastly, how capitalism, through rationalization, transformed Calvinist ideals for its advancement According to Weber’s findings individualistic views arose through Protestant beliefs.
Martin Luther, a Protestant leader in the 16th century, presents the calling as a means to encourage followers to live honorable lives devoted to God, as a dutiful follower, an individual is to worship and not please God. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Righteous followers were content with their calling and the lives God intended for them.
Luther also instilled a passive form of asce preaching that they carry a simple lifestyle which accorded with their line of work (Desfor Edles and Appelrouth 2010:168).
The meaning of the calling was drastically changed by latter Protestant leaders Calvin and Baxter. They presented the calling as a form of obligation to work for God with no other options.
The calling pushed for individuals to lead an ascetic life; that is. work hard and not enjoy the fruit of their labor.
Calvinists preached that should a person should work as hard a possible because the amount of wealth earned would determine their salvation and without a calling the individual is seen as worthless in the eyes of God (Weber in Desfor Edles and Appelrouth 2010:176).
The calling differed between leaders as Luther’s version of the calling instilled ideas of good morality whereas Calvinists indirectly coerced their followers to work as hard as they could should they want to be saved (Desfor Edles and Appelrouth 2010:168-69).
Leading an ascetic lifestyle helped develop capitalism because of the motivation individuals had on working to their utmost potential – they all wanted to be saved.
However, there were outward signs of grace that definitely had an impact on how people were encouraged to stay focused – those signs were to acquire wealth and maximize profits by investing their means. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
These signs helped develop capitalism because asceticism promoted the least amount of spending
Q 6 Concept of Class
ANS: P.Gisbert – “A social class is a category or group of persons having a definite status in society which permanently determines their relation to other group – feeling of superiority & inferiorities.
The relative position of the class in the social scale arises from the degree of prestige attached to the status.
Class system is based on occupation, wealth, education, age and sex Hierarchy of status group.
In general there are 3 class – upper middle & tower. Status, prestige & role is attached. Upper class are less in no in comparison to the other two whereas their status & prestige is most.
This is like a pyramid. Karl max (Rich & poor) preliterate & Feeling of superiority & inferiority.
In these 3 classes there are such feelings the upper class people feel they are superior to the other two whereas the lower class feels it is inferior to the upper class
Class consciousness – wherever a class is formed this feeling a consciousness is a must. There should be feeling of in group i.e. I belong class conflict is due to this the people of the preliterate class feel the upper class exploits them their they unite revolt.
The behavior action is determined by this class consciousness. Sub-classes, class is divided into different groups. Similar to caste system, the class system is divided
Class system is an open system.BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
There’s social restriction in this too. In general there is endogamy in a class. To maintain their status & position they mix among themselves & it is seldom that marriage between upper & lower class is wished.
Distinction between Caste & class. They are the two phenomena of social stratification (Stratification is division of society on the basis of birth).
Q 7 Gender and Sex
ANS: If sex is a biological concept, then gender is a social concept. It refers to the social and cultural differences a society assigns to people based on their (biological) sex.
A related concept, gender roles, refers to a society’s expectations of people’s behavior and attitudes based on whether they are females or males.
Understood in this way, gender, like race as discussed in Chapter 7 “Deviance, Crime, and Social Control”, is a social construction.
How we think and behave as females and males is not etched in stone by our biology but rather is a result of how society expects us to think and behave based on what sex we are.
As we grow up, we learn these expectations as we develop our gender identity, or our beliefs about ourselves as females or males. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Q 8 Concept of family
ANs: The family is an intimate domestic group made up of people related to one another by bonds of blood, sexual mating or legal ties.
It is the smallest and most basic social unit, which is also the most important primary group found in any society.
It is the simplest and most elementary group found in a society. It is a social group consisting of a father, mother and one or more children.
It is the most immediate group a child is exposed to. In fact, it is the most enduring group, which has tremendous influence on the life of an individual, from birth until death.
It also accounts for the most enduring social relationship found in society. Family has been defined by different social scientists. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
*Family is a group defined by sexual relationship, sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreation and upbringing of children.
– Maclver “The family, almost without question, is the most important of any groups that human experience offers … the family… is with us always, or more precisely, we are with it
Q 9 Economy and its types
ANS: Traditional Economy:
A traditional economy, as the name suggests, is based on a traditional approach. These economies are based on ancient rules and are the most basic type of economy.
The focus in a traditional economy is only on the goods and services that match their customs, beliefs, and history.
Command Economy :
A command economy is the opposite of a free market economy. In a command economy system, there is one centralized power, which in most cases is the government.
So the government makes all decisions regarding the economy. It will decide which goods and services will be produced, in what quantities. The price will also be determined by such centralized power and not by market forces.BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Market Fconomy :
This is the complete opposite of a command economy. A free market economy relies entirely on the free market and free market trends.
There is no involvement or interference from the government or any such controlling power. This means there are no rules or regulations imposed on either buyers or sellers.
The entire economy is determined by the participants of the economy and the laws of demand and supply.
A mixed economy is a perfect marriage between a command economy and a free market economy.
So, by and large, the economy is free of government intervention. But the government will regulate and oversee specific sensitive areas of the economy like transportation, public services, defence etc. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Such an economy is known as a dual economy. The best examples of such a mixed economy are India and France.
Q 10 Types of mode of production
ANS: Tribal and neolithic modes of production Marx and Engels often referred to the “first” mode of production as primitive communism.
In classical Marxism, the two earliest modes of production were those of the tribal band or horde, and of the neolithic kinship group.
Tribal bands of hunter gatherers represented for most of human history the only form of possible existence.
Technological progress in the Stone Age was very slow; social stratification was very limited (as were personal possessions, hunting grounds being held in common), and myth, ritual and magic are seen as the main cultural forms.
Asiatic mode of production The Asiatic mode of production is a controversial contribution to Marxist theory, first used to explain pre-slave and pre-feudal large earthwork constructions in India, the Euphrates and Nile river valleys (and named on this basis of the primary evidence coming from greater “Asia”).
Antique or ancient mode of production
Sometimes referred to as “slave society”, an alternative route out of neolithic self-sufficiency came in the form of the polis or city-state. BSOC 102 Free Solved Assignment 2022
Technological advances in the form of cheap iron tools, coinage, and the alphabet, and the division of labour between industry, trade and farming, enabled new and larger units to develop in the form of the polis, which called in turn for new forms of social aggregation.
Feudal mode of production The fall of the Western Roman Empire returned most of Western Europe to subsistence agriculture, dotted with ghost towns and obsolete trade-routes Authority too was localised, in a world of poor roads and difficult farming conditions.