COMPARATIVE GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Assignment – 1
Q 1 Define comparative politics. Explain the different approaches in the study of comparative politics.
Ans: Comparative politics:
Broadly the goal of comparative politics is to encompass the major political similarities and differences between countries.
The task is to develop some perspective on the mixture of constants and variability which characterizes the world’s governments and the contexts in which they operate.
While the term comparative government is quite old, the term comparative politics as mentioned above is relatively new.
The change is significant, as are a number of differences between the two, which go much beyond that of nomenclature. The former is described as the traditional approach while the latter is viewed as the modern approach.
Different approaches in the study of comparative politics:
Political investigators use different approaches tools to arrive at greater political understanding.
The diversity of approaches are used by political scientists to attack the complexity of political systems and behaviour. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The traditional approaches to Political Science was broadly predominant till the occurrence of the Second World War. There are many types of traditional approaches:
Philosophical approach: Philosophical approach is conventional approach to study politics.
Customarily,the study of politics was subjugated by philosophical reflections on universal political values that were regarded as essential to the just state and the good state.
Historical approach: This approach states that political theory can be only understood when the historical factors are taken into consideration.
Institutional approach: There is a strong belief that philosophy, history and law have bestowed to the study of politics and it is in the field of institutional approaches.
Legal approach: In the realm of traditional approaches, there is a legal or juridical approach.
The political philosophers, later on, realized the need to study politics from a new viewpoint. There are many types of Modern Approaches:
Sociological approach: Political science and sociology both are social sciences and in several places they overlay. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Psychological approach: There is a strong link between politics and psychology. Psychologists usually study the political behavior of individuals and the factors leading to such behavior.
Economic approach: Economics and politics are vital arenas of social science and in several respects, they are closely related.
Quantitative approach: This approach is also known as the statistical approach. It is described as the use of numerical data so as to impart exactitude to the process of describing and analyzing the political phenomena.
System approach: This approach falls in the category of a modern approach. The notion of Systems Theory was emerged from ancient time, dates back to 1920s.
Simulation approach: The facts of this approach are borrowed by political scientists from natural science as well as from cybernetics and mathematics.
Behavioral approach: Behaviouralism is considered a contemporary approach to the study of political science. But this approach emerged during 20th century.
Marxian approach: Marxian approach to politics is not limited to the writings of Marx, Engels and Lenin but all those of a congregation of later writers such as Luxemburg, Trotsky, Gramsci and many others. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Structural functional approach: According to this approach, the society is a single inter-related system where each part of the system has a definite and distinct role to play.
Q 2 Describe the nature and characteristics of the state in the developing world.
Ans: Nature and characteristics of the state in the developing world:
The nature and characteristics of the state within the Developing World. Theories of the state, especially the Developing World state, have fallen far away from their erstwhile theoretical pre-eminence trapped within the postulated dual impasse of development theory’ on the one hand, and of the state in diplomacy theory on the opposite, and eroded by a growing corpus of sub-state, and indeed extra-state theories, the idea of the Developing World state has not fared well within the half of the neo-classical nineties.
Nor has the discourse during which the Developing World state has been framed.
If the mainstream development literature of the 1960s and 1970s presupposed a ‘modernizing’ developmental state and therefore the Marxist approaches of an equivalent period invoked the ‘strong; ‘overdeveloped’ and (relatively)
‘autonomous’ postcolonial state; and if the eighties produced rather more ambiguous concepts like the ‘rentier state; the ‘peripheral state’ or the ‘bureaucratic-authoritarian state;’ then within the nineties the imagery has turned relentlessly negative as expressed in such coinages as ‘vassal state,’ ‘predator state; ‘vampire state; ‘receiver state; ‘prostrate state,’ and even ‘fictitious state; ‘show of state’ or ‘collapsed state.
State,’ and even ‘fictitious state; show of state’ or ‘collapsed state: The changing imagery of the Developing World state reflects the new reality, particularly for states in Africa and enormous parts of Latin and Central America,
Asia, and therefore the Middle East also as those Eastern European states that have now been downgraded from the Second to the Developing World .
This justifies the blanket term ‘Developing World;’ and it’s with this rapidly changing and evolving entity that this contribution cares. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Globalization and Neo-liberalism:
The hegemonic vision of world society for the Millennium has clearly emerged within the notion of globalization.
