CONFLICT RESOLUTION AND PEACE BUILDING
BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Assignment – I
Q 1. What are the life cycles of conflict? How is crisis prevention different from crisis management?
ANS: Conflict is as old as nature, an inherent phenomenon in the existence of mankind.
This is premised on the gregarious nature of man which often ipso facto culminates into misunderstanding or quarrel in social relations, brought about by differences in preferences.
Stage 1- Beginning A conflict begins to take shape as the differences between the conflicting parties become clearly defined and people begin to take sides openly.
The language of ‘us and them’ starts being widely used, and the idea of a ’cause’ to support emerges on both sides.
There is no violence at this point. If a society is strong and its leaders enlightened, a conflict can be dealt with in a constructive and positive way at this stage, and violence and a worsening situation can be avoided.
Stage 2-Early growth
But if there are no existing ways of dealing with social tensions and divisions, the conflict grows I worse.
The two sides express open hostility, so that ‘us and them’ now become the enemy’ to each other. Each side increases its demands, and its sense of grievance swells.
Each side looks for allies from outside the conflict area, for moral and physical support. Acts of violence begin. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
If violence is not repressed, the opposing sides hit back at one another and a destructive and deadly spiral begins.
If one of the sides has greater forces (as governments backed by armies do, for example, suppressing civilian opposition) it may at this stage suppress its opponents, but the underlying causes of conflict remain to break out another day
Now the two sides are openly at war. Each side perceives the other as the aggressor on whom blame for the conflict falls.
Each side regards itself as having the just cause. The lawlessness of war takes over, as inhibitions and restraints or violence are abandoned.
Three possible situations can now be reached: (a) a stalemate with each side matching the other in violence;
(b) a surge of violence on one side, (c) exhaustion of strength and resources on both sides (this has been called ‘a mutually-hurting stalemate’).
Situation (a) continues the spiral of violence, or may halt it at a particular level which both sides keep up.BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Situation (b) can make a change: for example, one side’s increased power may cause the other side to change its tactics.
The conflict may return to earlier stage and repeat them. If a side now decides to withdraw, the conflict remains unresolved and is likely to begin again later.
Situation (c) is the position from which the conflict can most readily move t next stage.
Stage 4-Looking for a way out
If and when the conflict reaches a stage where both sides are unhappy with the state of things many losses, dwindling resources, no achievable result’ they may enter into ceasefire agreements.
These provide a pause, which is often used for resting and regrouping before embarking on the earlier stages again.
Sooner or later, however, both sides decide that ending the conflict is a problem they must both solve, though it has to be done without loss of face.
At this point a third party can, be introduced to mediate and negotiate.
This can be done, at first, without the leaders of the two sides having to meet each other.
Stage 5-Settling the dispute or resolving the conflict?
Settlements involve compromise, often with bitter arguments over what the compromises will be.BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
They seldom lead to a solution in which the two sides can collaborate to establish a firm peace.
Settlements establish ways in which either side is prepared to end conflict at least for the time being Conflict resolution,
however, looks at the underlying causes which started the conflict and deals with them, so that the risks of future conflict are removed, or initially reduced.
Both sides join together to achieve this outcome.
Complete resolution of a conflict is difficult after such great hostility, but may be reached after the passage of healing time if everyone has this aim.
Working together Now the agreement has to be put into effect. Both sides need to create a new order together, rebuilding homes, restoring jobs and education, establishing enlightened management/government, disarming fighters and allowing refugees to return home.
Even more important, the two sides have to face up to the past, share their griefs, and reconcile their differences.
This needs sensitivity, courage, and, above all, immense patience.
crisis prevention different from crisis management: The close link with DEA results from the sharp increase in prolonged crisis and conflict situations such as those in Central Africa, in the Near East and Central Asia, in the Caucasus and in Southeast Europe.
These situations are forcing the development community to find fresh responses to the conflicting objectives of short-term aid measures, and development cooperation measures that seek to help bring about structural change.
Furthermore, emergency aid faces three specific challenges: the unintended counterproductive effects of any aid delivered in prolonged conflict situations,
its role within the framework of peace consolidation, and the simultaneity of post-war reconstruction and rehabilitation, and crisis prevention.
