IGNOU BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BPSE 142

INDIA’S FOREIGN POLICY IN A CHANGING WORLD

BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Assignment – I

Q 1. Discuss the nature and types of determinants of India’s foreign policy.

ANS: The principles have stood the test of time and are ingrained in international law and India’s foreign policy practice. The principles of Indian foreign policy are as follows – Panchsheel

The policy of Non-Alignment

The policy of Anti-Colonialism and Anti Racism

Peaceful settlement of International Disputes

Foreign Economic Aid – Support to UN, International Law and a Just and Equal World Order

The principles of India’s Foreign Policy are discussed in detail below

A. Panchsheel :

Indian Policyınakers understood the linkage between peace and development and the survival of mankind. Without global peace, social and economic development is likely to be pushed to the background. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

In view of the destruction caused by two world wars, they realized that for the progress of a nation a durable world peace was needed.

Thus, the founder of India’s foreign policy, Nehru gave utmost importance to world peace in his policy planning. Also, read about the following –

World War I (1914-1918]
———————–
World War II 1939-1945)

Global impact of World War II
Cold War

India desired peaceful and friendly relations with all countries, particularly the big powers and the neighbouring nations. While signing a peace agreement with China; he advocated adherence to five guiding principles known as Panchsheel.

Panchsheel also called the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence was signed on 29p April 1954 and since then it has become a guiding principle of India’s bilateral relations with other countries.

Panchsheel includes the following five principles of foreign policy:

. Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
. Non-aggression against each other.

. Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
. Equality and mutual benefit.
. Peaceful co-existence.

These principles of Panchsheel were later incorporated in the Bandung Declaration, signed in the Afro-Asian Conference held in 1955 in Indonesia.

They are the core principles of the NonAlignment Movement (NAM) and still guide the conduct of India’s foreign policy. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

B. Policy of Non-alignment :

Non-alignment is the most important feature of India’s foreign policy. Its core element is to maintain independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA and the Soviet Union,

which emerged as an important aspect of Cold War politics after the Second World War.

Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor non-involvement nor isolationism. It was a positive and dynamic concept.

It postulates taking an independent stand on international issues according to the merits of each case but at the same time not committing to coming under the influence of any military bloc. Furthermore, Non-Alignment gained popularity in developing countries.

Thus, keeping away from the military alliances and superpower blocks was important for the independence of Foreign Policy. India played a lead role in popularizing and consolidating the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

India, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, convened the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi in 1947 to forge the idea of Asian solidarity.

Read more on the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) on the given link. Another Asian Relations Conference was convened by India in 1949 on the question of the independence of Indonesia as India stood firm-against the colonial rule in other countries.

A larger Conference, known as the Bandung Conference of 29 countries of Asia and Africa was convened in Bandung (Indonesia) in 1955 to forge the Afro-Asian unit.

The Bandung Conference was a precursor to the NAM, which held its first Summit in 1961 at Belgrade. Since then, the Non-Aligned Movement has not looked back. The Seventh NAM Summit was hosted by India in New Delhi in 1983.

In this Summit, India took up the cause of development, disarmament, and the Palestine issue. The conference laid down ten fundamental principles of international relations.

The leaders pledged to work together for colonial liberation, peace, cultural, economic, and political cooperation among developing countries.

It provides all its members, regardless of their size and development, an opportunity to participate in the global decision-making process. In recent years, there has been an unprecedented change in India’s foreign policy.

The issues of Masood Azhar, the surgical strike, or the Indo-China tension all involved India’s foreign policyholders executing their work effectively.

Introduction: India is one of the most ancient civilizations in the world and from ancient times, India’s foreign policy remained independent whether it was the Mauryan Empire, the Gupta Empire or the Mughal Empire. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The British were the determinants of India’s foreign policy during the colonial period, who used India for their benefit. But after independence, India’s foreign policy is again fulfilling Indian interests.

Today, India is in selected countries of the world in military field, space, religious culture etc. and India has used them better in its foreign policy formulation.

Many factors are responsible in determining the foreign policy of a country, in which geopolitical, military force etc. are important

Determinants of India’s foreign policy: –

Geographical factors: – Geographical factors are important in determining foreign policy, which is called geopolitics. India occupies a central position in Asia and occupies the largest area in South Asia.

In such a situation, any big incident in the whole of Asia affects India. The Himalayas are like sentinels of India which play an important role in determining relations with other Himalayan countries such as Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar.

