STATE POLITICS IN INDIA
BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1. Explain various frameworks to understand State polities in India.
Ans. State politics in the first two decades after independence grew under the influence of the centre, which focused on the pursuit of the nation-state building IN India.
During this period the Nehruvian model of development and the single party dominance of the Congress signified the politics in India.
State politics was mainly a replica of the national politics The central government Occupied a dominant position in the Indian political system where the state occupied the secondary place.
Under the directive of the centre, the state governments introduced several measures in order to contribute towards nation-building, like land reforms, and community development programmes.
The Congress party shared power at the centre and in a large number of the states. Different factions within the Congress representing sectarian interests in the states were appendages of the faction leaders at the national level.
The fact that the dominant party reigned in the centre and several states simultaneously gave the impression that there was a common pattern of politics in the states and centre.
The governors, as appointees of the sympathetic governments at the centre, with a few exceptions, remained non-controversial. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
No doubt, it was a dominant pattern. But along with this, there also emerged dissenting patterns simultaneously within state politics.
These developments challenged the dominant pattern of politics: the dominant position of Congress and secondary position of state politics,
Within a few years of independence the Naga and Mizo insurgencies started in North-East India, the Plebiscite Front movement started in Jammu and Kashmir, and the demand for the reorganisation of states was raised in south India.
Even the parties with different ideological persuasions from that of Congress played a significant role during this period in the politics of states.
The socialists and the Left together in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala and West Bengal, Jana Sangha in north Indian States, the Akali Dal in Punjab mobilised the people on different issues against the Congress.
These developments had set a tone for a pattern of state politics which was to emerge in India in the near future.
The dalit movement led by the RPI in Maharashtra and UP, and the Dalit Panther in the Maharashtra, the cow protection movement of the Jana Sangha, RSS and their affiliates in north India; BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
socialist movements for the spread of the Hindi language and opposition to the imposition of Hindi language in Tamil Nadu and demand for secession of Madras Tamil Nadu from India were the early examples of ethnic dimension to the patterns of the state politics.
The Congress hegemony was also challenged by conservative parties like Swatantra in Gujarat and Rajasthan.
These developments had prompted Selig Harisson to call the 1950s as the most dangerous decade”.
The dominant pattern of state politics was challenged even from within the Congress. Faction leaders within Congress were not behind in creating their respective social bases.
Even while being members of Congress, they consolidated their own boxes in their respective states.
This, in fact, resulted in the trading of charges between various faction leaders. The example of Charan Singh is among the most appropriate here.
He had already carved out a base for himself within the intermediary and backward classes of UP, while he was still in Congress.
The faction fight between Charan Singh and other Congress leaders had resulted in the split of the Congress in Uttar Pradesh and the emergence of a very powerful regional and rural force in the politics of the north Indian states.
This pattern found its expression in the defeat of the Congress in several states in the general election in 1967 and formation of the coalition governments in 1969.
It set a new trend in the politics in the states of Union of India.
Changes in the patterns of state politics during the 1960s-1970s took place in the backdrop of the demise of Jawaharlal Nehru-the decline of the Congress system and rise of Indira Gandhi who personalised the Congress and institutions of governance.
One of the most significant feature of the state polities between the late 1960s and the 1970s had been the rise of the rural rich or the links especially in the areas which had witnessed the Green Revolution. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The most relevant examples are those of Jats in UP, Haryana and Punjab; Charan Singh formed Bharatiya Kranti Dal with the focus mainly on the agrarian agenda.
He provided leadership and forum to a strong section in the state politics in north India for two decades (1967-1987).
He along with the state level leaders in Bihar and Haryana dominated the polities of north India during this period.
An infrared number of the states strong regional leaders with formidable social bases among the agrarian classes emerged on the lines of Uttar Pradesh.
These leaders and parties focused on the regional issues and demanded revamping the centre-state relations.
The role of the governor who was perceived to be sympathetic to the dominant party – the Congress came to be questioned and demand for changing centre-state relations arose.
These developments became decisive in the state politics in the subsequent years. The process of coordination between the regional leaders and the political parties became conspicuous.
Some of these leaders graduated to be the national level leaders. These leaders drew their strength from the regional/state politics (despite having graduated to the national politics) and led regional political parties. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Imposition of emergency provided an opportunity to several state and national leaders and parties to come together against the dominant Congress,
Regional and national parities formed the Janata Party at the national and state levels, and formed the governments in the centre and the states.
The Janata Party-led governments both at the centre and in the states introduced certain measures which had repercussions for the state polities.
The appointment of the Mandal Commission and introduction of reservation for the backward classes in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh set the new trends which were significant both for the state and national politics.