To achieve any positive effects at all, emergency aid must deliver resources to the crisis region. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Inevitably, however, this creates a risk that the conflict situation itself may not remain unaffected by this.
Given the shortage of resources everyone, including the parties to the conflict, have a vested interested in utilising this transfer to their own advantage.
This is compounded by the fact that general conditions surrounding the aid measures can be problematic (protection by militias, negotiations with ward lords over rights of passage, different treatment of international and national personnel).
Consequently, this puts to the test both the neutrality of emergency aid, the effects it generates which might under certain circumstances prolong war, and the knock on effects that help stabilise the political system.
Q 2. What do you mean by peace? Discuss typology of peace with examples.
ANS: Peace is a concept of societal friendship and harmony in the absence of hostility and violence.
In a social sense, peace is commonly used to mean a lack of conflict (such as war) and freedom from fear of violence between individuals or groups.
Throughout history, leaders have used peacemaking and diplomacy to establish a type of behavioral restraint that has resulted in the establishment of regional peace or economic growth through various forms of agreements or peace treaties.
Martin Luther King Jr. (1929-1968) is perhaps best known as a civil rights campaigner, although he also wrote and spoke extensively on peace and nonviolence.
These ideals were also exemplified in his life. One could argue that King did not develop any new philosophy as such, but rather expressed ideas of peace and nonviolence in a uniquely powerful way. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Some of the key themes articulated by King were the importance of loving one’s enemies, the duty of nonconformity, universal altruism, inner transformation,
the power of assertiveness, the interrelatedness of all reality, the counterproductive nature of hate, the insanity of war,
the moral urgency of the now, the necessity of nonviolence in seeking for peace, the importance of a holistic approach to social change, and the notion of evil, especially as evidenced in racism, extreme materialism and militarism.
Gene Sharp (1928-2018) was also an important theorist of nonviolence and nonviolent action and his work has been widely used by nonviolent activists.
Central to his thought are his insights into the power of the state, notably that this power is contingent upon compliance by the subjects of a state. This compliance works through state institutions and through culture.
From this, Sharp developed a program of nonviolent action, which works through subverting state power.
Critics of Sharp argue that he was in effect a supporter of an American-led world order, especially as his program of nonviolent struggle was generally applied to countries not complying with US geostrategic priorities or with countries not compliant with corporate interests.
Johan Galtung (1930-) is widely recognized as the leading contemporary theorist on peace, and he is often described as the founder of contemporary peace theory.
Galtung has approached the challenge of categorizing peace through describing violence, and specifically through differentiating direct violence from indirect or structural violence.
From this distinction, Galtung has developed an integrated typology of peace, comprising: direct peace, where persons or groups are engaged in no or minimal direct violence against another person or group; BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
structural peace, involving just and equitable relationships in and between societies, and cultural peace, where there is a shared commitment to mutual support and encouragement.
More recently, a further dimension has been developed, namely, environmental peace, that is, the state of being in harmony with the environment.
The notions of positive and negative peace derive largely from the work of Galtung.
Direct peace may be seen as similar to negative peace, in that this involves the absence of direct violence.
Structural and cultural peace are similar notions to positive peace, in that these notions invite reflection on wider ideas of what we look for in a peaceful society and in peaceful interactions between individuals and groups.
Similarly, an integrated notion of peace, involving personal and social dimensions of peace, derives substantially from Galtung, in that Galtung sees the notions of peace and war as involving more than an absence of violence between nation-states,
which is what people often think of when we speak of a time of peace or a time of war.
The value of the various Galtungian paradigms is that they encourage thinking about the complex nature of peace and violence.
Yet a problem with the Galtungian approach is that it can be argued as being too all-encompassing, and thus too diffuse.
Peace researcher Kenneth Boulding summed up this problem by suggesting, famously, that the notion of structural violence, as developed by Galtung, is, in effect, anything that Galtung did not like. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
By implication, Galtung’s notion of peace too can be argued to be too general and too diffuse.
Interestingly, Galtung has suggested that defining peace is a never-ending task, and indeed articulating a philosophy of peace might similarly be regarded as a never-ending exercise.