But the desire of China to maintain its dominance in the region continuously since 1962 has a clear impact on India’s foreign policy, which has recently shown a change in relations with Nepal. Along with this, India has a natural edge in the Indian Ocean.

India’s dominance over the Indian Ocean is necessary to become an important power of the Indian-Pacific region. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

At present, the Indian Ocean region is an important route of trade and communication for the whole w Hence, it also plays an important role in determining the foreign policy of India.

Population: – India is currently the second most populous and youngest country in the world, so India is becoming a consumption-oriented country, in such a situation it will fulfill the need of a big market for all the producing nations, which is the determinant of foreign policy.

But with such a large population, problems like hunger, poverty are evident on India’s foreign policy.

Many times there has been a dispute in the World Trade Union between India and America about the government’s intervention in agricultural subsidies.

Government System: – India has a democratic governance system that inspires many countries of the world to accept Indian ideology, for example, ASEAN countries plagued by China look towards India because India’s democracy follows the principle of peaceful coexistence.

But many times in the parliamentary system, the role of state governments is also important in determining foreign policy,

it becomes more important if there is a coalition government at the center, as was shown in the Tamil issue in Sri Lanka and the 2005 US Nuclear Deal.

Economic Development : Economic sovereignty is of utmost importance in determining foreign policy. Like its policy, India had to open its markets in 1991, but after that India has become very strong financially. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

India’s economic growth has attracted many countries. Today, India is an important energy consumer, with countries like Turkmenistan, Iran Russia having economic alliances with India.

But still the negative trade balance with China remains India’s main problem.
colonialisin, opposition to armaments have been derived from the history of India which are seen in India’s foreign policy today.

Regional Environment: – Regional events are also important in determining foreign policy. For example, in 1971, the alliance of China, US and Pakistan brought a crisis situation for India, then India got inclined towards Russia.

At present, the increasing dominance of China is also a reason for intensification of India-US relations. India has increased India’s capacity and power with Look East to Act East policies and China’s rise in ASEAN. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Global environment: – After globalization, when the whole world connected with each other, global factors also became important in determining foreign policy.

India may oppose the move to withdraw from the Paris Agreement on environment issues, even if there is cooperation between India and America.

And this is also an example of India wants democratic government in Afghanistan for the suppression of terrorism. After the Second World War, the world order has changed in many ways, keeping in mind that India tries to reform the UN Security Council.

Military power: Today India is the third most powerful country in the Army, fourth in the Air Force and sixth in the Navy. At the same time, India is rich in nuclear power.

Everyone knows India dominance in space. In such a situation, they play an important role in the foreign policy making of India.

Conclusions: – These elements are present in today’s foreign policy of India, but these elements change constantly. In modern times, it is necessary to determine policies keeping the national interest in mind.

BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Discuss the significance of Non-alignment and Panchsheel as the founding principles of India’s foreign policy.

ANS: Non-alignment is the most important feature of India’s foreign policy. Its core element is to maintain independence in foreign affairs by not joining any military alliance formed by the USA and the Soviet Union, BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

which emerged as an important aspect of Cold War politics after the Second World War. Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor non-involvement nor isolationism. It was a positive and dynamic concept.

It postulates taking an independent stand on international issues according to the merits of each case but at the same time not committing to coming under the influence of any military bloc. Furthermore, Non-Alignment gained popularity in developing countries.

Thus, keeping away from the military alliances and superpower blocks was important for the independence of Foreign Policy. India played a lead role in popularizing and consolidating the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

India, under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, convened the Asian Relations Conference in New Delhi in 1947 to forge the idea of Asian solidarity.

Read more on the Non-Alignment Movement (NAM) on the given link. Another Asian Relations Conference was convened by India in 1949 on the question of the independence of Indonesia as India stood firm-against the colonial rule in other countries.

A larger Conference, known as the Bandung Conference of 29 countries of Asia and Africa was convened in Bandung (Indonesia) in 1955 to forge the Afro-Asian unit.

The Bandung Conference was a precursor to the NAM, which held its first Summit in 1961 at Belgrade. Since then, the Non-Aligned Movement has not looked back. The Seventh NAM Summit was hosted by India in New Delhi in 1983.

In this Summit, India took up the cause of development, disarmament, and the Palestine issue. The conference laid down ten fundamental principles of international relations.

