INTRODUCTION TO SOUTH ASIA
BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Assignment – I
Q 1. Explain the Geo-Political importance of South Asia in current World Order.
Ans: “The division of the Indian subcontinent between two big states, India and Pakistan (as well as a minor one, Bangladesh), may not be history’s last word in political geography there,” Kaplan claims.
History is a record of many distinct spatial configurations between the Central Asian plateau and the Burmese jungles, as I have stated.
This, I feel, is a generally valid point of view, one that I have articulated myself.
The diversity of culture, language, and terrain throughout South Asia coupled with its numerous weak states reminds one of the multi-lingual AustroHungarian Empire that was always a step away from disintegration.
It would not be surprising if South Asia’s political landscape was rearranged to match its diversity.
Yet, the AustroHungarian Empire did not fall apart until the extreme stress of World War I and, while it lasted, it provided a benevolent political and economic space in central Europe, the collapse of which left a vacuum that was filled much worse things for most of the rest of the 20th century.
Likewise, given the status quo nature of modern geopolitics and the fact that the elites of countries like India and Pakistan are fully comınitted to their states,
it is unlikely that anything but a major shock will cause these states to disintegrate, experience secessions, or change their territories.
This is especially true in India, which, despite the odds, has remained quite stable.
Kaplan is coirect in pointing out that India is a fabrication with few historical analogues, particularly in light of the fact that “the topography between today’s northern India and southern India was sometimes divided.”BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The cultural divide between northern and southern South Asia is perhaps the longest and most visible on the continent.
Despite this, the playsical and religious linkages that exist today between noith and south India make the country functional.
On the other hand, he also correctly points out that all of northern South Asia was often a single cultural and political unit, one that only recently was divided because of the creation of Pakistan and Bangladesh (and Nepal).
This northern region, shaped like an upside down “U” consists of the Indus and Ganges river valleys and was historically called Hindustan and Aryavarta.
The division of this region lends a sense of artificialness to South Asia’s political geography.
There are also strong historical and cultural reasons for this that I believe Kaplan does not emphasize enough in his macroscopic focus on geography but his overall point in valid.
South Asia’s current political configuration is the product of British actions and we can’t “assume that this particular British paradigm will last forever.” This is particularly true in Pakistan.
Even without a detailed understanding of the region’s history and geography, it is clear that Pakistan is a volatile country for a variety of internal reasons.
However, it is also insecure from a geopolitical standpoint.
Unlike other huge multi-ethnic countries like India and Indonesia, Pakistan has done relatively little in the way of state building and economic growth, both of which can help a country’s adverse history and geograplıy.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Although Pakistan is frequently viewed as a man-made entity, Kaplan shows out that this is not always the case.
While often part of the main culture or state in north India, nortliwestern portion of the subcontinent has long had a separate and distinct political and cultural history because of its location as the main entiy point into the region.
It was the region of South Asia most often ruled by empires originating in Iran and Central Asia.
Yet despite this, it has rarely existed as its own entity, like modern Pakistan, either existing as the eastern portion of some Persian or Central Asian state or as the western portion of some north Indian state.
The ethnic groups of Pakistan transition into Afghanistan and India without any clear division that makes it difficult for Pakistan to act as a coherent, separate unit, especially if it has an incompetent government.
It only takes a disturbance to blur Pakistan’s boundaries.
As Kaplan argues, this has in fact begun to happen on Pakistan’s western border.
Kaplan writes: “Pakistan’s de facto separation from Afghanistan began to end somewhat with the Soviet invasion of the latter country in December 1979,
which ignited a refugee exodus down the Khyber and other passes that disrupted Pakistani politics and worked to further erode the frontier between the Pashtuns in southem and eastern Afghanistan and the Pashtuns in western Pakistan.”
Whether you agree or not with Kaplan, his insights are very interesting and his approach should be seriously considered by analysts.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Although his insights provide a generally applicable method for understanding the general direction geopolitics might take a state, they do not have the power of determining or predicting the future of states, such as what course the future borders of India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan may take.
Indeed, no method can provide or predict this information.
For those types of predictions, according to Kaplan, one must use the “Shakespearean” method, which operates on no specific formula and is based on insight into human nature and human governments.
Q 2. Explain the role of external powers in South Asia
Ans: The equation between India and Pakistan, as well as the influence of other big countries in the region, makes up the strategic landscape of South Asia.
