INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY-I
BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1. Examine Bauman’s contribution to sociological methods.
Ans: Zygmunt Bauman (“Ziggy’), like Bowie, was constantly reinventing himself, though I suspect he saw more continuity through his multiple publications (50+ books) than may be apparent to others.
Starting from a firmly theoretical perspective, he wrote initially on stratification and social class and the likes of hermeneutics (understanding/interpreting) in social science, following up with a remarkable book on Modernity and the Holocaust.
This last work is in my view rightly lauded as a significant contribution to sociological scholarship. Bauman here emphasized the fear of the stranger.
Drawing on Arendt and Adorno, he argued that the Holocaust was not so much a retreat into premodern barbarity, as a phenonemon intrinsic to modernity.
It epitomised a Weberian bureaucratic/iron cage’ excise strangers. Modernity remains susceptible to such purges. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
No brief blog can do justice to Bauman’s many reinventions and interests. I will concentrate here on aspects of his later work.
He can, as Ritzer has observed (in his Contemporary Sociological Theory and its Classical Roots), be regarded either as a modern or a postmodern theorist.
‘Ambiguity’ has settled in as a Bauman theme, if that isn’t a contradiction. We live in a time of new possibilities and new dangers.
On a positive note, he testifies to a ‘postmodern’ acceptance of the messiness of the world. Yet this heralds a new level of multiple uncertainties.
Moreover these uncertainties have become individualized or ‘private’ matters. Ritzer writes:
‘faced with private fears, postmodern individuals are also doomed to try to escape those fears on their own.
Not surprisingly, they have been drawn to communities as shelters from these fears. However, this raises the possibility of conflict between communities.
Bauman worries about these hostilities and argues that we need to put a brake on them through the development of solidarity’ BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
In an era characterized as ‘neotribal’, I would add that it is unsurprising that people who find themselves ‘desterted’ and ‘alone in a postmodern, relativised culture seek refuge in fundamentalisms (and what kind of toleration is it that tolerates fundamentalisms?).
The first is ‘tribal politics’, which asserts that postmodern tribes exist symbolically as imagined communities; and these tribes compete via rituals and spectacles to win approval and support.
The second is a ‘politics of desire’, which refers to tribes’ commitment to and commendation of certain types of behaviour.
It is a politics of seduction: tribes compete to lodge their tokens in people’s minds as objects of desire.
Third is the ‘politics of fear’, which derives from a scepticism and mistrust of the pronouncements and counsel of assorted political agencies.
Finally comes the ‘politics of certainty’, which encompasses a mistrust of those ‘experts’ who, if only they could (still) be trusted, might proffer solutions to pressing problems of purpose and selfidentity.
Many of these ideas and claims are epitomised in Bauman’s pivotal concept of liquid modernity.
Revealingly, the subtitle of his Liquid Times is living in an age of uncertainty. I shall concentrate here on his remarks on freedom.
A distnction is made between subjective and objective freedom. Subjective freedom has to do with how one perceives the limits to one’s freedom, while objective freedom pertains, when all’s said and done, to one’s actual capacity to act.
Thus people can feel (subjectively) either free or constrained in contradiction with their (objective) circumstances. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Bauman suggests that people can and do dislike the idea of freedom because it seems a ‘mixed blessing. He is not unsympathetic, citing Durkheim’s judgement that by putting oneself under the wings of society one might gain a ‘liberating dependence’.
To be totally free is to exist in a constant agony of uncertainty and indecision, not least in relation to the will of others.
Norms provide well-trod paths and settled routines. Contemporary societies remain open to critique, but the context and targets have changed.
Critiques have shifted from positing and promoting societal change to a focus on ourselves and our life-politics.
Our reflexivity has become shallow and no longer extends meaningfully to the systemness of society or the system’s colonisation of the lifeworld.
In liquid modernity the options to disavow one’s individualism and to decline to participate have been removed. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
How one lives adds up to a biographical solution to systemic contradictions. The contradictions and their associated risks remain, but the duty to confront and deal with them has become individualized and a matter of personal responsibility.