The leaders pledged to work together for colonial liberation, peace, cultural, economic, and political cooperation among developing countries.

It provides all its members, regardless of their size and development, an opportunity to participate in the global decision-making process.

As NAM was a product of Cold War politics and the bipolar world, many scholars have questioned the relevance of NAM after the end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

Again, globalization led to the change in the priorities of even its chief votaries like India, which tried to adopt neo-liberal market economy principles in order to integrate with the emerging global order. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

This new situation generated the impression as if NAM is sidelined and its relevance is declining.

However, if we go deep in the basic features of NAM, it appears to be equally significant also in the changing context due to the following factors: After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, the NAM can act as a check dominance and hegemony of any country or block.

The developed (North) and developing (South) worlds have divergent views over several global and economic issues.

The NAM may provide a forum for third-world countries to engage the developed nations in a productive dialogue.

The NAM can prove to be a powerful mechanism to forge cooperation, which is essential for their collective self-reliance in the present market-driven global order.

NAM can provide an important forum for developing countries to discuss and deliberate upon various global problems, issues, and reforms including the reform of the UN and other international financial institutions like the World Bank and IMF in order to make them more democratic and effective.

Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes The unflinching faith in the peaceful settlement of international disputes is one of the core elements of India’s foreign policy.

This principle has been included in the Constitution of India, under the Directive Principles of State Policy as well as in the Charter of the UN.

India has played a leading role in the resolution of the Korean conflict and supported negotiated settlement of Palestine issue, border problems with neighboring countries, and other such disputes and problems. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

India is always against foreign military intervention for resolving international problems. This principle continues to be the cornerstone of India’s policy.

At present, India is in favour of the resolution of peaceful settlement of Iranian nuclear issues, the problem of the democratic upsurge in the Middle East, and so on.

BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment II

Q 1. Describe and discuss ‘Nehruvian Consensus.’

ANS: The Nehruvian consensus on foreign policy was based on the ideals such as maintenance of sovereignty of nation states, anti-imperialism, positive neutrality, mutual peace and non interference.

Note that though Neliu had to accommodate diverse interests for creating consensus on all areas of domestic political and economic governance, he was relatively unconstrained in foreign policy making.

the consensus on Nehruvian socialism and central planning was created through five factors: “[a] political socialization as a product of Nehru’s attempt at building a ‘national philosophy’

[b] national problems like poverty and underdevelopment demanding state activisin;

[c] dependence of the nascent industrial bourgeoisie on the central state for the inputs needed for industrialization; BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

[d] the presence of the Soviet Union as a success story demonstrating the viitues of a centrally planned command economy; and

[e] contemporaneous academic theories in favor of a centrally planned economy as a development paradigm for developing countries”.

In general parlance only ideological consensus (comprising socialism, secularism and non alignment) is discussed under the rubric of Nelruvian consensus. However, there is another component called institutional consensus (Kothari 1969).

The institutional consensus was articulated around the party system and the federal system. The rejection of the Gandhian model of party-less democracy was a foregone conclusion after independence.

Thus, the Nehruvian consensus on party system took shape within the framework of a Westminster-style parliamentary democracy.

The consensus was in the favour of making the Congress party a true model of institutional recognition and accommodation of the diversity of Indian society.

This centrist, all inclusive, consensual and decentralized party structure had many important features such as accommodation of diverse interests, groups and ideologies (left and right) and negotiating differences with them; respectful recognition to the rights of expression of the opposition;

engaging the opposition MPs in governance of the country, allowing the state-level political officials to influence the national policy-making process and have independent power bases in their respective states, and no interfere with elections of party leadership at the state-level. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The most important part of the consensus was that none of the above mentioned features should in any case diminish the authority of the central government.

Q 2. What is Belt and Road Initiative? Explain

ANS: According to the Asian Development Bank (ADB), Asia faces an infrastructure funding gap of estimated USD 26 trillion through 2030. To address this gap, various regional and subregional initiatives aim to develop better transport connectivity within Asia.

This includes, among others, the Association of South East Asian Nation (ASEAN) Connectivity initiative, the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Program, the Greater Mekong Sub REGION cooperation program,

the south asia sub regional economic cooperation (SASEC) Program, and the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

BRI is a transcontinental long-term policy and investment program which aims at infrastructure development and acceleration of the economic integration of countries along the route of historic Silk Road.