The development of nuclear weapons and geostrategic positioning have played a key role in transforming relations between South Asian governments and big powers.
The complexities of the South Asian strategic environment have been exacerbated by competing national interests, historic rivalries, nations’ goals to develop conventional and strategic forces quantitatively and qualitatively, and the presence of big powers in regional affairs.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The recent trends, such as Trumps offensive rhetoric against Pakistan, Indo-US nexus, Russia’s role in strategic calculus of India and Pakistan, and China’s expanding strategic interests and economic investment in the region has identified the profound changes in the South Asian politics.
Significance of South Asia in the strategic calculation of great powers i.e. US, Russia and China cannot be ignored.
It is important to explore that why South Asian region is important for the great powers?
In the case of US: involvement of US in Afghanistan, existence of Chinese presence in the region and non-proliferation concerns has played important role in evolution of relationship between US and South Asia.
Russia’s role in the South Asia is increasing due to two factors: First, strategic interest including evolving Afghan situation; Second, economic benefits from regional states.
Consequently, driving factor for China’s role in South Asia’s politics is its strategic interests in the region as well as South Asian states are viewed important to fulfill its objective of economic integration.
The strategic co-operation of India and the US has changed the pattern of relationships between the india pakistan and US.
South Asia is important for the US due to its interests in Central and West Asia.
Since August 2017, Pakistan-US relations are on critical stage due to the criticisin of Trump adıninistration on Pakistan’s role in war in terror.
On the other side, the positive trajectory of Indo-US relation: growing bilateral ties in defence and economic sphere, geoploliticising of nuclear cartels including NSG, and American support in multilateral international agreements such as STA-1 and COMCASA has dramatically changed the South Asian nuclear politics .
Therefore in the US, India is viewed as stable economy, special ally in reconstructing Afghanistan, and a counterbalance to China. Pakistan is seen differently with opposite lens.
Additionally, Strategic role of China in the Indian Ocean Region and construction of CPEC are grave concerns of US in the region.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Existing trends in South Asia, demonstrates the existence of focused regional strategy of the US in South Asia.
Russia is major defence partner and primary supplier of conventional and strategic weapon systems to India. Russia has provided cruise missiles, combat jets and battle tanks to India.
Both states have recently signed the S-400 missile system deal. At the same time, Russia is expanding its defence sales in South Asia and provided the Mi-35M to Pakistan in 2017.
Pakistan and Russia are enhancing defence and military ties and conducted the two joint exercises between Russia’s forces and Special Forces of Pakistan.
These developments have indicated that Russia is diversifying its defence and economic interests in region.
China’s policy in South Asia is comprised of two rationales:
First, economic interests based on the objectives of economic integration;
Second, strategic interests to maintain stability in Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as enhancing its diplomatic and economic influence with other state of South Asia.
South Asia is indispensable region for great powers due to its political, geo-strategic and economic significance.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Power play of super powers in the region has negatively affected the strategic dynamics of south Asia especially the balance of power has been disturbed between south Asian nuclear neighbors due to the polarization between China, Russia and US.
Significantly, region is essential for great powers to pursue their strategic interests in Asia.
In recent years, a major shift has been observed in the South Asia policy of the US.
Offensive rhetoric of Trump administration shows that India-US strategic ties are getting stronger. The US is using the India’s card to counterbalance the China in the region.
In this regard, US is playing key role in modernizing the conventional and strategic forces of India.
Indo-U.S Nuclear deal, special NSG waiver, membership of WA and MTCR to the India has potential to disturb the strategic balance in South Asia.
Thiese nuclear politics has negatively affected the South Asian strategic dynamics as well as global non-proliferation efforts.
In order to maintain deterrence equilibrium and stability in the region, it is imperative for Pakistan to modernize its conventional and strategic forces.
Pakistan has maintained the credibility of its deterrence through development of sophisticated battle field weapons such as “Nasr” and “Ababeel”.
But still, growing ties of India and US expanding defence acquisitions of the India and emerging security and strategic environment of South Asia, necessitates Pakistan to increase strategic ties with China and Russia to ensure interests at national, regional and global level.
Assignment – II
Q 1. What are the major challenges before SAARC? Elucidate.
Ans: Some of the challenges are listed below Security in the region Low intra-regional trade. Development of people in rural areas.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
More than 1 billion people in the SAARC region live in rural areas. Low physical, electronic and knowledge connectivity among SAARC nations.