In contrast to the still aggressively anti-communist ‘New World Order’ that opened the nineties, the ‘kinder, gentler’ – and more self-evidently hegemonic – globalization’ of the dominant international discourse may be a ‘post-communist’ and even ‘post imperialist’ statement of a world becoming more and more unified during a progressive neo-classical and neo-liberal system proclaiming free choice, market economy and free labour.
The nature and characteristics of the state within the Developing World, the top of the state-socialist challenge to hegemonic capitalism lends force to the powerful underlying myths of globalization – that it’s desirable, that it’s dynamic,
that it’s inevitable, and that, anyway, it’s the sole game in town. From out of the surfeit of recent literature on globalization one central leitmotif clearly emerges: it’s in its core profoundly and relentlessly antistate.
Recommodification and Democratization:
From the attitude of the Developing World state, the phenomenon of globalization can be usefully cast in terms of a primarily economic dimension, recommodification, and a really closely related, mainly political one, formal-liberal democratization.
the previous concept, recommodification, The important analysis of the state which, a decade ago, he saw as threatened by the facility of capital because it had been implicated during a ‘primary contradiction’ from which it couldn’t extricate itself
on the one hand, capitalism, with the profits, revenues, etc. that it generates, was historically necessary to form the state add the primary place; but state intervention increased the scope of decommodification (or autonomous, unregulated spheres of social action). BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Assignment - II
Q 3 Compare and contrast political parties and pressure groups.
Ans: Compare and contrast political parties and pressure groups: Pressure Group
|Pressure Group||Political Party|
|1. Pressure Group, refers to the interest group that attempts to influence the government policy,For a definite objective.||Political Party alludes to an organization of people that focuses on the acquisition and retention of power through collective efforts.|
|2. Exerting influence||Acquiring power|
|It is an informal, conceited and unrecognized entity.||It is formal, open and a recognized entity.|
|Only persons of similar set of values, beliefs and status can join pressure group.||People with similar political ideology can become members|
|They do not contest elections, they only support political parties.||They contest elections and participate in the campaign.|
|They are not accountable to people.||They are accountable to people.|
|They have specific interest and work for the collective interest of their members.||They have a broad-based programme that covers many aspects of national interest.|
|Their membership is limited.||The membership of political parties is broad based.|
|They do not aim to directly control or share political powers.||They directly aim to control or share political powers.|
|They are an informal institution.||They are a formal institution.|
|Pressure groups influence government policies and pursue the interests of their||While the political parties contest in an election and control the government.|
|Pressure groups are basically self-seeking and not organised to reach everybody in the the society||Political parties are organised to reach everybody in the society and not self-seeking.|
|Pressure groups are only concerned with matters affecting their members such as, their salaries, allowances and loans.||Political parties expressed opinions on several issues such as education, health, agriculture and housing.|
Q 4 Examine the role of pressure groups in modern political systems.
Ans: Role of pressure groups in modern political systems:
Group activity is a feature of every democracy and, indeed, of many authoritarian states as well. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Although pressure groups have existed for long and will continue to do so into the foreseeable future, it is difficult to assess their role in a democracy. This is because of the multiplicity and diversity of pressure groups.
The role of the pressure groups is very important for the administrative, legislative, executive, bureaucratic,and political system.
They are like a living public behind the parties. Their role is indirect yet effective. The various roles of pressure groups are as follows:
i.They try to introduce their candidates into the legislature. They help political parties to win an election by preparing manifestos and mobilizing voters.
ii. Pressure Groups try to fill high executive posts with men who can fulfill their interest i.e. selection of cabinet and selection of PM in a coalition government, etc. which affects the policy implementation process.
iii. Bureaucrats are politically neutral and hence, the pressure groups try to bend them in their manner by putting good remarks on them. Bureaucrats have a long tenure of service and therefore, they oblige to them.
iv. Pressure groups play as a vital link between the government and the governed. They keep governments more inclined towards their interest.
v. Pressure groups help in expressing the views and needs of the minority communities who otherwise may remain unheard. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
vi. Pressure groups provide expertise to the government with various information which might be applicable to issues such as indigenous reconciliation.
vii. Pressure groups promote opportunities for political participation without joining a political party.
Q 5 Briefly describe the core features of a federal form of government.
Ans: Core features of a federal form of government:
Whether a federal system comes into being as a result of independent political units coming together (as in America) or as a result of unitary states constitutionally devolving powers to the states (as in India), all federal forms of government have some common features.