The Initiative was unveiled in 2013 by China’s president Xi Jinping and until 2016, was known as OBOR – One Belt One Road.

On March 28, 2015, the official outline for the Belt and Road Initiative was issued by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) and the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), with authorization of the State Council.

Aims of the Belt and Road Initiative According to the official outline, BRI aims to promote the connectivity of Asian, European and African continents and their adjacent seas,

establish and strengthen partnerships among the countries along the Belt and Road, set up all-dimensional, multi-tiered and composite connectivity networks, and realize diversified, independent, balanced and sustainable development in these countries.”

BRI is a global initiative but by its nature of building on the historic Silk Road puts a major focus on countries in Asia, Eastern Africa, Eastern Europe and the Middle East, a region mainly composed of emerging markets. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

According to the Belt and Road Portal, currently 71 countries are taking part in the Initiative, together representing more than a third of the world’s GDP and two thirds of the world’s population.

The Belt and Road Initiative combines two initiatives

(1. The land based) Silk Road Economic Belt, comprising six development corridors

(2. The 21st Century Maritime Silk Road

Additionally the map shows the Polar Silk Road, referring to the Northern Sea Route (NSR), as officially mentioned in China’s Arctic policy.

Q 3. Write a note on Indus Water Treaty

ANS: the Union Water Resources Minister has said that the government under the Indus Water Treaty 1960, las decided to stop its share of water which earlier used to flow to Pakistan. Indus Waters Treaty The Indus system comprises of main Indus River, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej.

The basin is mainly shared by India and Pakistan with a small share for China and Afghanistan. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Under the treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, all the waters of three rivers, namely Ravi,Sutlej and Beas (Eastern Rivers) were allocated to India for exclusive use.

While, the waters of Western rivers – Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab were allocated to Pakistan except for specified domestic , non-consumptive and agricultural use permitted to India as provided in the Treaty.

India has also been given the right to generate hydroelectricity through run of the river(ROR) projects on the Western Rivers which, subject to specific criteria for design and operation is unrestricted.

Present Developments To utilize the waters of the Eastern rivers which have been allocated to India for exclusive use, India has constiucted following dams: Bhakra Dam on Satluj, Pong and Pandol Dam on Beas and Thein (Ranjit Sagar) on Ravi.

Other works like Beas-Sutlej Link, Madhopur-Beas Link, Indira Gandhi Nahar Project etc lias helped India utilize nearly entire share (95 %) of waters of Eastern rivers.

However, about 2 Million Acre Feet (MAF) of water annually from Ravi is reported to be still flowing unutilized to Pakistan below Madhopur.

To stop the flow of these waters that belong to India for its utilization in India, following steps have been taken: Shalpurkandi Project: This project will help in utilizing the waters coming out from powerhouse of Thein dam for irrigation and power generation in J&K and Punjab.

The construction work is being undertaken by the Govt of Punjab under monitoring of Govt of India. Construction of Ujh multipurpose project: This project will create a storage of water on river Ujh , a tributary of Ravi for irrigation and power generation in India.

This project is a National Project whose completion period will be 6 years from beginning of the implementation. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

The 2nd Ravi Beas link below Ujh: This project is being planned to tap excess water flowing down to Pakistan through river Ravi, even after construction of Thein Dain, by constructing a bairage across river Ravi for diverting water through a tunnel link to Beas basin.

Govt. of India declared this project as National Project. The above three projects will help India to utilize its entire share of waters given under the Indus Waters Treaty 1960.

Assignment III

Q 1 SAARC

ANS: The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was established with the signing of the SAARC Charter in Dhaka on 8 December 1985. The idea of regional cooperation in South Asia was first raised in November 1980.

After consultations, the foreign secretaries of the seven founding countries—Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka—met for the first time in Colombo in April 1981.

Afghanistan became the newest member of SAARC at the 13th annual summit in 2005. The Headquarters and Secretariat of the Association are at Kathmandu, Nepal.

Principles Cooperation within the framework of the SAARC shall be based on:

Respect for the principles of sovereign equality, territorial integrity, political independence, non- interference in the internal affairs of other States and mutual benefit.

Such cooperation shall not be a substitute for bilateral and multilateral cooperation but shall complement them. Such cooperation shall not be inconsistent with bilateral and multilateral obligations.

