Gandhi and the Contemporary World
BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q. 1. Highlight the various political movements launched by Gandhi for the attainment of independence in India.
Ans. The contribution of Mahatma Gandhi to the indian freedom movement can’t be measured in words. He with other freedom fighters enforced the Britishers to leave India.
His action, words are the source of inspiration for millions, and its struggle movement policies are non-violent.
He was known for his non-violence protest and was a leading figure of freedom movements whether in India or South Africa.
With his efforts finally, Indian got freedom from colonial rule, He always gave importance to human rights.
No doubt Mahatma Gandhi is a true inspiration not only for the past generation but also for the generations to come with his ideology of non-violenec truth, tolerance, and social welfare.
Before discussing major movements of Mahatma Gandhi let us see some work of Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa.
In 1906-07, Mahatma Gandhi started a Satyagraha in South Africa against the compulsory registration and passes for Indians In 1910, he announced Satyagraha against emigration and restriction in Natal (South Africa)
Major movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India are as follows:
Champaran Satyagraha (1917): In the Champaran district of Bihar the condition of Indigo cultivators became miserable under the Tinkathiya system.
Under this system, the cultivators were forced to cultivate Indigo on the best 3/20th part of their land and were forced to sell them at a cheaper price.
The situation for the farmers became worse due to harsh weather conditions and the levy of heavy taxes. Then, Rajkumar Shukla met Mahatma Gandhi at Lucknow and invited him.
At Champaran Mahatma Gandhi adopted the approach of the civil disobedience movement and launched demonstrations and strikes against the landlords.
As a result, the government set up a Champaran agrarian committee of which Gandhi ji was also one of the members. All the demands of the cultivators were accepted and the Satyagraha was successful. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Kheda Satyagraha (1917-1918): A no-tax campaign was started by Mohan Lal Pandey in 1917 who demanded the remission of taxes due to poor harvest or crop failure in Kheda village, Gujarat.
Mahatma Gandhi was invited and he joined the movement on 22 March, 1918. There, he started Satyagraha.
The movement was also joined by Vallabhbhai Patel and Indulal Yagnik. Finally, the demands were fulfilled by the British government and it was successful.
Khilafat Movement (1919): Khilafat movement was started by the Ali brothers to show the protest against unjust done with Turkey after the First World War.
Under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi, the movement was launched against the British government to restore the collapsing status of the Caliph in Turkey. All India Conference was held in Delhi where Mahatma Gandhi was elected as a president.
He also returned the medals received from the British Empire in South Africa. The success of the Khilafat movement made him the national leader.
Non-Cooperation Movement (1920): Non-Cooperation movement was launched in 1920 by Mahatma Gandhi due to the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. Mahatma Gandhi thought that this will continue and Britishers will enjoy their control over Indians.
With the help of Congress, Gandhi ji convinced people for starting the non-cooperation movement in a peaceful way which is the key factor to attain independence.
He framed the concept of Swaraj and it became a crucial element in the Indian freedom struggle. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The movement gained momentum and people started boycotting the products and establishments of the British government like schools, colleges, government offices.
But due to the Chaushaura incident, Mahatma Gandhi ended the movement because in this incident 23 police officials were killed.
Civil-Disobedience Movement(1930) Mahatma gandhi in March 1930 Addressed the nation in the newspaper, Young India, and expressed his willingness to suspend the movement if his eleven demands get accepted by the government.
But the government at that time was of Lord drwin and he did not respond back to him. As a result, Mahatma Gandhi initiated the movement with full vigour.
He started the movement with Dandi March from 12 March to 6 April, 1930.
Mahatma Gandhi along with his followers marched from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi in Navsari District, Ahmedabad on the sea coast and broke the salt law by making salt on 6 April, 1930.
Under this movement student, left college and government servants resigned from the office.
Boycott foreign clothes, communal burning of foreign clothes, non-payment of government taxes, women stage Dharna at the government liquor shop, etc.
In 1930. Lard Irwin’s Government called for a Round Table Conference in London and Indian National Conference BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Quit India Movement (1942): Mahatma Gandhi launches the Quit India movement on 8 August, 1942 during Second World War to drive British rule out of India. In the movement, Mahatma Gandhi delivered a Do or Die speech.
As a result, the entire members of the Indian National Congress were arrested by the British officials and imprisoned without trial. But the protest continued across the nation.