Since its creation in December 1985, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) has sought after to boost economic unity between India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
The organization was designed to improve both the economic and social progress of its member states.
Unlike the EU or ASEAN, however, trade between the seven SAARC States has remained limited despite the fact that all are positioned within a close proximity of one another and all are part of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
A growing emphasis on attracting foreign investment and seeking access to new markets in SAARC states indicates that economic progress is central to the future of South Asia.
SAARC, however, is likely to play only a limited role in that future because of India’s considerable position of power over the other SAARC states.
This imbalance of power within SAARC allows conflicts between India and its neighbors to undermine organizational unity.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Clashes between South Asian countries end up jeopardizing the formation and effectiveness of regional trade agreements.
They also lead individual SAARC countries to advance their economic interests through bi-lateral agreements, reduce the incentive to connect in multi-laterally.
It seems that SAARC will act more as a forum to encourage regional discussion through conferences and seminars than as an architect for economic policy in South Asia.
There are some challenges to the effectiveness of this regional organization. SAARC is structured in a way that often makes regional cooperation difficult.
In the case of SAARC, India is the most powerful country in terms of its economic might, military power and international influence.
Thus, India’s potential as a regional hegemony gives SAARC a unique dynamic compared to an organization such as ASEAN. BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Pakistan was initially hesitant to join SAARC due to fears of SAARC succumbing to Indian hegemony. Indeed, if India does take a prominent role in SAARC, it could further fears that India will use SAARC for hegemonic purposes.
While the smaller states in South Asia recognize that they will need India’s help to facilitate faster economic growth, they are reluctant to work with India, fearing that such cooperation will admit Indian dominance in SAARC.
Aside from a few overtures to its neighbors, India has done little to dispel the fears of other South Asian states. The core of these fears is likely derived from the displays of India’s power by New Delhi in the past.
Realizing its considerable advantage in military and economic power, India has consistently acted in an – arrogant and uncompromising – manner with its neighbors.
Bangladesh is afraid of India exploiting its geographical position to redirect water flows vital to Bangladeshi agricultural production.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Nepal and Bluutan are still worried about India’s control over their world trade and transit links as their geographical position will always make them dependent on India.
These disputes between India and its neighbors have directly affected SAARC.
The disputes between South Asian states have undermined SAARC efforts to promote regional trade. These disagreements make consensus building and cooperation among SAARC states complicated.
Attempting to promote regional cooperation while doing little to resolve regional conflicts makes SAARC mission looks nearly impossible. Moreover, SAARC has no institutional mechanisms or punislunents capable of preventing or fully resolving a dispute.
Two examples illustrate how conflicts in South Asia have proven detrimental to SAARC.
Indian intervention in Sri Lanka from 1986-1990 can be quoted. The Indian military intervention to suppress an insurgency by The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam made Indo-Sri Lankan relations tense during these four years.
Subsequently, the apprehension between India and Sri Lanka was considered a primary reason behind Sri Lanka’s lukewarm support for SAARC into economic and social spheres of its member states until relations improved with India.
A second, more prominent example of a conflict tremendous SAARC progress is the IndoPakistani conflict.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Pakistan has demanded a resolution to its dispute with India over the Kashmir Valley before discussing trade relations with New Delhi, India has recently attempted to improve its relationship with the rest of South Asia.
Under the Gujral Doctrine established by former Indian Prime Minister I.K Gujral, India signed 30 years water sharing treaty with Bangladesh and a trade and transit treaty with Nepal.
India also joined a sub regional group within SAARC comprising of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and India.
Despite political impediments to trade, value of goods smuggled from India to Pakistan via a third party generally totals 250-500 million per year.
If trade between the states was opened, Pakistan would receive cheaper imports due to lower transport costs and the absence Of payments to middleman.
SAARC is planning establishment of a South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA). However, the agreement to establish this free trade zone will take 10 years of gradual tariff reduction.
For a proposal that has already been delayed, it will take some genuine political cooperation for the tariff reduction process to run smoothly.
Comparing with the experience of ASEAN, an organization with a better track record in producing economic coordination among member states than SAARC, creating a free trade zone could become difficult.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The ASEAN free trade agreement (AFTA) has been criticized for not producing substantial economic interdependence among the region.