Bauman argues too that a gap is opening up between individuality as fate and the capacity for self-assertion.
This ‘capacity’, he suggests, now falls well short of what is required for genuine, ‘authentic’ self-assertion.
It is the task of a critical theory of society’, Bauman avers, to devise the means to so empower individuals that they have a degree of control over the resources required for authentic self-assertion
The postmodern represents a break from the modern. Postmodernity, Bauman writes, ‘is modernity reconciled to its own impossibility – and determined, for better or worse, to live with it.
Modern practice continues – now, however, devoid of the objective that once triggered it off.’ Bauman is such a prolific writer that these few paragraphs cannot be anything other than a purposeful extraction. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
What is important from my vantage point is that:
(a) when push comes to shove he opts for a commitment to continuity as opposed to discontinuity by retaining the concept of ‘modernity’; and
(b) he catches much of the cultural change that has accompanied, and is functional for, our present era of post-1970s financial capitalism.
Both (a) and (b) warrant elaboration. I too am unconvinced by arguments for the end of modernity (let alone of history).
I have avoided the prejudicial term ‘late modernity’ and used the more neutral ‘high modernity’ in my own writings.
Bauman also distanced himself (eventually) from conjectures around a new era of postmodernity.
Capitalism persists, if in innovative clothing, as do so many of its social structures/relations/mechanisms.
However, Bauman perspicuously analyses the cultural transumutation that has walked in tandem with financial capitalism.
This novel (ʻrejoice, you’re on your own’) postmodern relativism, which ‘feels emancipatory’, but which Habermas wisely casts as the latest form of neo-conservatism, delivers significant obstacles to the solidarity that Bauman calls for.
The key question for sociology in my view is this: how in this most unsympathetic and inauspicious phase of financial capitalism can the objective reality of class relations and struggle or ‘warfare’ be translated into a potentially belligerent and transformative subjective sense of, and impulse to, ‘class consciousness? Bauman’s contribution is to lay bare the cultural ‘obstacles’.
Q 2. Discuss the relationship between sociology and political science
Ans: Political Science and Sociology are no doubt, intimately connected. Both the sciences are mutually helpful. Political activity is only a part of social activity. Thus, Political Science is regarded as the branch of social science.
The political activities influence and are influenced by the social life of man. Political activities will have no meaning outside the social content.
Political Science gives Sociology facts about the organisation and functions of the State and Government. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Sociology studies various political institutions, associations and organizations by the help of Political Science.
Political Science studies the present social problems through Sociology. Moris Ginsberg writes, “Historically, Sociology has its main roots in politics and philosophy of History.”
The State in its early form was more a social institution than a political one. Moreover, a political scientist must be also a sociologist. The laws of the State have a great influence upon society.
The laws are largely based on customs and traditions. Thus, Paulzannet says, “Political Science is a part of Sociology.
Sociology borrows Political Science and Political Science borrows Sociology.” It is rightly said that society is the mirror of political life of the country. Both are the two sides of the same coin.
Sociology and political science are so closely and deeply related to each other that one becomes meaningless without the other.
According to Morris Ginsberg “Historically, Sociology has its main roots in politics and philosophy of history”. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
The state, which is the center of political science in its early stage, was more of a social than political institution,Sociology is the fundamental social science, which studies man’s social life as a whole and attempts to discover the facts and the laws of life as a whole.
Political science, on the other hand, is concerned with the political life of a man, which is one part of his total life.
Sociology is the science of society where as the political science is mainly concerned with the state and government.
These two social sciences are very common in certain spheres. Political science is a branch of sociology, which deals with the principles of organization and government of human society.
The subject matter of political science thus comes within the field of sociology, Sociology depends very much on political science in every respect.
The state and governments make laws for the welfare of the society, the government removes social evils such as poverty, unemployment, dowry and so on from the society. The undesirable customs are uprooted from the society by the government.