The realization that peace is more than the absence of conflict lies at the heart of the emergence of the notion of a culture of peace,
a notion which has been gaining greater attention within peace research in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.
The notion was implicit within the UNESCO mandate, with the acknowledgment that since wars begin in human minds, it follows that the defense against war needs to be established in the minds of individuals.
An extensive expression of this notion was set forth in the United Nations General Assembly resolution , the Declaration and Programme of Action on a Culture of Peace, adopted unanimously on 13 September 1999,
which describes a culture of peace as a set of values, attitudes, traditions and modes of behavior and ways of life.
Article 1 of the document indicates that these are based upon a respect for life, ending of violence and promotion and practice of nonviolence through education, dialogue and cooperation Any attempt at a philosophy of a culture of peace is complex.
One of the challenges is that conflict is a necessary part of human experience and an important element in the emergence of culture.
Even if we differentiate violent conflict from mere social conflict, this does not solve the problem entirely, as human culture has still been very much dependent upon the phenomenon of war.BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
A more thorough solution is to admit that war and violence are indeed important factors in human experience and in the formation of human culture, and, rather than denying this,
to attempt to seek and foster alternatives to war as a crucial motivating cultural factor for human endeavor, such as William James suggested in his famous essay on a moral equivalent of war.
Assignment – II
Q 1. Write a critical note on whether conflict is inherent in human beings. Substantiate with arguments.
ANS: Conflict or the propensity for conflict is part of the makeup of human beings. Whenever we develop or form associations with others we are entering into a relationship where choices and decisions have to be made.
The existential approach to existence discusses the constant attachment of anxiety, which may be due to the fact that we have to make life choices.
The decisions we take, the choices we make are not always going to be calm and assured, or in fact agreed
The reality of decision making has always got to be touched by the notion that ‘I may get it wrong, and if I do what do I do then, and is this decision that I am making going to affect others, and if so in what way. I must be prepared for a reaction’.
Internal conflict appears to be a burden that we must bear, however it may also play a crucial part in the way that we develop our existence especially in the way we co-exist with others. Georg Simmel (1955) writes: BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
‘There probably exists no social unit in which convergent and divergent currents among its members are not inseparably interwoven.
An absolutely centripetal and harmonious group, a pure ‘unification, not only is unreal, it could should have no real life process … society, too, in order to attain a determinate shape, needs some quantitative ratio of harmony and disharmony, of association and competition, of favourable and unfavourable tendencies.’
Q 2. Explain the salient points of constructive versus transformative approach and peace versus justice approach
ANS: Kegan, R. (2000). What “form” transforms?: A constructive developmental approach to transformative learning. In J. Mezirow (Ed.) & Associates, Learning as Transformation (pp. 334). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Transformation Learning and the Problem of Its Success “Ironically, as the language of transformation is more widely assimilated it risks losing its genuinely transformative potential (p. 47)!” Distinct features include:
Distinct features include :
“Transformational kinds of learning need to be more clearly distinguished from informational kinds of learning, and each needs to be recognized as valuable in any learning activity, discipline, or field.
The form that is undergoing transformation needs to be better understood; if there is no form there is no transformation. At the heart of a form is a way of knowing (what Mezirow calls a ‘frame of reference’); BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
thus genuinely transformational learning is always to some extent an epistemological change rather than merely a change in behavioral repertoire or an increase in the quantity or fund of knowledge
Even as the concept of transformational learning needs to be narrowed by focusing more explicitly on the epistemological, it needs to be broadened to include the whole life span; transformation learning is not he province of adulthood or adult education alone.
Adult educators with an interest in transformational learning may need a better understanding of their students’ current epistemologies so as not to create learning designs that unwittingly presuppose the very capacities in the students their designs might seek to promote.
Adult educators may better discern the nature of learns’ particular needs for transformational learning by better understanding not only their students’ present epistemologies but the epistemological complexity of the present learning challenges they face in their lives (pp. 4748).”
