INDIAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS
BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Assignment – 1
Q 1 Explain the Parliament’s powers to amend the Constitution of India.
Ans: Parliament’s powers to amend the Constitution of India:
The Indian Constitution provides room for amendment. In this sense, the Constitution is not rigid unlike that in some other countries.
As has been noted by several scholars, a Constitution is a living document and, hence, it has to reflect the changing times.
An amendment to the Preamble made the principle of secularism an integral feature of the Constitution.
When a Constitutionals amended it is expected that it would bring a change for the better. In other words, it would give more than ‘take away any’.
Article 368. together with other articles, empowers Parliament to make amendments to the Constitution.
In fact, the occasion for debate, on what the fundamental features of Constitution are, was created when certain amendments were made to the Constitution.
The amendment procedure laid down in the Constitution is both rigid and soft for different articles.
While some need only a simple majority, most need a majority of two-thirds present and voting in both the Houses of Parliament and the assent of the President.
The toughest amendment procedure prescribed requires, besides the twothirds present and voting and requirement, also the consent of at least half the number of Legislatures in States in the country. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
And further more, it also requires the assent of the President.
Two of the most vehemently contested aspects were one, on the authority of Parliament to effect amendment itself to any article of the Constitution and two, on who holds supremacy of decision over an amendment.
While the Indian Parliament held that it was the supreme authority and had, therefore the right to amend any article in the Constitution, its critics said it was the Constitution that is supreme and not Parliament, whose creation Parliament was as much as any other institution.
It was, in the final analysis, resolved that Parliament is rightfully authorized to amend the Constitution, but only so long as it did not amend the ‘basic features of the Constitution. Besides, the Supreme Court has the power to decide whether an amendment to the Constitution, indeed, were against the basic features of the Constitution or not.
The Constitution of India lays down the framework on which Indian polity is run. The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign socialist democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty.
The Constitution lays down the basic structure of government under which the people chose themselves to be governed. It establishes the main organs of government the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
The Constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, but also demarcates their responsibilities. The Constitution is superior to all other laws of the country.
Every law enacted by the government has to be in conformity with the Constitution. The Constitution lays down the national goals of India – Democracy, Socialism and National Integration. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
It also spells out the Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Duties of citizens. The Draftsmen of the Indian Constitution took inspiration from Constitutions all over the world and incorporated their attributes into the Indian Constitution.
For example, Part III on Fundamental Rights is partly derived from the American Constitution and Part 1V on Directive Principles of State Policy from the Irish Constitution.
Q 2 Discuss the powers and functions of the President of India.
Ans: Powers of the President of India:
Executive Powers of the President of India: As the President is the executive head of the State, he enjoys extensive executive powers conferred to him by the Constitution of India. All the executive decisions are taken in the name of the President.
Legislative Powers of the President of India: The President of India possesses extensive legislative powers.
He can summon and prorogue (discontinue a session of) the Parliament, and he can even dissolve the House of People (Lok Sabha).
Diplomatic Powers of the President of India: As the head of the State, the President sends and receives Ambassadors and other diplomatic representatives.
All the international treaties and agreements are conferred and concluded in the name of the President.
Military Powers of the President of India: The President is considered as the Supreme Commander of the Defence Forces of the Country. He has the exclusive power to declare war and peace. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Financial Powers of the President of India: The President is also vested with some financial powers. The Money Bill is introduced with the prior recommendation of the President.
Ordinance Making Powers of the President of India: To deal with unforeseen or urgent matters, the President has been vested with the Ordinance-making power which is provided under Article 123 of the Indian Constitution.
Emergency Powers of the President of India: The President is empowered with the power to declare an emergency either in the whole territory of India or in any
State or any part of India. He can impose three types of emergency:
i. National Emergency provided under Article 352 (due to war, external aggression, or armed rebellion).
ii. State Emergency provided under Article 356 (due to the failure in constitutional machinery in States).
iii. Financial Emergency provided under Article 360 (due to threat to the financial stability in India).
Pardoning Power of the President of India: Article 72 of the Indian Constitution grants pardoning powers to the President.
As per this power, the President of India can pardon, reprieve, respite, commute, or remit the sentence of any person who is convicted of any offence.
Veto Power of the President of India: Article 111 of the Constitution of India deals with the veto power of the President. A bill is introduced in the Parliament after it is presented to the Indian President for its approval.