Members of SAARC BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment
SAARC comprises of eight-member States:

Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka

There are currently nine Observers to SAARC, namely: (i) Australia; (ii) China; (iii) the European Union; (iv) Iran; (v) Japan; (vi) the Republic of Korea; (vii) Mauritius; (viii) Myanmar; and (ix) the United States of America.

Q 2. United Nations

ANS: The United Nations (UN) is a global organisation tasked with maintaining international peace and security while fostering friendly relations among nations.

It is the largest, most IGNOU recognized and most powerful intergovernmental organisation in the world. The UN was formed following the devastating World War II, with the aim of preventing future global-scale conflicts.

It was a successor to the ineffective League of Nations. The representatives of 50 governments met in San Francisco on 25 April 1945, to draft what would become the UN Charter.

The Charter was adopted on 25 June 1945 and came into effect on 24 October 1945. In accordance with the Charter, the organization’s objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development, and upholding international law.

At its founding, the UN had 51 inember states; this number grew to 193 in 2011, representing the vast majority of the world’s sovereign states.

United Nations Structure The UN is structured around five principal organs: General Assembly United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) International Court of Justice UN Secretariat.

A sixth principal organ, the Trusteeship Council, suspended operations on 1 November 1994, upon the independence of Palau, the last remaining UN trustee territory.

The United Nations sets up international conventions, which may be legally binding on parties, on various issues and domains. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 3. Act East policy

ANS: India’s ‘Act East’ policy is a diplomatic initiative to promote economic, strategic and cultural relations with the vast Asia-Pacific region at different levels.

The country’s eastward drive since 1992 has underscored the importance of this region in its contemporary international relations.

‘Act East and its early avatar, ‘Look East’ are not different; rather, they are two sides of the same coin, representing two different, but continuing phases in the evolution of India’s policy towards the Asia-Pacific region.

When India launched the Look East policy in 1991, its own economic strength, its global status and the external environment were not what they are at present.

At the time of its launch, India was struggling to transition from a state-controlled economic regime to a more liberalised one. It took many years for the country to get adjusted to the newly emerging economic environment.

When in 2014, Prime Minister Narendra Modi launched the Act East policy, India’s economy was relatively robust and its global profile was higher than it was in the decades prior. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Modi gave a new thrust to intensify economic, strategic and diplomatic relations with countries that share common concerns with India on China’s growing economic and military strength and its implications for the evolving regional order.

[1] The end of the Cold War in 1991 brought about a major shift in the economic and strategic policies of most countries in Asia; they were compelled to make suitable policy changes to cope with the changing economic and security situations in the region.

India was no exception, and it made three significant changes in its policies.

First, India’s adoption of economic reforms in the early 1990s was a major shift in its development strategy.

Second, as the Cold War thawed, India began adopting a multi-dimensional foreign policy that facilitated closer economic and strategic engagements with the United States (US).

Their relations steadily warmed, leading eventually to the signing of the historic civil nuclear cooperation agreement in 2008.

[2] Third, the launch in 1992 of the Look East policy was India’s response to the new challenges it faced in the region after the collapse of the Cold War structures.

Although India’s relations particularly with Southeast Asian countries were old and historical, this advantage was not considered in the calculation of India’s policies towards the region. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Q 4. Galwan valley conflict

ANS: Reasons behind India-China Standoff at Galwan Valley

(1- Construction of roads In 2018-19, Ministry of Defence in its annual report stated that the government will be constructing the roads along the India-China border.

Phase 1 of this project has been completed. Under Phase 2 of the project, 32 roads will be built by India along the border.

China has been opposing this construction as it doesn’t want India to fully utilize the road. India has ramped up the construction of the road despite the curent border tensions.

The construction of these roads will increase the Indian Military presence in the areas near the border. Darbuk-Shyok-Daulat Beg Oldie Road: All you need to know about the strategically important road for India

(2- Abrogation of Article 370 On August 5, 2019, the Government of India scraped Article 370, which gave special status to Jammu and Kashmir.

After the abrogation of Article 370, two separate Union Territories were created– first Jammu and Kashmir and second Ladakh. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

China opposed this decision of the Central Government and stated that it has always opposed to India’s inclusion of the Chinese territory (Ladakh) in the western sector of the China-India boundary into its administrative jurisdiction.

Recently, India has continued to undermine China’s territorial sovereignty by unilaterally changing its domestic law. Such practice is unacceptable 1 and will not come into force.