This lack of success results from distiust and protectionism among its member states. If SAFTA is implemented, its success will depend on the resolution of conflicts between South Asian states, something which seems unlikely in the future.
Q 2. What are main linguistic divisions in South Asia? Explain.
Ans: South Asian ethnic groups are an ethnolinguistic grouping of the diverse populations of South Asia, including the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, the Maldives and Sri Lanka.
While Afghanistan is variously considered to be pait of both South Asia and Central Asia, Afghans are generally not included among South Asian ethnic groups.
The majority of the population fall within three large linguistic groups: IndoAryan, Dravidian and Iranic.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The Indian, Nepalese and Sri Lankan societies are traditionally divided into castes or clans, which are based primarily on labour divisions; these categories have had no official status in India since independence in 1947, except for the scheduled castes and tribes which remain registered for the purpose of affirmative action.
In today’s India, the population is categorised in terms of the 1,652 mother tongues spoken. These groups are also further subdivided into numerous sub-groups, castes and tribes.
IndoAryans form the predominant ethno-linguistic group in India (North India, East India, West India, Central India), Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.
Dravidians forin the predominant ethno-linguistic group in southern India, the northern and eastern regions of Sri Lanka and a small pocket of Pakistan.
The Iranic peoples also have a significant presence in South Asia, the large majority of whom are located in Pakistan, with heavy concentrations in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Dardic peoples are classified as belonging to the IndoAryan language group, forming a minority among the Indo-Aryans, though they are also sometimes classified as external to the Indo-Aryan branch.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
 They are found in northern Pakistan (Gilgit-Baltistan and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and in Jammu and Kashinir and Ladakh, India.
Minority groups not falling within either large group mostly speak languages belonging to the Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families, and largely live around Ladakh and Northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.
The Andamanese (Sentinel, Onge, Jarawa, Great Andamanese) live in some of the Andaman Islands and speak a language isolate, as do the Kusunda in central Nepal, the Vedda in Sri Lanka, and the Nihali of central India, who number about 5,000 people.
The people of the Hunza valley in Pakistan are another distinct population; they speak Burushaski, a language isolate.
The traditions of different ethnic groups in South Asia have diverged, influenced by external cultures, especially in the northwestern parts of South Asia and also in the border regions and busy ports, where there are greater levels of contact with external cultures.
There is also a lot of genetic diversity within the region. For example, most of the ethnic groups of the northeastern parts of South Asia are genetically related to peoples of East or Southeast Asia.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
There are also genetically isolated groups who have not been genetically influenced by other groups, such as the Jarawa people of the Andaman Islands.
The largest ethno-linguistic group in South Asia are the Indo-Aryans, numbering around 1 billion, and the largest sub-group are the native speakers of Hindi languages, membering more than 470 million.
Q 3. Highlight the role of Media in South Asia
Ans: News occupies the same dominant position modern society as religion once did, but we rarely consider its impact on us.
Societies become modern, the philosopher Hegel suggested, when news replaces religion as our central source of guidance and our touchstone of authority.
The news knows how to render its own mechanics almost invisible and therefore hard to question.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Cocooned in classrooms for only our first eighteen years or so we effectively spend the rest of our lives under the tutelage of news entities that wield infinitely greater influence over us than any academic institution can.
It is the single most important force setting the tone of public life and shaping our impressions of the community beyond our walls. It is the prime creator of political and social reality.
(Alain De Botton, The News) The South Asian region is positioned at the heart of enormous socio-politico-cultural transformations captured by the rising rates of consumption, population, unemployment, aspiration, urbanization, inequality and conflict within the region.
In this region, media plays au increasingly important role in propagating mass wakefulness by shaping public opinion day in and day out.
Mainstream literature available on the cultural and political history of the fourthi estate of all democracies in south Asia often ignores media’s role as an important catalyst accountable for these social and political metamorphosis.
By and large, South Asia has been held hostage by persisting political conflict within the region.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Despite national identities being strongly prevalent, there is social, geographical and cultural interconnectedness that cannot be overlooked.
The cultural significance and value attached to South Asian Media whether it’s the print or audio visual media to the social and political life of people of the region presents itself for greater understanding of history of South Asian media including media culture,
new technology and its impact on the regional politics and economics, Within the region so far, inedia by and large has been parochial and therefore panders to the demand and supply of the national audiences.