The government gives financial assistance to people at the time of natural calamities such as floods, famine, cyclone and drought. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Social institutions and social organizations are regulated by the state and government. Sociology studies various aspects of political activities through the help of political science.
The government can bring about changes in the society with the help of laws.
In the same way, political science depends upon sociology and sociology provides material to political science that is the political life of the people.
Therefore, some sociologists regard political science as a special branch of sociology, it can be said that without sociological background the study of political science is quite impossible.
Political science deals with the social group organized under the sovereignty of the state. The forms of government, the nature of governmental organs, the laws and sphere of the state activity are chiefly determined by the social processes.
The laws which are formed by the government are based on the social customs, traditions, mores, norms, etc. of the society.
Most of the changes which have been taken place in the political theory, during the past times have been possible due to sociology.
For understanding of political problems, some knowledge about sociology is very essential because all political problems are mainly corrected with a social aspect.
In this connection F.H. Gidding says “To teach the theory of the state to men who have not learn the first principle of sociology is like teaching astronomy or thermodynamics to men who have not learnt Newton’s laws of Motion”.
Thus, both sociology and political science depends upon each other. Both are inter-related and inter-dependent. Truly, it can be said that society is the mirror of politics of the country.
According to G.E.G. Catlin, sociology and political science are the two faces of the same figure. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
In the opinion of EG. Wilson “It must be admitted of course, that it is often difficult to determine, whether a particular writer should be considered as sociologists or political theorist or philosopher.
Q 3. Distinguish between sociology and economics.
Ans: Economics and Sociology are two branches of social science that study human development overall Economics is the social science that deals with factors of production, consumption of goods and services and resource management.
Sociology is the study of human behaviour, development and how different human societies
function under different organizational structures.
Economics deals and covers only the economic relations concerning people and forms only one aspect of man’s social life.
It is concerned with studying man in accordance with wealth, how man acquires and disposes of it. It studies the relations and factors which are purely economic.
Factors such as the price, supply, demands of goods and services, elasticity of the products and how these factors contribute to the fluctuation of the products and services in the market are the basic knowledge of economics.
In economics, man is the main subject of interest. Economics studies humans as an economic being and therefore is very concrete.
It does not have much scope in comparison to sociology because the economics just covers the economic relation of man. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Sociology, on the other hand, deals with the social aspect of man, the diverse patterns of interactions and relationships people around the globe employ.
Society is the target of learning and experimenting. It is the component of sociology just as individually is to economics.
Despite the above-mentioned differences sociology and economics are dependent on each other. Economics which is mainly concerned with the economic aspect of man is directly correlated to of societies.
In order to understand the economic lives of human beings, knowledge about societies i.e., the behaviors, actions, and activities is a prerequisite.
This is of doing these actions, activities, economy plays a major role. It directly the societies. Simultaneously sociology concerning the study of social beings is highly impacted by the economic factors.
While studying these social associations and behavior of social animals studying how man acquire wealth.
consume it and dispose of is an integral part without which one cannot completely understand the factors and relationships that constitute the societies as sociologists.
Hence economics as a branch of social science and a discipline is considered to be the branch of sociology Since both the disciplines are directly proportional economic welfare is also a part of social welfare. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
It is not worth considering the economic welfare in the absence of sufficient and appropriate knowledge of the social aspect of social animals and vice versa.