Informational Learning and Transformational Learning
“Learning aimed at increasing our fund of knowledge, at increasing our repertoire of skills, at extending already established cognitive capacities into new terrain serves the absolutely crucial purpose of deepening the resources available to an existing frame of reference.
Such learning is literally in-form-ative because it seeks to bring valuable new contents into the existing form of our way of knowing (p. 49).”
“Transformation should not refer to just any kind of change, even to any kind of dramatic,consequential change (p. 49).”
Informative learning is valuable and serves a purpose, but it is not considered transformational learning BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Informative learning = changes in what we know; Transformative learning = changes in how we know
Informative learning involves changes within an existing frame of reference. The context determines the extent to which a particular type of learning – informational or transformative – is fore grounded
Peace building initiatives in Africa must balance the demand for justice against the need for peace and reconciliation.
Truth and reconciliation commissions have gained in popularity following their perceived success in South Africa.
At the same time, there is a trend towards institutions which emphasise prosecution for crimes committed regardless of national sovereignty or peace processes.
Despite the political nature of many of these bodies, many agree that their development signifies a move towards the greater acceptance of human rights law.
An analysis of the relative success or failure of transitional justice models can add to our understanding of peacebuilding in Africa: While truth and reconciliation commissions can help to restore the dignity of victims they may not offer a deterrent to human rights violations. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
While transitional justice mechanisms have given increasing attention to the impact of conflict on women, they have not stemmed occurrences of violence against women.
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda has achieved landmark convictions for genocide and rape as a war crime.
However, its cost and the slow nature of its proceedings have attracted criticism.
Sierra Leone’s Special Court operates under both national and international law.
It has so far failed to secure a single conviction and has been accused of promoting US interests rather than justice for Sierra Leone’s people.
Traditional mechanisms to promote reconciliation nave veen used in Kwanda and Mozambique.
However, there are concerns that these mechanisms do not meet international standards or establish true responsibility.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) has so far only investigated cases in Africa, raising concerns that it targets only poor nations.
There are also fears that the ICC could undermine peace talks in Uganda.
Q 3. Explain the obstacles to interreligious dialogue and risks involved in it.
ANS: The first challenge is a lack of focus. For any interfaith dialogue to succeed, all parties must be clear on the conversation’s goals. This can help people decide which conversations they should join. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
For example, if the goal is to discuss complex theological issues, it is necessary to include scripture experts, historians, linguists, and other academics.
Lay people and usually younger people may not feel comfortable in these discussions.
On the other hand, conversations focused around personal values and experiences would be more appealing to people who do not fit into a defined faith or spiritual category (e.g. agnostics or atheists) or people who are less interested in theology.
Academics who want to debate religious minutiae would probably shy away from these discussions.
Thus, it is necessary to hold multiple different types of conversations, each geared to a different audience.
The second challenge is when people feel that they need to “water down” or compromise their religious identity in order to fit in.
This often occurs when dialogue participants come across an unresolvable difference: for example, whether Jesus was a prophet (the Muslim belief) or whether he was the son of God (the Christian belief). BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Ideally, interfaith dialogue is supposed to help each participant better understand their own religion and discover the areas in which their religion is unique.
In the situation described, both parties should agree to disagree. They should accept that differences exist and seek to understand them without compromising their own beliefs.
The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) experienced a similar situation when he was negotiating a treaty with non-Muslims.
They offered to worship his god for one year if he promised to worship their many gods during the next year.
His answer is described in Chapter 109, verse 6 of the Quran: “For you is your religion, and for me is my religion.”
The third challenge is proselytizing, or attempting to convert others. This is also antithetical to the idea of respecting each other’s differences.
It is perfectly acceptable for dialogue participants to claim that they have the absolute truth. After all, many religions make similar claims that often conflict will beliefs of other religions.
However, in interfaith dialogue, participants should enter the conversation in order to leam about other religions’ beliefs, not to promote their own.
Although some Muslims consider dawah (Islamic missionary work) to be an important part of their tradition, Muslims must also respect the rule in Chapter 2, Verse 256 of the Quran: “There is no compulsion in religion.”
Thus, although there may be a time and place for proselytizing (as in other traditions like Christianity), interfaith dialogue should not be done with conversion in Mind.