Q. 2. Elaborate upon the division of powers between Center and States.
Ans. With reference to Indian Federation, the administration is primarily furnished by the state agencies.
Unlike other federations where both the federal and state government create their own agencies for the administration of their laws and the subjects allocated to them in the constitution, BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
even the laws of the union are left to be administered by the state authorities in order to avoid duplication of administrative machinery.
In every federal constitution, the central and state governments are firmly enclosed and the jurisdiction of the one excles the other.
The centre is concerned with problems of the Union List. The states are with matters on the State List.
There is also provision for the allocation of the powers by the union to the states and vice versa. The forte and success of such scheme require cooperation and coordination between Centre and States.
In India, the central government or the union is responsible for the governance of the whole country. There should be effective administrative norms between the Union and States.
The Supreme Court has demarcated that the Executive power of the union is coexistent with Power of the Parliament, with this limitation that the executive cannot act against the provisions of the constitution or of any law made by the parliament.
The Union Government is dependent on the States to give effect to its programmes. The scheme of distribution of administrative powers has some major objectives.
It arms, the union government with powers to have effective control over administration of the state and espouses several advices for intergovernmental cooperation and coordination.
The executive powers in relation to any treaty or agreement has been discussed on the union by the Constitution, Parliament has also vested executive functions in the union over Concurrent List matters under several acts.
The Concurrent List gives power to the two legislatures: Union as well as State, to legislate on the same subject. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In case of conflict or inconsistency, the rule of repugnancy, as contained in Article 254 comes into play to uphold the principle of Union supremacy Under this role if there is any discrepancy between the State and the Centre over a subject in the Concurrent List,
the Union law takes precedence over the State’s law, and the States law to the extent of such repugnancy, be void.
But, as an exception, if the State law has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, then the State law prevails in that State.
But, the Parliament remains competent to override such a law by subsequently making a law on the same matter.
The Division of power under the Indian Constitution is generally divided by referencing to major two doctrines which are – the doctrine of separation of powers and the doctrine of distribution of powers.
The famous political philosopher Montesquieu laid down the doctrine of separation of power based on the English legal system.
His view in this theory was concentrating on the separation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers.
All the power to one person or body of persons will lead to tyranny in the state. So, he believed that these powers must be vested in three different organs namely legislature, executive, and the judiciary, BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Q. 3. Discuss the constitutional structure of Local Self-government in India.
Ans. Local Self-Government is a concept that refers to governance by local people of their area.
Now, considering the number of villages in India that lack total connection from the urban parts and often get neglected by the government, it is essential to have a concept of local self-government to ensure that even rural areas are duly represented.
During pre-historic times, local governments i.e. Panchayati raj was present and had a great role in solving the problems of the common people.
But as the present ruling system came in vogue, the role of such raj declined gradually. During the colonial period, in the beginning, years, its role kept declining.
However, hardly did the Panchayati start recessing, when various commissions started recommending such institutions at the local level to manage the local matters.
After independence, India was declared as a democratic and federal nation. As she started developing, urbanization increased, and there became two areas, viz “urban and rural’.
Increasing workload and communication gap between governments and citizens of the country gave rise to the third tier of the government, i.e. the Panchayati Raj or precisely, the local self-government system.BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In India, it is usually of two types: (1) rural self-government and (2) urban self-government. In a rural area, it is recognized as Panchayati raj and in Urban areas, Municipality or Municipal Corporation.
Local government is in direct contact with the public. It is the bottor-Most level of government that maintains one on one contact with people within their area assist them in their representation.
The local government got constitutional recognition through the 73rd and 14th amendment
Q. 4. Examine the relationship between electoral politics and democracy in India.
Ans. Elections take place regularly in any democracy. There are more than one hundred countries in the world in which elections make place to choose peoples representatives.
We also read that election are held in many countries that are not democratic.
But why do we need elections? Let us try to imagine a democracy without elections. A rule of the people is possible without any elections if all the people can sit together everyday and take all the decisions.
Therefore in most democracies people rule through their representatives.
Although elections are considered as one of the core institutions in democratic polities, their misuse is not uncommon. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Elections produce different outcomes in different systems of government. Leaders of all kinds, from military dictators to civilian autocrats, recognise the power and importance of elections in obtaining legitimacy to govern.
Military or civilian leaders willing to run the country through undemocratic means, use elections as a tool for their continuation in power.
These leaders make major efforts to manipulate elections. However, in spite of all the shortcomings and inconsistencies of an electoral system, elections can decide important matters in any polity.
Only elections establish that legitimate political power flows from below. Elections, then, are essential for democracy, but only when they are free and fair and devoid of irregularities and malpractices.