Functions of the President of India: BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Head of the Union: The President is at the head of the Union Executive. Consequently, all executive powers are exercised in his name.
Appointments: As head of the executive, the President appoints the Governors of States, the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts,
the Auditor General of India and many other high officials, such as the members of Finance Commission, Election commission, Union Public commission etc.
Appointment of the Prime Minister and other Ministers: The President also appoints the Prime Minister and with his advice the other Ministers of the Union Council of Ministers.
Can ask to prove Majority in Lok Sabha: Union Council of Ministers normally remains in office for five years, unless dissolved earlier for any reason.
The President must be satisfied that the Council of Ministers enjoys the confidence of the majority of the Lok Sabha.
Supreme Commander: As head of State, the President is the supreme Commander of the Armed Forces of India and is entitled to declare war or conclude a treaty.
Assignment – II
Q 3 Explain the procedure for removing a Judge of the Supreme Court.
Ans:Procedure for removing a Judge of the Supreme Court:
Judges Enquiry Act (1968); regulates the procedure related to the removal of the judge of the Supreme Court by the process of impeachment.
1 A removal motion signed by 100 members (If the removal motion is initiated in the Lok Sabha) or 50 members (if the motion is initiated in the Rajya Sabha) is to be given to Speaker/Chairman. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
2 Speaker/Chairman may admit the motion or may refuse to admit the same.
3 If it is admitted then the Speaker/Chairman constitutes a three member committee to investigate the allegations charged against the judge.
4 Three member committee comprises of:
i. The Chief Justice or senior most judge of Supreme Court
ii. Chief justice of the High Court and
iii. A prominent jurist
5 If the committee finds the judge guilty of misbehavior or incapacity, committee submits its report to the house and matter taken up for discussion in the house where it had been originally introduced.
6 Irrespective of which house introduced the motion, it should be passed by both the houses of the Parliament with special majority (a majority of total membership of that house and a majority of not less than 2/3 of the members of that house present and voting)
7 The passed motion is addressed to the President for the removal of the judge.
8 Finally the President passes an order removing the judge and the judge is removed from the date of assent of the President. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
It is interesting to know that till date no judge of the Supreme Court has been impeached so far. In the present scenario the Congress Party is initiating the impeachment proceedings against current Chief Justice of India (CJI) Dipak Misra.
Congress is collecting signatures of Members of Parliament (MPs) of various Opposition parties.
Q 4 Explain the powers and functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha.
Ans: Powers and functions of the Speaker of Lok Sabha:
The Speaker holds office from the day of his election until before the first meeting of Lok Sabha following the dissolution of his constituency.
She is eligible for re-election. In the dissolution of Lok Sabha, although the Speaker ceases to be a member of the House, he does not leave his Office.
In the Lok Sabha Chamber, the Speaker of the Speaker is appointed separately and, in his seat, he receives the governing opinion of the whole House.
According to the relevant procedure, he is guided by the provisions of the Constitution and the Code of Business Conduct in Lok Sabha. The powers and functions of the Speaker are as follows: BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Power to regulate proceedings of the House: He adjourns the House or adjourns a meeting in the absence of a quorum.
He presides over the joint sitting of both houses of Parliament. He or she may allow a private house at the request of the Leader of the House.
Disciplinary Functions: Maintains order and decoration in the home by doing business and controlling the process.
Administrative Functions: You have the power to administer the Lok Sabha Secretariat. Appoints the staff of the Secretariat, determines the rules of their business and directs their work.
He is responsible for keeping records of the proceedings of the House.
In Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament, both the Executive – the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker are elected from among its members by a majority of the members present and voting in the House.
Q5 Analyse the limitations of the Trade Union Movement in India.
Ans: Limitations of the Trade Union Movement in India:
Limitations of the Trade Union Movement in India are as follows:
1 Under the Act the registration of trade union in not compulsory but is merely voluntary.
The National Commission on Labour is of the view that the registration of trade unions should be made compulsory because this will ensure application of uniform standards of functioning and organisation to all, unions and will prevent fraud, embezzlement and deception practised by some of the unscrupulous office bearers of these unions.
2 At present, any seven persons can form a union and claim to represent the workers. This has resulted in a mushroom growth of unions in every organisation.
For example, there are as many as 124 workers’ unions in the Steel Authority of India Limited. 79 in Heavy Engineering Corporation and 48 in Damodar Valley Corporation.