Interfaith dialogue can be an excellent way to heal divisions in society.
Social science research indicates that having a positive, meaningful relationship with someone of a different background and learning about their identity correlates to viewing that person’s entire group more favorably.
The same logic applies with interfaith conversations.
If we as Americans pursue interfaith dialogue while attempting to address the challenges described above, we can break down stereotypes and find more areas of common ground.
In the process, we can reinforce our national motto of E pluribus unum, the idea that our similarities as Americans are greater than our differences.
Assignment – III
Q 1. Civil Society for Peace Building
ANS: Civil society is widely understood to play an important role in reducing violence, and in facilitating the conditions necessary for building a sustainable peace.
Despite the ever-growing emphasis on the role of civil society in peacebuilding, little systematic research has been done to empirically support this assumption.
Comparative analysis of civil society effectiveness in 13 case studies suggests that: Civil society has an important supportive (not necessarily decisive) role in peacebuilding.
The central impetus for peacebuilding comes mainly from political actors, and above all, from the conflict parties themselves. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Civil society can make a difference when roles are performed in an effective way, at the optimal time.
A functional approach is valuable in analysing civil society’s role in peacebuilding: This identifies what is needed, prior to an analysis of who has the potential to fulfill those functions.
Both the relevance of civil society functions and civil society’s peacebuilding potential vary according to the phases of conflict.
There is an imbalance between implemented civil society activities and their relevance for peacebuilding: Even when a function is highly relevant in a particular phase of conflict, it is not necessarily performed by civil society actors.
Functions which are not highly relevant during violent phases of conflict are implemented widely, especially during a window of opportunity for reaching a peace agreement.
The effectiveness of civil society varies substantially from function to function: When performed, protection, monitoring, advocacy and facilitation were often effective.
Efforts aimed at socialisation and social cohesion were less effective.
Addressing the different conflict lines within societies is a matter of violence prevention: Civil society tends to pay the most attention to the main conflict lines within a given society,
but disregarding other cleavages and tensions in societies may lead to future outbreaks of violence. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Context matters: It strongly influences the space for civil society to act and thus strengthens or limits its overall effectiveness.
The main contextual factors to be considered are: the behavior of the state; the level of violence; the role of the media; the behaviour and composition of civil society itself (including diaspora organisations); and the influence of external political actors and donors.
Q 2. Gene Sharp (1928-2018)
ANS: Gene Sharp (1928-2018) was the world’s foremost expert on nonviolent revolution and has been described as the “Machiavelli of nonviolence.”
In a lifetime of academic work, he has established nonviolent action and people power as successful instruments for political change.
Sharp’s writings on nonviolent struggle have been used by social movements around the world, from the jungles of Burma to the streets of Serbia and Cairo’s Tahrir Square during the Arab Spring Sharp argued that the major unresolved political problems of our time – dictatorships, genocide, war and social oppression – require us to rethink politics.
He maintained throughout his life that pragmatic, strategically planned, nonviolent struggle can be highly effective in ending oppression.
His 1993 book From Dictatorship to Democracy has inspired nonviolent protests around the world. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Simple to translate and easy to smuggle across borders, this book has become one of the seminal works for democracy activists across the world, translated into more than 34 languages reaching every continent.
A future of domination, the rule of violence and popular helplessness is not inevitable.
We now have the knowledge needed to block that sad future, if we have the will to use it. Gene Sharp, 2012 Laureate
Q 3. Montgomery Bus Boycott (1956
ANS: Years before the boycott, Dexter Avenue minister Vernon Johns sat down in the “whitesonly” section of a city bus. When the driver ordered him off the bus, Johns urged other passengers to join him.
On March 2, 1955, a black teenager named Claudette Colvin dared to defy bus segregation laws and was forcibly removed from another Montgomery bus. Montgomery’s black citizens reacted decisively to the incident.
By December 2, schoolteacher Jo Ann Robinson had mimeographed and delivered 50,000 protest leaflets around town. E.D.
Nixon, a local labor leader, organized a December 4 meeting at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where local black leaders formed the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)to spearhead a boycott and negotiate with the bus company.