By the end of World War II. the British government cleared that they will hand over the powers to India. Mahatma Gandhi called off the movement which results in the release of thousands of prisoners.
Therefore, these are the major movements led by Mahatma Gandhi and helped India in attaining freedom from British rule or colonial rule.
Q. 2. Explain the concept of Satyagraha and elaborate its political, socio-economic and spiritual dimensions.
Ans. The idea of satyagraha was introduced in India by Mahatma Gandhi as a determined and non-violent resistance to evil.
This concept of satyagraha became a tool for India to fight against British imperialism. The practitioners of the idea of satyagraha are called satyagrahis.
Gandhian Way is a holistic philosophy of life and society equally applicable to national and international settings. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The uniqueness of this way is primacy of morality over power politics. Truth is God and emphasis on ends-means continuum say it all.
Gandhian Way rejects the western philosophical tradition of ends justifying the means. Purity of ends is an essential ingredient.
In the Gandhian way, the solution of any conflict lies in die method of its resolution Truth with non-violence is the only pure means to achieve the goal of a peaceful world order.
Gandhi gave a revolutionary turn to social reform movements. He applied satyagraha in the non-violent struggle against injustice, exploitation and dictatorship.
Gandhi’s world view is rooted in his concept of peace, which was comprehensive. It was neither mere absence of war nor acceptance of non-violence as a strategy.
He linked peace with truth achieved through non-violence, Transformation of individual was an essential element of satyagraha. Gandhian Way does not seek to avoid conflict, but seeks to face it squarely.
Satyagraha is clearly distinguished from passive resistance. Satyagraha is the weapon of the strong, one who is capable of self-suffering can use it.
That Strength it come only by following the path of truth with non-violence as is emphasized in satyagraha. He who has not overcome all fear cannot practice ahinsa to perfection.
Just as long for and was the other side tahin course ton um was the counterpart of selfsuffering. He distinguished self-suffering from cowardice.
He said: “Where there is only one choice between cowardice and violence, I would advise violence.’ Truth plus non-violence plus self-suffering constitute the essence of satyagraha.
On various occasions, Gandhi clarified the difference between passive resistance and satyagraha. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Satyagraha is a more dynamic force than passive resistance because it contemplates prolonged mass action in resistance to injustice Secondly, satyagraha can be practised at all levels-domestic, national and international, while passive resistances contemplated at a political level only.
Thirdly, satyagraha offers continuous purification of mind.
It has no place for hatred, while passive resistance may be compatible with internal violence towards the enemy.
Gandhi said: ‘Satyagraha differs from passive resistance as the North Pole from the South. Passive resistance may be offered along side of arms.
It, often, is looked upon as preparation for arms. But satyagraha and violent resistance are absolute antagonists.
Passive Resistance was conceived as a weapon of the weak and does not exclude the use of physical force or violence for the purpose of gaining one’s end, whereas satyagraha was conceived as the weapon of the strongest and excludes the use of violence in any shape or form.
In satyagraha there is no attempt to coerce or terrorise the opponent.6 According to Gandhi, satyagraha has two essential constituents: Righteousness of cause good End and purity of Weapon-good means.
End-Means continuum is the base of the Gandhian Way.
Satyagraha inculcates agraha or moral pressure for the sake of truth. Gandhi states: The world rests upon the bedrock of satya or Truth.
Asatya, meaning untruth, also means non-existent; and Satya or Truth means that which is”. If untruth does not so much as exist, its victory is out of the question.
And Truth being that which is can never be destroyed. This is the doctrine of Satyagraha in a nutshell. He said: “The very insistence on truth has taught me to appreciate the beauty of compromise. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
I saw in later life that this spirit was an essential part of Satyagraha.” Gandhi had immense, deep and consistent faith in God as Truth.
Suffering serves three purposes: it purifies the sufferers: secondly, it makes a direct appeal to the soul of the oppressor: thirdly, it intensifies favourable public opinion, Satyagraha has various forms.
Fasting can be one extreme form of satyagraha Gandhi held that fasting and prayer give the required discipline, the spirit of self-sacrifice, humility and resoluteness of will.
Fasting can be applied against those who are responsive to moral persuasion. Gandhi held that fasting sets the soul free for efficacious prayer.
He firmly believed that the great teachers of the world have derived extraordinary power for the good of the humanity and attained clarity of vision through fasting and prayer.