To this date, several media institutions have been established with an aiin of partaking greater regional cooperation amongst South Asian countries.
This chapter intends to understand the dynamics behind the rise of social media, print media, audio visual media and film in these countries and how there is a cultural and social continuum that the media has to work with and employ in shaping public opinion within the South Asian region.
The chapter intends to trace the political, cultural and political affinities demonstrated through the media amongst the countries of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Afghanistan owing its legacy to the British colonial rule.
Cooperative measures undertaken by media such as Aman ki Asla, SAFMA have tried to bring people of the region together.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Assignment – III
Q 1. Civil Society in South Asia
Ans: Civil society is a term that has a rich history in European political and social thought since the 17th century.
Yet it has also become shorthand either for groups who place themselves in opposition to state elites or for non-governmental organizations that initiate, often in partnership with international agencies, programmes of economic and social development that to a greater or lesser extent are distanced from the state.
The civil society across South Asia is “increasingly constrained”, according to a recent report.
“It is either too nascent, due to late democratic development, or where it has had a little history of growth and nurturing, is facing strong challenges,” noted the 349-page report by the South Asia Collective — a network of rights bodies in the region.
“Anti-democratic authoritarian tendencies and greater securitization of laws and practices appear to be the main drivers of this narrowing trend, with the mid-2010s appearing to be the period of convergence for this constriction in many of the countries,” the report noted.
It said democracy champions, human rights defenders, and activists have been “in the crosshairs of authorities everywhere for challenging state actions and speaking out.”
“A great deal of the narrowing of space for civil society concerns minorities, which is also due to the hardening of majoritarianism across the region,”
the report said, detailing rights situation in seven South Asian countries, including India, Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.
The report said authorities in all countries have “increasingly violated” the constitutional rights of freedom of expression, association, and assembly, arguing that NGOs and Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) are facing “increased regulation of registration”.
“As a consequence, civic space is becoming more restrictive over time, creating a hostile environment for CSOs,” the report added.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Q 2. Refugee issues in South Asia
Ans: South Asia is comprised of eight countries according to the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation).
Previously there were seven countries (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka) when SAARC was founded in 1985.
However, Afghanistan was not a founding member then, of SAARC, but joined later in 2007.
The experience of South Asian countries is one of hosting substantial refugee populations.
India hosted close to 5 million in 1971 when refugees were pouring into India during the Bangladesh liberation war.
Pakistan hosted closer to 5 mil lion refugees when Russia invaded Afghanistan in 1979. Nepal has hosted Bhutanese refugees and Tibetans.
South Asia (SA) was a subcontinent that produced and received refugees.
The refugee population in SA originated mostly from the South Asian region, besides the small number of refugees coming from African and Middle Eastern countries.
Except for Afghanistan, none of the countries were signatories of the 1951 Geneva Convention or the 1967 Protocol.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Unfortunately, SAARC has never addressed the refugee problem in any of its meetings.
The problem of statelessness exists in South Asia with the following groups: the Rolingyas in Myanmar, Bangladesh, and India; the Tamils in Sri Lanka and South India, and the Urdu Speaking Biharis in Bangladesh.
None of the South Asian countries is a signatory of the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, which is designed to ensure that stateless people enjoy certain fundamental human rights.
It establishes the legal definition of a stateless person as someone “not recognized as a national by any state under the operation of its law.
Q 3. River Disputes in South Asia
ANS: The South Asian region faces a number of challenges which sets off and catalyses the water tensions. Firstly, it is a heavily populated region of over 2.5 billion people.
If China is included in this statistics the pressure on these finite water resources gets further accentuated.
Secondly, most countries in the region are facing water scarcity as a result of which many people do not have access to sufficient drinking water and sanitation. With the burgeoning population, water stress will only grow.
For instance, demand for water resources in India is expected to double and exceed 1.4 trillion cubic meters by 2050. Besides, Pakistan faces the greatest water crunch.
According to the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2006-07, water supply was just over 1000 cubic metres per person. BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
A fall below the mark would make it a water scarce country. Climate change in the Himalayan basin increases the problem of water insecurity manifold.
According to reports current trends indicate that the three major Himalayan rivers could become seasonal rivers once glaciers melt in the coming three decades.
The problem of water scarcity exacerbating hydro-politics gets worsened by the fact that most of these countries are agrarian economies requiring water-fed irrigation facilities.