Division of Power: Although the manner and degree of division of power vary across the systems, the core feature of a federation is the division of power between the federal and the state governments.
This can be achieved by specifying the subjects on which the federal or central government has exclusive jurisdiction and keeping the residuary powers with the states (as in the United States).
Written Constitution: Since the division of powers between the centre and states is in the nature of a compact it is necessary to be given a written form.
Constitutions of a federal set up specify the areas over which the centre and states have jurisdiction. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
This means that both the centre and the states derive their powers from the constitution. The constitution is supreme in a federal set up.
Judicial Review: The legal supremacy of the constitution, which is an essential future of a federal system, makes it necessary that there is a body above both the federal government and the state governments to decide whether they are operating within the powers given to them.
This function of interpreting the Constitution is usually given to the Supreme Court. It is the Supreme Court that decides the legal disputes arising between the centre and states or between two or more states.
Assignment - III
Q 6 What are the characteristics of authoritarian regimes.
Ans:Characteristics of authoritarian regimes: In the authoritarian regimes the techniques of decision by public discussion and voting are largely or wholly supplanted by the decision of those in authority.
i.The authoritarian regimes exercise sufficient power to dispense with any constitutional limitations.
ii. Those in power in an authoritarian regime claim to derive their authority not necessarily and always from the consent of the governed but from some special quality that they claim to possess. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
iii. Based on force, authoritarian regimes are likely to use violence against the citizens who do not receive any importance in the governance.
Power is controlled, change of government or even of leaders, is not smooth and peaceful under authoritarian regimes.
Such changes take place either by means of coup d’etat or as a result of revolutions. Coup has been a normal feature as far as the authoritarian regimes in Africa are concerned.
Q 7 What are the reasons for the intervention of the military in politics?
Ans:Reasons for the intervention of the military in politics:
Military interventions in politics are very common both in democratic or totalitarian regimes.
Although the involvement of the military in determining who gets what, when, and how is too apparent, the issue has not been studied well enough.
Students of politics and public administration, up to now, focused generally on individual cases or with regional perspectives while studying military interventions.
The main role of the military as a bureaucratic organization is to defend the country against external threats.
The military bureaucracies are expected to carry out defense policies formulated by legislative and executive branches. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
However, in developing countries, the military has had some other functions like contributing to development, and protecting the regime from internal and external sources, etc.
The distinctive characteristic of military bureaucracy from civilian bureaucracy with more hierarchic, authoritative, and a legitimate source of coercion make it easy for them to influence political institutions.
Q 8 Explain the three meanings of the term civil society.
Ans:Three meanings of the term civil society:
The term civil society is derived from the Latin word civil is societies which means associations or communities that work above and beyond the state.
Civil society thus consists of a host of institutions that look after the activities, which are not taken up by the state.
The global civil society ecosystem can be characterized as a complex and interconnected network of individuals and groups drawn from rich histories of associational relationships and interactions.
According to the World Bank: “Civil society … refers to a wide array of organizations: community groups, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), labour unions, indigenous groups, charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, professional associations, and foundations.” BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Q 9 What are the core features of a federal polity?
Ans:Core features of a federal polity:
Following are the Core features of a federal polity:
1 There are two or more levels (or tiers) of government.
2 Different tiers of government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
3 The jurisdictions of the respective levels or tiers of government are specified in the constitution.
4 The fundamental provisions of the constitution cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. Such changes require the consent of both the levels of government.
5 Courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of different levels of government.
6 Sources of revenue for each level of government are clearly specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
Q 10 What are the core assumptions of neoliberalism?
Ans: Core assumptions of neoliberalism:
Neoliberalism shares many assumptions as neorealism (namely, that the international system is anarchic,states are the main actors, and states rationally pursue their self-interest), but draws different conclusions from those assumptions.
In contrast to neorealist scholarship which is skeptical of prospects for sustainable cooperation, neoliberalism argues that cooperation is feasible and sustainable.
Neoliberals highlight the role of international institutions and regimes in facilitating cooperation between states. BPSC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The main reason why international organizations facilitate cooperation is that they provide information, which reduces collective action problems among states in providing public goods and enforcing compliance.
Robert Keohane’s 1984 book After Hegemony used insights from the new institutional economics to argue that the international system could remain stable in the absence of a hegemon, thus rebutting hegemonic stability theory.
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BPSC 131 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT IN HINDI
BPSC 132 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT IN HINDI