Complete peace is three dimensional: manasa meaning maintaining peace in heart, vacha meaning maintaining peace in thought, karmana meaning maintaining peace in action.
One who is fearless, free of enmity, impartiality aspires for supreme public interest that is truth can be a satyagrahi.
One does not surrender before power based on coercion and violence. One who is determined to fight evils and one who accepts truth and truth only can be a satyagrahi. A Satyagrah should not have any vested interest to protect
For westerners, non-violence may appear as a negative word. They easily comprehend love, justice, freedom etc. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Non-violence, by lacking a corresponding positive word, leads westerners to think differently, which is based on a deductive method governed by classical logic Jawaharlal Nehru at the time of the Non-Co-operation Movement had grasped its spirit.
He says what I admired was the moral and ethical side of our movement and Satyagraha. I did not give an absolute allegiance to the doctrine of non-violence or accept it forever.
He took it as a right policy for the prevailing Indian society… That seemed not only a good ethical doctrine but sound practical politics for the means that are not good often defeat the end in view and raise new difficulties…the means which satisfied my moral sense and gave me a sense of personal freedom.
So great was this personal satisfaction that even possibility of failure did not count for much, for such failure could only be temporary.”
Q. 1. Discuss the different ways of promoting social harmony.
Ans Social Harmony can be defined as a procedure of assessment, articulate, and encourage trust, admiration, peace, harmony, respect, generosity and equity upon other people in any particular society regardless of their religion,caste, gender, race, age and occupation, etc. among other aspects.
Hence social harmony is relatively important for truly being social which also means living pleasantly with each other. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Well-being is not just the absence of disease or illness. It is a complex combination of a person’s physical, mental, emotional and social health factors.
Well-being is strongly linked to happiness and life satisfaction. The discipline of social work has a long history of evolution from charity-based tradition to the autonomous profession of today.
Social work education has evolved in these continents as a response to various social and cultural perspectives on common problems in human development.
The history of social work education continues to evolve as a response to these varied social and cultural perspectives on common problems in human development.
Social workers have taken up the challenge of not only addressing the immediate suffering of those whom they serve, but also critiquing and working to improve economic, political and social circumstances defining both individual and collective well-being.
It is important as it promotes understanding, tolerance and friendship among human beings in their diversity of religion, belief, culture and language, and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, regardless of their race, gender, language or religion.
It also attempts to draw a linkage between social harmony and role of Social Worker. Moreover, it looks into the Social Work methods and tools which can be used to build social harmony.
Q. 2. Describe Gandhi’s concept of non-stealing, relinquishment of property and celibacy.
Ans. Non-possession is allied to non-stealing. A thing not originally stolen must nevertheless be classified as stolen property, if we possess it without needing it.
Possession implies provision for the future. A seeker after Truth, a follower of the law of Love, cannot hold anything against tomorrow. God never stores for tomorrow.
He never creates more than what is strictly needed for the moment. If therefore, we repose faith in His Providence, we should rest assured that He will give us every day our daily bread, meaning everything that we require….
Our ignorance or negligence of the Divine Law, which gives to get from day to day his daily bread and no more, has give rise to inequalities with all the miseries attendant upon them.
The rich have a superfluous store of things which they do not need and which are therefore neglected and wasted, while millions are starved to death for want of sustenance.
If each retained possession of only what he needed, no one would be in want, and all would live in contentment. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
As it is, the rich are discontented no less than the poor the poor man would rain become a millorare, and the millionaire a multi-millionaire.
In the late 19th century, an unassuming young attorney in South Africa named Mohandas Gandhi began to express his own doubts about the modern Anglo system of law used by the British Empire.
His campaigns of civil disobedience caught the attention of scholars in the West, but his view of property has received relatively little attention.
Most scholars have focused more broadly on Gandhi’s conception of the environment or economy, but only a handful of scholars have attempted to understand Gandhi’s thought on property law.
In fact, Joan Bondurant went as far as saying that Gandhi’s detachment from material possessions and practice of non-possession are the very negation of the institution of property.
“Therefore, the challenge to create a theory of property from Gandhi’s nonpossessive philosophy can seem a formidable one.
However, Gandhi’s core doctrines provide a broad canvas upon which a non-possessive theory of property can rest.