Over 70% of the cities bus patrons were African American and the one-day boycott was 90% effective. The MIA elected as their president a new but charismatic preacher, Martin Luther King BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Jr. Under his leadership, the boycott continued with astonishing success. The MIA established a carpool for African Americans.
Over 200 people volunteered their car for a car pool and roughly 100 pickup stations operated within the city.
To help fund the car pool, the MIA held mass gatherings at various African American churches where donations were collected and members heard news about the success of the boycott.
Q 4. Re-construction and Rehabilitation of the Tamils in Sri Lanka
ANS: In Tamil-majority districts, the end of the war has not been synonymous with the withdrawal of troops.
Sri Lanka’s Northern and Eastern provinces continue to see high levels of militarization, with 16 of the Army’s 19 divisions stationed there.
Meanwhile, Tamil-majority cities like Vavuniya see a ratio of one soldier to every three civilians. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
In fact, the Sri Lankan military has only grown since the end of the war, with approximately 200,000 personnel in 2009 to over 400,000 currently.
Although large-scale shelling of Tamil hospitals and villages has stopped, Tamils are routinely stopped and searched without explanation at military checkpoints, while reporters are censored and attacked.
Nadarajah Kugarajah and Thusanth Nadarasalingam are just a few out of countless Tamil journalists who have been assaulted or sent death threats over the past year alone.
Police violence is also rampant and disproportionately affects Tamils.
Demonstrators demanding answers to the whereabouts of their abducted children or the return of their ancestral lands are told to clear out without notice. Tamils are reprimanded for commemorating their deceased.
Sri Lankan officials have long glossed over the pain and agony present in Tamil families who have lost loved ones to artillery fire or enforced disappearances by the Sri Lankan state,
which has been admonished time and time again by supranational human rights organizations for its ongoing use of torture against ethnic minorities.
Q 5 Media and Peace Building
ANS:Media can contribute to peacebuilding through indirect activities (providing non-partisan, balanced information and accountability) and through direct conflict-related programmes. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Interest in the media’s role in peacebuilding is rising.
From the nineties, major media interventions in conflict-prone or transitions countries have involved a range of actors: from international organisations and donors to local and specialised media NGOs.
Activities range from training to provision of equipment, media regulation initiatives and supporting individual media.
It is useful to distinguish between coverage of conflicts by Western media and coverage by the media in the conflict region itself.
Recent trends have seen greater attention to media in peacebuilding and stricter examination of media assistance.
As this is a new field, there are still contentious issues around the roles of journalists and the measurement of impact.
There is debate over how much conventional professional journalism can contribute to the specialised media needed in conflict situations.
Some argue for “peace journalism’, which is shaped by its intended outcome, and for journalists to act as facilitators in conflict resolution.
There is little discussion about the impact of media interventions on the peacebuilding process. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
It is still not well known what is required for a sustainable contribution to peacebuilding via media.
The media and peacebuilding sector also faces challenges in terms of clarifying concepts and approaches and improving design and implementation.
Recommendations focus on donors considering future media assistance for peacebuilding: Donors planning to use media for peacebuilding must prepare carefully.
Programme design and implementation depends on analysis of the context and of the media sector. This also informs decisions about whether media assistance is an appropriate tool for peacebuilding in the first place.
The primary need for people in a conflict situation is an independent news service broadcasting non-partisan information and able to gain credibility.
Once the base of a free media structure is laid, specialised peace and conflict programmes come into focus. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
Donors should conduct conflict and media analysis before communicating decisions to implementing agencies or other interested parties.
If analyses are carried out by agencies submitting proposals, they should be double-checked.
It is best not to rely on one single partner or media outlet Project proposals must be checked for coherence with overall peacebuilding strategy and coherence with long-term objectives of free and independent media.
Project implementation needs quality control and proper monitoring.
Impact assessment of media projects in peacebuilding is a new field. Approved tools are needed.
This involves efforts to commission case studies, develop indicators and conduct baseline surveys.
Many issues in media and peacebuilding require further research. These include: viability of media in weak economies, content regulation post-conflict, elite-controlled media and journalistic ethics. BPSE 146 Free Solved Assignment
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