|. Economics focuses on how economic factors behave in a given scenario and how economies operate||.Traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification, social class, religion, law etc.|
|. Economics is further divided into Microeconomics and Macroeconomics. Microeconomics analyzes elements such as individual buyer and businesses while macroeconomics analyzes the economy as a whole where factors of productions such as land, labour and capital are studied in detail||. Sociology can also be defined as the general science of society as it uses various methods of critical analysis and empirical investigation that develops a system of knowledge about social change and behaviour|
|. Other broad definitions within economics include positive economics and normative economics. Positive economics describes what is while normative economics focus on “what should be||. Sociology has slowly expanded its focus on other subjects such as health, medicines, military, social stigma, the system of control and role of social activity in human development|
|. Economic analyses can find its applications in finance, government, businesses. It is even at times applied to subjects such as crime, family law and war.||. Research done through sociology has influence throughout various aspects of life and finds its application among politicians, policymakers, educators and legislators|
|. Adam Smith (15th June 1723 – 17th July 1790) is regarded as the father of modern economics)||. Modern-day Sociology can find its origins through the works of Auguste Comte ( January 19th, 1798 – September 5 1857)|
Q 4.Explain the link between sociology and Psychology.
Ans: Sociology and Psychology are closely related with each other. Both are interrelated and inter-dependent. Psychology is concerned with the exploration of the depth of man’s mind and behavior in society. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
It is said that psychology shows the significance of the relationship between the organism (individual) and environment and the response of the former to the latter.
It is defined as the study of man’s mental life and behavior”. It is the science of mind of mental processes.
The aim of psychology is to arrive at the laws of mental life and behavior of human beings. Sociology, on the other hand is the study of society.
It studies man’s social relationships. In the words of Thouless, psychology is the positive science of human experience and behavior.
Thus, sociology studies society where as psychology is concerned with human behavior, So there are resemblances between psychology and sociology.
Both are regarded as positive science. These two disciplines have a great deal in common and are inter-related.
It is difficult to understand the inter-relations and the activities of human beings; without an adequate knowledge of human psychology. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
In the same way, many truths of psychology would remain unintelligible without a comprehensive idea about social relationships, behavior and activities.
While sociology and psychology are different areas of study, they have overlapping features that create similarities between the two.
When looking at sociology and psychology, a key feature common to them is studying patterns of recurring behaviour characteristics.
The study of patterns promotes better understanding and fixed criteria. Sociology acknowledges the individual’s choices and behaviour as a role in society which is determined by the individual’s ability to make decisions which are influenced by psychology.
The society of the individual influences the individual choices as the psychological theory states that individuals have the instinct to belong.
In order to study these similarities, the field of social psychology looks at an individual and influence of the society on the individual. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Social psychology is the scientific study of how people’s thoughts, feelings, beliefs, intentions and goals are constructed within a social context by the actual or imagined interactions with others.
Social psychology looks at attributes such as prejudice, attitudes, aggression, which are psychological concepts that play a role in determining the grouping and social acceptance of an individual.
Q 5.Discuss the functional theory of Malinowski.
Ans: According to Leach, the anthropological greatness of Malinowski lies in his theoretical assumption that all field data must fit and form a total picture, just like in a jigsaw puzzle.
In the words of Evans-Pritchard (1954: 54), for Malinowski functional method was ‘a literary device for integrating his observations for descriptive purposes.
It is not out of place to mention here that it was Malinowski’s contemporary Radcliffe-Brown who later developed the functional or organismic theory of society.
With the definition of functionalism sort of nailed down, let’s move on to two of the men who are usually considered its biggest proponents.
Now, depending which source you read, both of these guys are given credit with developing the theory of functionalism. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
For our purposes, we’ll let the professionals argue over who really came up with the theory. We’ll just refer to Bronislaw Malinowski and Emile Durkheim as two of the most famous functionalists in history.
First, Bronislaw Malinowski, as a British anthropologist, Malinowski claimed that all aspects of culture function in order to support society.
However, he put a bit of a twist on it. For him, it was more individual or personal. He asserted that all aspects of culture originated in order to meet the need of the individual.
In other words, culture came about because individuals had needs. As these individual needs are met, the individual is then free to support society.
To put him in a neat little box, let’s say that Bronislaw Malinowski felt that culture functioned to take care of the need of the individual.
the individual trumped society. Unfortunately for Malinowski, most of his theories have been rather dismissed by more modern anthropologists.
Q 6. Distinguish between in-group and out-group.