Electoral malpractices not only negate the voting right of the people but also hamper the effort to institutionalise democracy,
Q. 5. Discuss the recent developments in Center-State financial relations.
Ans. Indian Constitution has made elaborate provisions, relating to the distribution of the taxes as well as non-tax revenues and the power of borrowing, supplemented by provisions for grants-in-aid by the Union to the States.
Article 268 to 293 deals with the provisions of financial relations between Centre and States. The Constitution divides the taxing powers between the Centre and the states as follows: BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The parliament has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the Union List, the state legislature has exclusive power to levy taxes on subjects enumerated in the State List, both can levy taxes on the subjects enumerated in Concurrent List whereas residuary power of taxation lies with Parliament only.
Distribution of the Tax-revenue
1 Duties Levied by the Union but Collected and Appropriated by the States: Stamp duties on bills of Exchange, etc., and Excise duties on medical and toilet preparations containing alcohol.
These taxes don’t form the part of the Consolidated Fund of India, but are assigned to that state only.
2 Service Tax are Levied by the Centre but Collected and Appropriated by the Centre and the States.
3 Taxes Levied as well as Collected by the Union, but Assigned to the States: These include taxes on the sale and purchase of goods in the course of inter-state trade or commerce or the taxes on the consignment of goods in the course of inter-state trade or commerce.
4 Taxes Levied and Collected by the Union and Distributed between Union and the States: Certain taxes shall be levied as well as collected by the Union, but their proceeds shall be divided between the Union and the States in a certain proportion, in order to effect on equilable division of the financial resources.
This category includes all taxes referred in Union List except the duties and taxes referred to in Article 268.268-A and 269; surcharge on taxes and duties mentioned in Article 271 or any Coss levled for specific purposes.
5 Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Uniort: Parliament may at any time inerease any of the duties or taxes referred in those articles by a surcharge for purposes of the Union and the whole proceeds of any such surcharge ball for part the Consolidated Fund of India
Grants-in-Aid: BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Besides sharing of taxes between the Center and the States, the Constitution provides for Grants-in-aid to the States from the Central resources.
There are two types of grants:
Statutory Grants: These grants are given by the Parliament out of the Consolidated Fund of India to such States which are in need of assistance.
The different States may be granted different sums. Specific grants are also given to promote the welfare of scheduled tribes in a state or to raise the level of administration of the Scheduled areas therein (Art.275).
Discretionary Grants: Center provides certain grants to the states on the recommendations of the Planning Commission which are at the discretion of the Union Government.
These are given to help the state financially to fulfill plan targets (Art.282).
Q. 6. What are the features of development in a state?
Ans. there are different characteristics of development in a state.
1 It is a continuous process.
2 It follows a particular pattern like infancy, childhood, adolescence, maturity.
3 Most traits are correlated in development.
4 It is the result of the interaction of individuals and environment.
5 It is predictable. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
6 It is both quantitative and qualitative
7 Different individuals have different growth pattern.
Q. 7. Explain the relationship between globalization and migration.
Ans. Increased migration is one of the most visible and significant aspects of globalisation: growing numbers of people move within countries and across borders, looking for better employment opportunities and better lifestyles.
Although migration is usually seen as problematic, it contributes to sustainable development.
For households in poor areas, remittances improve security and, with the support of appropriate policies, can contribute to local economic growth.
In industrial countries with ageing populations, migrant workers are an increasingly important part of the labour force and support national welfare systems.
National and international policies need to reflect the contribution of migration to sustainable development, and to explicitly protect the rights of migrants which are all too often ignored in attempts to their movement
Q. 8. Briefly discuss the regional distribution of the tribes in India.
Ans. India is the home to a large number of indigenous people, we are still untouched by the lifestyle of the modern world. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
There are 461 tribes in India out of which 42 fare considered as the Schedule Tribes.
India is the home to a large number of indigenous people, who are still untouched by the lifestyle of the modern world. Now the question is who are tribes or which people belongs to the tribal groups.
In 1960, Chanda Committee determined five standards to include any caste or community in the tribal group. These standards include Geographical isolation, special culture, characteristics of tribes, backwardness and shyness.
There are 461 tribal groups in India out of which 424 are considered as the Schedule Tribes.
India can be divided into seven zones on the basis of distribution and diversity of the tribal population which are given below:
North Zone: The tribes of the region of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Sub Himalayan Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar come under this zone.
They are Lahul. Lepcha, Bhotia, Tharu, Buxa, Jaunsari,Khampa, Bhoksa, Gujjars and Kanauta. They all have the characteristics of the Mongoloids racial group.
The major problems of the tribes of this zone are in accessibility, lack of communication, poverty, illiteracy and land alienation.