Water resources are also required to feed demands of industrialisation and urbanisation.
The thirst for energy, especially lydro-power is both widespread and pressing.
Aggravating the gravity is the gross mismanagement of water resources and lack of adequate water storage facilities.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The regional water disputes are also clearly a legacy of the colonial past.
The partition of the sub-continent did not coincide with the transboundary river systems in the region but was based on religious parameters.
The lack of trust, confidence and political acrimony marking the partition of India, Pakistan and then the creation of Bangladesh still resonates in resource disputes.
Q 4. Supreme Court of India
ANS: The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial cout and the final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of judicial review.
India is a federal State and has a single and unified judicial system with three-tier structure, i.e. Supreme Court, High Courts and Subordinate Courts.
Constitutional Provisions The Indian constitution provides for a provision of Supreme Court under Pait V (The Union) and Chapter 6 (The Union Judiciary).
Articles 124 to 147 in Part V of the Constitution deal with the organisation, independence, jurisdiction, powers and procedures of the Supreme Court.
The Indian constitution under Article 124(1) states that there shall be a Supreme Court of India constituting of a Chief Justice of India (CJI) and, until Parliament by law prescribes a larger 10/12 number, of not more than seven other Judges.
The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India can broadly be categorised into original (5) jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction and advisory jurisdiction. However, there are other multiple powers of the Supreme Court. BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
Organisation of Supreme Court
At present, the Supreme Court consists of thirty-one judges (one chief justice and thirty other judges).
Supreme Court (Number of Judges) Bill of 2019 has added four judges to strength. It increased the judicial strength from 31 to 34, including the CJI.
Originally, the strength of the Supreme Court was fixed at eight (one chief justice and seven other judges). The Parliament is authorised to regulate them.
Q 5 LTTE in Sri Lanka
ANS: The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) is the only terrorist group which once possessed its own ‘Military – Tigers (infantry),
Sea Tigers (sea wing) and Air Tigers (Air Wing), in the world, began its armed campaign in Sri Lanka for a separate Tamil homeland in 1983.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in its January 10, 2008 report said that the LTTE is one of the most dangerous and deadly extremist outfits in the world and the world should be concerned about the outfit as they had ‘inspired’ networks worldwide, including the alQaeda in Iraq.BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
However, with the killing of its Chief Velupillai Prabhakaran on May 18, 2009 and its defeat it in Eelam War IV the outfit has become inactive inside Sri Lanka, though reports indicate that it still attempts to revive itself with the help of Tamil Diaspora.
The LTTE has been proscribed, designated or banned as a terrorist group by a number of Governments – India, Malaysia, USA, Canada, UK, Australia, European Union – where the LTTE has significant terrorist infrastructure for disseminating propaganda, raising funds, procuring and shipping supplies to support their terrorist campaign in Sri Lanka.
While India was the first country to ban LTTE in May, 1992, Sri Lanka itself is the latest in the list banning the organisation on January 7, 2009. Formation
The LTTE was formed on May 5, 1976, under the leadership of Velupillai Prabhakaran, and has emerged as perhaps the most lethal, well organised and disciplined terrorist force.
Headquartered in the Wanni region, Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and informants to keep track of any outsiders who enter the group’s area of control.
Terrorism in Sri Lanka began in 1970 with the formation of a militant student body called the “Tamil Students Movement” to protest government plans to limit access of Tamil students to universities.
Very soon this movement went underground and turned to overt terrorist activities.
Violence escalated in Jaffna from 1972 onwards, beginning with the publication of a new constitution seen by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) as anti-Tamil.
The year 1972 saw the formation of two Tamil terrorist groups – the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) and Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO), splinter groups of the original Tamil Students Movement.
In July 1983, countrywide riots and clashes between Sinhalese and Tamils left thousands of Tamils dead and several hundred thousand as refugees. Large number of Government forces were deployed in the Northern and Eastern Provinces.
This period marks the beginning of the LTTE guerrilla campaign against the Sri Lankan Government. BPSE 144 Free Solved Assignment
The LTTE aims to create a separate homeland for the Tamils known as the Tamil Eelam (State) in the Noithern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka.
The Tigers control most of the areas in the Northern Province but also conduct operations throughout the island.
They have recently been wiped out of the Eastern Province and are losing considerable ground in the Northern Province.
BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022