Gandhi clearly reflect his courage, commitment, convictions, and faith in “Truth is God” irrespective of its consequences. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
He, who is clean within cannot remain unclean without. Any tainted person could have taken the advantage of liberties to satisfy the camal desire but for Gandhi sex was not a mere physical interaction it’s beyond it.
His courage to speak the truth shows his will to remain faithful to his wife and his staunch faith in God. God is our refuge and strength, a very present help in trouble.
It also reflects his love, care and trust on his wife and himself. Today individual and family norms and values are breaking down.
Mother, sister, daughter and wife are no safer, daily thousands of innocent girl is being raped, molested and harassed.
A man who behaves like a beast is worse than the beast.
Today we have many civilized beast in the form of human Gandhi was more modern than today’s generations, modernity should not be judged from flimsy clothes and cosmetics wearing on the body but how beautiful you are from within.
How Gandhi managed to speak the truth? What was the reason behind that? Gandhi was born and brought up in an electric religious environment.
His parents were deeply spiritual and God fearing. Parents and family plays a significant role in socializing of child and shaping his personality.
What type of children you want? An honest, sincere, loving, caring, understanding and hard working than you have to live a life with all these qualities because for your child “Seeing is Believing”. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Your child is watching you day and night and tries to become a person like you,
Q.3 Whether the concept of trust trusteeship is relevant even today, give an example,
Ans. Gandhi’s doctrine of trusteeship is a social and economic philosophy aiming to bring justice in the society. It provides a means by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of the trust that looked after the welfare of the people in general.
Gandhi believed that the wealthy people could be persuaded to part with their wealth to help the poor.
This principle reflects Gandhis spiritual development, which he partly to his deep involvement with the theosophical literature and the study of the Bhagavad Gita.
Gandhi holds that labour is superior to capital. He is not in favour of inciting labour against capital. Unlike Marxism, he does not believe that class struggle is the key of social development.
Gandhi believes that even the rich people the so called capitalist are after att human beings, and as such they also have in them an element of essential goodness that everyman necessarily possesses.
If that element aroused and if the capitalist is also won over by love, they would be persuaded to believe that the wealth in their possession should be utilised for the good of the poor. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The rich people should be made to realise that the capital in their hands is the fruit of the labour of the poor men.
This realisation would make them perceive that the welfare of the society lies in using capital and resources for the good of others and not for one’s personal comforts.
Thus, it is apparent that Gandhi’s doctrine of trusteeship is based on a sense of morality and love.
This doctrine is nothing but a sincer practice of the doctrine of the Non-possession. The rich also must be made to realise, through a loving process, the merit of Non-possession.
Q. 1. Nirbhaya Movement-2012
Ans. In December 2012, New Delhi witnessed a horrific crime – a female medical student was violently gang-raped on a moving bus and then dumped onto the highway, injured and unconscious. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
While she didn’t survive the attack, Nirbhaya, as she was named by the media, sparked a revolution in India and its neighbouring countries.
The outrage that followed the attack opened up a previously nonexistent space for victims and those close to them to speak out against sexual violence.
Following the protests, there was a remarkable increase in the number of rapes being reported annually, indicating that survivors of sexual assault were more willing to report it than before(“Frightening and heartening, Rape Cases Skyrocket in Post-December 16 Delhi,”. 2013).
In 2011, there were 572 rape cases reported in Delhi. The number rose to 706 in 2012, more than doubled to 1.441 in 2013, and increased to 1.813 in 2014 (Pandey et all. 2013) (“Delhi is Now India’s Rape Capital, Show NCRB Data”. 2015). “
What was novel about Nirbhaya was the nationwide as well as international attention it received in the new age of social media, compelling polithians and civil society alike to deliberate over a previously underreported issue”.
writes Heba Adawy in Te Spark of Nirbhaya : Indian Feminist Interventions, Common Challenges And Prospects (2014).
The heinous nature of Singh’s rape, its urban and supposedly safe setting, and the indifferent attitudes of the authorities held responsible led to the voicing of demands for a structural change in the way that rape is perceived. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The movement demanded that sexual violence be seen as an affront to a woman’s autonomy, and as stripping her of her rightful agency, in opposition to the commonly held patriarchal perception of rape as a dishonour to the victim’s family,
Q. 2. Water Conservation Movement
Ans, Water is the fundamental base of all civilisations. Water has influenced the rise and fall of many civilisations.