Ans: (1) The groups with which individual identifies himself are his in group, one’s family, one’s college are example of his in group. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
But out groups refers to those groups with which individual do not identify himself. These are outside groups. Pakistan is an out group for Indians.
(2) In group members use the term ‘we’ to express themselves but they use the term ‘they’ for the members of out-group.
(3) Individual is the member of his in group whereas he is not at all a member of his out group.
(4) In group based on ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism is one of the important characteristic of in group. But out group is not based on ethnocentrism.
(5) Similarity in behavior, attitude and opinion is observed among the members of in group. But they show dissimilar behavior; attitude and opinion towards the members of out group.
(6) In group members have positive attitude towards their own in group but they have negative attitudes towards their out group.
(7) Members of in group display co-operation, good-will, mutual help and possess a sense of solidarity, a feeling of brotherhood and readiness to sacrifice themselves for the group.
But individual shows a sense of avoidance, dislike, indifference and antagonism towards the members of out group. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
(8) In group is a group to which individual belongs to but all other group to which he does not belongs to are his out group.
(9) Members of in group feel that their personal welfare is bound up with other members of group but out group members do not feel so.
Q 7. What is ‘informal control??
Ans: Informal social control, as the term implies, is used by people casually. Norms are enforced through the informal sanctions.
These norms include folkways, customs, mores, values, conventions, fashions and public opinion, etc.
Ritual and ceremony also act as instruments of informal control. But ceremony plays a less important role in modem society than in the traditional societies.
Informal control often takes the form of a look, nudge or frown which says ‘behave yourself or get into line’. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
Methods and techniques of informal control are numerous. They vary with the purpose and the character of the group in question.
For example, in a homogeneous primary group type of village community, the gossip may be a potent means of enforcing conformity but would be of little importance in the personal life of a metropolis like Mumbai.
Informal social control is based on this popular belief that ‘the all-seeing eyes of Gods are everywhere’.
It acts as mores (a controlling device). A belief in spiritual persons, who are omnipresent and omniscient, introduces an imagined presence which serves as a powerful controlling device.
Q 8. What is ‘primary socialisation’?
Ans: Primary socialisation is the process that helps a child to become socialised through the family support. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
It is the process that occurs in the early childhood. The role of the family is crucial in making a kid aware of the different cultural and social elements.
It is evident as a child has an attachment with the family or the guardian. This way he or she finds it easy to learn the values, social norms and practice, etc.
As per the theory of Talcott Parsons, a family takes two processes to help a child become socialised. Those are:
Internationalization of the society’s culture
Structuring of the personality
Q 9. What is role learning?
Ans: Role-play pedagogy has been shown to be effective in reaching learning outcomes in three major learning domains: affective, cognitive, and behavioral (Maier, 2002; Rao & Stupans, 2012). BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
By making students take on the role of another person, they practice empathy and perspective-taking.
Role Play, or Role Playing, allows a learner to assume the role or tasks of a job by practicing or simulating real working conditions.
The objective of role playing is to learn, improve or develop upon the skills or competencies necessary for a specific position.
Though role-play has traditionally been used in educational settings with an emphasis on the social dynamic of learning and fostering collaboration among students (Joyce & Weil, 2000), researchers have found role-play useful in getting students to better grasp practical cognitive skills as well.
Q 10. What is gemeinschaft?
Ans: Different authors have a different definition of the word gemeinschaft. Some say it is a group of individual with the same attitude and similar sentiments, characterized by a close personal relationship, a common sense of identity, and similar traditional sentimental concern. BSOC 101 Free Solved Assignment
It is found in small social structures where human relationships are valued and that the welfare of a society is given attention to that of individuals.
In these societies, the people have an instinct to ethnically or racially German sociologist Ferdinand Tonnies saw the family as a perfect expression of the concept of Gemeinschaft with a perfect example shown in communities that had shared norms and beliefs.
BSOC 132 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22
BSOC 131 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22