The matter was taken to the UN Security Council where India clarified its stand on scraping the Article 370 and cited it as India’s internal matter. What is Article 370 and how does it facilitate to Citizens of Jammu & Kaslimir?

(3- Observation Post on the Indian side of LAC Chinese People’s Liberation Army’s insisted to construct an observation post at Indian patrolling point that resulted in the clash between the armies of the two nations at Galwan.

The observation post would have helped the Chinese Army to monitor Indian troop movement towards the Karakoram and would also have had the capacity to interdict army vehicles plying on the Darbuk-Shyok-Daulet Beg Oldi (DBO) road.

Moreover, the observation post was on the Indian side of the LAC. Colonel Santosh Babu Biography: Birth, Martyrdom, Education, Family, Military Career and Last Rites

(4- China’s Criticism at the International level China is facing wide criticism due to its internal politics and secondly due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Recently, China passed the Hong Kong National Security Law which faced wide criticism both at internal and international level. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Hong Kong National Security Law: All you need to know China is also facing criticism upon the mistreatment of the Uighur Muslims. U.S. President Donald Trump signed legislation calling for sanctions over the repression of China’s Uigliur la Muslims.

As per UN data, more than a million Muslims have been detained in the camps in the e Xinjiang region.

The US lawmaker Scott Perry has introduced a bill in the US Congress to recognize Tibet as an independent country. The bill also challenges the One China Policy.

The bill includes the arbitrary detention of Gedhun Choekyo Nyima (6 years old when detained) who was identified as the next Panchen Lama by the 14th Dalai Lama.

US to recognize Tibet as an independent nation: All you need to know The trade war between the US and China is another reason behind the face-off at Galwan.

This trade war has impacted the farmers and manufacturers of the US due to the inflation while China has recorded a decrease in its economic growth and manufacturing activity.

The dispute between China and Taiwan is yet another reason. China wants Taiwan to accept the one country, two systems forinula but Taiwan wants a separate nation.

China is also expanding its footprints in the Indian Ocean and has modernised its Djibouti naval base which was earlier a logistic unit Why is China expanding its military footprints in the Indian Ocean? BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Lastly, China is facing international pressure over the origin and spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. Several countries are demanding an international investigation over the origin and mishandling of virus by China.

(5- India’s foreign policy Indian Government lias recently passed new FDI rules to discourage the opportunistic takeovers at low values in Indian companies amidst the COVID-19 pandemic.

Entities from seven countries–Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Bhutan and Afghanistan; sharing a land border with India or where the beneficial owner of investment into India is situated in or is a citizen of any such country, can invest in Indian entities only under the Government route.

As India imports maximum from China among its neighbouring countries, new FDI rules will impact China to a greater extent

Q 5. Terrorism

ANS: Terrorism is a term that is seen in the news very regularly. It is a broad term and encompasses a wide variety of events and concepts.

Terrorism affects the world deeply and India, particularly, has been a victim of various terror acts perpetrated by different groups. The terin terrorisın is very broad and there is no one definition of the term. BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

Different people and organisations have come up with their own definition of what constitutes terrorism.

Generally, the terin terrorism indicates a criminal and violent activity performed by an individual or group of individuals or an organisation in order to strike terror among the general public and send messages to the public and governments, to fulfil a goal.

Although the victims of the terror act maybe a few people (depending upon the event), the intended target is usually larger than the number of victims alone. The terrorists’ purpose is to send a strong message to the larger public and the government.

They generally claim responsibility after conducting a violent act so as to let people know of their power and capabilities and thus, inflict terror upon the people.

UN Definition: As per the definition by the United Nations, any criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group of persons or particular persons for a particular purpose are in any circumstance unjustifiable,

whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be invoked to justify them.

US Department of State Definition: Terrorism means premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.

A definition according to the lapsed Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act is very inclusive and exhaustive: BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

“Whoever with intent to overawe the Government as by law established or to strike terror in the people or any section of the people or to alienate any section of the people or to adversely affect the harmony amongst different sections of the people does any act or thing by using bombs,

dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or by any other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature in such a manner as to cause, or as is likely to cause, death of, or injuries to, any person or persons or loss of, or damage to,

destruction of property or disruption of any supplies or services essential to the life of the community, or detains any person and threatens to kill or injure such person in order to compel the Government or any other person to do or abstain from doing any act, commits a terrorist act.” BPSE 142 Free Solved Assignment

BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BPSE 143 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BPSE 145 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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