3 The Act does not prescribe any time-limit for the grant or refusal of registration by the registrar. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
It only imposes a statutory duty upon the Registrar to register a trade union if he is satisfied that the requirements of the statute have been complied with.
4 The Act does not empower the Registrar to refuse registration of trade union in cases where one or more unions are already in existence in the plant or industry.
It is, therefore, suggested that in order to curb multiplicity of unions the Registrar of Trade Unions should be empowered lo refuse to register more than one union in one plant or industry.
5 At present, 50% of the executives of a union can be outsiders. The role of outsiders, of late, has come under fire.
Assignment – III
Q 6 Explain the concept of Collective Responsibility.
Ans: Collective Responsibility:
Collective Responsibility, in general, refers to a group of people associated with an organisation/business taking responsibility of a task or person.
For example, the whole faculty team in a school that attends a class will take collective responsibility of a particular student’s merit or lack.
This concept of Collective Responsibility is applicable in various fields, like education, private business or software firms and politics also.
We see collective responsibility in several incidents of our day to day life.
A software team collectively finishing a project, a CM and his cabinet ministers taking care of the State and even we all staying indoors to prevent spread of Coronavirus are examples of Collective Responsibility. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Q 7 Explain the concept of Judicial Review.
Ans: Judicial Review:
Judicial review, power of the courts of a country to examine the actions of the legislative, executive, and administrative arms of the government and to determine whether such actions are consistent with the constitution.
Actions judged inconsistent are declared unconstitutional and, therefore, null and void. The institution of judicial review in this sense depends upon the existence of a written constitution.
The conventional usage of the term judicial review could be more accurately described as “constitutional review,” because there also exists a long practice of judicial review of the actions of administrative agencies that require neither that courts have the power to declare those actions unconstitutional nor that the country have a written constitution.
Such “administrative review” assesses the allegedly questionable actions of administrators against standards of reasonableness and abuse of discretion.
Q 8 What is the relationship between Gender and Development?
Ans: Relationship between Gender and Development: Gender as a concept or category has emerged to understand the complexities of -women’s subordination in society.
The word gender does not necessarily refer to women as a group or class of society. Rather it is used as an analytical social category to study the problems of women.
The theory of development is closely related to gender because of the large scale exclusion of women from the process of development. Margaret Synder and Mary Tadesse in their book,
African Women and Development: A History defined women and development as follows: “Women and development’ is an inclusive term to signify concept and a movement whose long term goal is the well being of society – the community of men, women and children “. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Amartya Sen has made a compiling case for the notion that societies need to see women less as passive recipient of help, and more as dynamic promoters of social transformation which is supported by the viewpoint that the education, employment and ownership rights of women have a powerful influence on their ability to control their environment and contribute to economic development.
Q 9 What is Question Hour in Parliamentary procedure.
Ans: Question Hour in Parliamentary procedure:
Question Hour is the liveliest hour in Parliament. It is during this one hour that Members of Parliament ask questions of ministers and hold them accountable for the functioning of their ministries.
The questions that MPs ask are designed to elicit information and trigger suitable action by ministries.
Over the last 70 years, MPs have successfully used this parliamentary device to shine a light on government functioning.
Their questions have exposed financial irregularities and brought data and information regarding government functioning to the public domain.
With the broadcasting of Question Hour since 1991, Question Hour has become one the most visible aspects of parliamentary functioning. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
Q 10 Distinguish between Caste and Class.
Ans: Distinguish between Caste and Class:
1 Castes are perceived as hereditary groups with a fixed ritual status according to Max Weber’s phraseology
2 A person belonging to certain caste has to follow certain traditions, rituals and customs
3 According to Anthropologist Louis Dumont and Social Anthropologist Edmund Leach, caste is unique to the Indian sub-continent
4 Inter caste marriage leads to disputes between family members and members of different castes. BPSC 132 Free Solved Assignment
1 A person’s Class is based on social status, wealth and power acquired, level of education and other achievements.
2 A person belonging to a certain class is not bound by customs, rituals or traditions.
3 Classes are usually found in highly industrialized countries located in Europe, North America.
4 If there is a marriage between two people belonging to different classes, it does not evoke any kind of disputes between members of different Class.
BPSC 131 SOLVED FREE ASSIGNMENT IN HINDI 2021-22
BPSC 131 SOLVED ASSIGNMENT IN ENGLISH 2021-22