Water resources continually teach societies about the interconnections to be found in the environment and of the need for ecology-based perspectives.
Water quantity and quality are basic to the well being of each and every society, Water related issues continue to be vitally important for environmental movements all over the world. :
The National Water policy or the Indian goverment has emphasised that in the allocation of water, priority should be given to drinking water and water for irrigation purposes; but in reality more water is allocated for industry and urban use.
The entry of private water companies is being portrayed as acere for the management of water resources by the State and the local authorities.
However, for the context of privatisation of water and water bodies poor sections in the society, those who do not have the purchasing power to compete in the market, are the worst affected. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The State’s policy of transferring of control of water resources to private sector under various schemes, as a result of global pressure and the nexus between industry,
politicians and bureaucrats, has violated the basic human rights of local communities, thus leading to the exclusion of poor tribals and local residents from using water for their basic subsistence in various parts of the country.
Q. 3. Khadi: Symbol of economic dependence
Ans. The movement for Khadi began in 1918. The movement was marked with its own changing dynamics.
While initially, a clear emphasis could be seen on using Khadi as a medicine to the masses ridden with poverty due to economic stagnation, from 1934 onwards the fabric became something that the village people could use for themselves.
It was no longer seen only as a commodity for sale to bring economic prosperity. The meaning became more humble. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
In 1942-43. right after coming out of the prison, his ideology behind Khadi became that of making the fabric useful for the villagers themselves.
His ideas came out clearly by 1944, when he left no stone unturned to bring this change into effect. In 1948, India recognized the role of Rural Cottage Industries in its Industrial Policy Resolution.
In 1949, Shri Ekambernathan invented Amber Charkha. All India Khadi and Village Industries Board was set up in January, 1953 (AIKVIB) by Govt. of India.
In 1955 it was decided that a statutory body should replace the Board and KVIC Act Was passed in 1956. In 1957 KVIC came into existence as a statutory organisation.
As per KVIC, in 2017. a total of 460,00 people were employed in industries making khadi products.
Production and sales rose by 31.6% and 33% respectively in 2017 after multi-spindle charkas were introduced to enhance the productivity by replacing the singlespindle charkas.
In 2019 it was reported that overall khadi sales in India have risen by 28% in the 5-year period preceding 2018-2019. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
The revenues from Khadi in the last financial year stood at 3.215 crore and the KVIC has set a target of 5000 crore to be achieved by 2020
Q. 4. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan
Ans. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan or SSA is an Indian Government programme aimed at the universalisation of primary education in a time bound manner”, the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 (estimated to be 206 million children in 2001) a fundamental right (Article-21A).
The programme was pioneered by former Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. It aims to educate all children between the ages 6 to 14 by 2010. However, the time limit has been pushed forward indefinitely.
As an intervention programme, it started in 2002 and SSA has been operational since 2000-2001. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
However, its roots go back to 1993-1994, when the District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) was launched, with an aim of achieving the objective of universal primary education. DPEP, over several phases, covered 272 districts in 18 states of the country.
The expenditure on the programme was shared by the General Government (85%) and the State Governments (15%).
The Central share was funded by a number or external agencies, including the World Bank, Department for International Development (DED) and UNICEF By 2001, more than $1500 million had been committed to the programme, and 50 million children covered in its ambit)
In an impact assesment of Phase I of DPEP, the authors concluded that its net impact on minority children was impressive, while there was little evidence of any impact on the enrolment of girls Nevertheless, they concluded baulib investment in DPER was not a waste.
Q. 5. Gandhi’s Critique of Industrialization
Ans. In the words of Gandhi, Industrialization is, I am afraid, going to be a curse for mankind. Exploitation of one nation by another cannot go on for all time.
Industrialism depends entirely on your capacity to exploit, on foreign markets being open to you, and on the absence of competitors… India, when it begins to exploit other nations as it must if it becomes industrialized-will be a curse for other nations, a menace to the world.
He did not believe that industrialization is necessary in any case for any country. It is much less so for India. BPSE 141 Free Solved Assignment
Indeed, We believe that Independent India can only discharge her duty towards a groaning world by adopting a simple but ennobled life by developing her thousands of cottages and living at peace with the world.
High thinking is inconsistent with complicated material life based on high speed imposed on us by Mammon worship. All the graces of life are possible only when we learn the art of living nobly.
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