North-Eastern Zone: They are of the tribes of Asom, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
They all have the characteristics of the Mongoloids racial group. The major tribal groups are:
Mizoram: Lusai, Kuki, Garo. Khasi, Jayantia and Mikir Nagaland: Naga, Kuki. Mikir and Garo Meghalaya: Garo, Khasi and Jayantia Sikkim: Lepcha, Bhutia, Limbu, and Tamang Tripura: Chakma, Garo, Khasi, Kuki. Lusai, Liang. and Santhal Arunachal Pradesh: Dafla, Khampti, and Singpho Asom: Boro, Kachari, Mikir (Karbi), Lalung, and Hajong Manipur: Meities, Pangals, Naga tribes and Kuki
These tribes have a very high rate of literacy and conversions to Christianity, mainly because of the missionary activities during the colonial rule.
Central Zone: The tribes of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Western Rajasthan and northern Andhra Pradesh come under this zone. The major tribes of Chhattisgarh are Gond. Baiga, maria and Abujhamaria. They are largely concentrated in Mandla district of Madhya Pradesh, Bastar district of Chhattisgarh and also found in the eastern region of Andhra Pradesh.
Southern Zone: They are the tribes of Central and Southern Western Ghats, who are expanded towards the south of 20 degree fatitude.
The tribes of Western Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Western Tamil Nadu and Kerala come under this zone.
The most important tribes of the Nilgiri region are Toda, Kota and Bagada. The other major tribes of this zone are Kurumbar Kadar. Paniyan. Chenchu Allar. Nayak and Chetti.
Eastern Zone: The tribes of jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha and Bihar come under this zone. The tribes of Odisha are Juang, Kharia, Khond and Bhumij.
The tribes of Jharkhand are Munda. Oraon, Santhal, Ho and Birhor. They are of the Austric language family and peak Koland Munda languagesa .
Western Zone: They are the tribes of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Western Rajasthan, and northern Andhra Pradesh. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The major tribes of Rajasthan are: Bhil, Garasia, Mina, Banjara, Sansi and Saharia; of Gujarat are Mahadeokoli, Bali and Dabala: of Madhya Pradesh are Jayanti.
Island Region: The tribes of Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep groups come under this zone.
The major tribes of Andaman and Nicobar are Shompen, Onge, Jarwa and Sentinali, who are gradually getting extinct. They are related to the Negrito racial group.
All the racial groups are identified separately on the basis of their own racial characteristics. These characteristics are the nature and colour of hair, head structure, Nasal index and shape of eyes. However, the racial group groups in India are highly mixed.
Q.9 What are the characteristics of leadership in Indian states?
Ans. The Indian culture is one such culture where there is a inherent reluctance to question decisions and authority.
The immediate task is to convert this resigned acceptance into tacit approval of authority. Every individual looks for achievement, recognition, advancement and growth.
For many centuries the pattern of political leadership in India was two-tiered. At the top was “the Government” — what we will call macropolitical leadership-surrounded with pomp and magnificence and all the trappings of wealth and power.
Macropolitical leadership changed hands with some frequency, and in modern times was often foreign, first Mughal and then British.
In general the macropolitical leadership impinged little on the lives of the ordinary Indian. It was remote from the village and interfered seldom in village affairs, except to raise revenue and maintain a relative law and order.
Village India had its own ancient pattern of leadership-what we will call micropolitical leadership. The village was a highly traditional and rigid social and political unit.
The higher castes within the village combined social, economic, political, and ritual pre-eminence, and the lower castes tended to be dependent on them to a greater or lesser degree. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The Indian village was a complicated network of precedence and relationship, but political authority was concentrated in the leaders of the dominant castes.
These men were concerned with settling disputes between communities in the village, protecting the village and its lands from outsiders, and gaining concessions for the village from the macropolitical leadership.
Q. 10. Write a brief note on the decline of the Congress Party.
Ans. From being the single dominant party in India to its pathetic performance in the recently held assembly elections in five states, the Congress party has been on a steady downhill journey.
It thus becomes contextual to delve into the declining popularity graph of the Congress and ascertain the most plausible reasons that could explain the current downsizing of electoral support for the party from a vantage point.
The political journey of the party can be divided into three time frames.
It began its first timinings officially as the Indian National Congress (INC) after independence and witnessed a rebirth in 1971 when Indira Gandhi broke free from the shackles of powerful leaders under the leadership of her son Rajiv Gandhi until his assassination in 1991.
There was a political interregnum between 1992 and 1997 when the party was not led by any member of the Nehru-Gandhi family. BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The taking over of the reins of the Congress by Sonia Gandhi in 1997 marked the 3.0 version of the party.
She propelled it back to power at the centre in 2004 and ruled for ten years (in alliance with other parties) before taking an electoral how in 2014
BPSE 145 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022