IGNOU BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BPSC 101

UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL THEORY

BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Q. 1. Discuss the revival of Political theory.

Ans. Revival of Political Theory

Political Theory is not Dead: The political theory during the last several decades has declined. But the declining condition does not indicate that political theory is dead.

Incredible attachment to value conception, great apathy towards the application of scientific methods and techniques, and the predominance of philosophy over political theory made it considerably irrelevant in the real world.

So we can draw a subtle distinction between declining condition of political theory and its death.

Political science in general and political theory, in particular, was always treated as very important branch of social science.

Political science was and still is a very popular subject and is studied and taught in almost every university.

Up to the Second World War political science generally meant the study of state and different political organisations and institutions such as legislature executive, judiciary political parties pressure groups, etc. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The subject was restricted within the activities of these organisations and institutions. Political theory revolved around these traditional conceptions.

This traditional outlook considerably dwarfed the content and scope of political theory: Particularly in the field of policy-making political theory had no spectacular role to play.

But the real scope of political theory is much broader than the one envisaged by traditional thinkers.

Commencement of Resurgence: The post-Second World War period specifically the 1950s-witnessed new directions in the development of Political theory and it is observed that the War served as a dividing line between the old and the new concepts of political theory.

A large number of scholars from Europe migrated to America and many of them began serious research work on political theory and their interest did not lie in the study of political theory in traditional way.

They arrived at the conclusion that the traditional method of analysing political phenomena and theory was not adequate for new reforms or rejuvenation of political theory. New methods are to be devised.

This tendency finally laid the foundation of a new way of studying political theory. A critic writes, “Consequently the large new generation provided the impetus for the search of a new kind of political science”.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The main resurgence was found in United States where American Political Science Association and Rockefeller Foundation played the pioneer role.

A large number of researchers gathered at various research institutes and universities of America and their painstaking efforts really enriched the empirical approach to the study of political theory leading to its resurgence.

Resurgence is Multi-faceted Pluralism: The Resurgence in Political Theory that took place after the Second World War assumed various shapes and manifestations and the present space cannot comprise them all Some may be briefly stated.

One such manifestation is pluralism. Pluralism wants to emphasise that in any society there are numerous individuals who cherish different tastes, interests and values. Pluralism has a clear liberal lineage.

The state or authority cannot impose any decision upon the people against their wishes. In any liberal society or pluralist society there can exist number of institutions and organisations to cater the interests and values of individuals.

After the 1950s, states of Europe and America could not ignore the variety of individuals’ interests.

Political scientists also wanted to propound the doctrine that there might be conflict among individuals so far as their tastes and interestsBPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The state or authority cannot impose any decision upon the people against their wishes. In any liberal society or pluralist society there can exist number of institutions and organisations to cater the interests and values of individuals.

After the 1950s, states of Europe and America could not ignore the variety of individuals’interests.

Political scientists also wanted to propound the doctrine that there might be conflict among individuals so far as their tastes and interests are concerned.

But that does not create an atmosphere of animosity or long drawn struggle as Marx and his followers assumed.

That is, pluralism proceeded to prove that pluralist society is much better than a regimented one.

Pluralism further assumes that there is no need of mass struggle or revolution for establishment of an ordered society. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Pluralist society is endowed with certain self-regulating mechanisms which have enough ability to put society into order.

BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment
BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Q. 2. Explain what is state.

Ans. What is state:

There are various forms of the state which are different from one another in important ways. The Greek citystate is clearly different from the modern nation state, which has dominated world politics since the French Revolution.

In the study of politics, there is the explanation of what is meant by those terms. The main objective is to discuss how each form distinguishes itself from the other and the significance of such distinction.

State: Differences on Account of Political Institutions/Social Context
There are differences in states in terms of their political institutions and in terms of the social context within which they are situated and which they try to maintain.

The liberal-democratic state is characterized by representative institutions such as a parliament and an independent judiciary, the leader control the fascist state.

The state is therefore, differently structured and operates in a social framework of a very different kind. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The state is not the same as the government. In fact, it is a complex of various elements of which the government is only one.

Ralph Miliband’s Views on State :

Ralph Miliband talks about the different elements which together constitute the state in his book “The State in Capitalist Society.

First one is the government and the second is the administrative element, the civil service or the bureaucracy which is supposed to be neutral.

In the list, the third is the military and the police, the ‘order-maintaining or the repressive arm of the state and the fourth is the judiciary.

The fifth one is the local government. These units have considerable independence from the central government in some federal systems which control their own sphere of power, where the government is constitutionally debarred from interfering.

The final and the sixth element is the representative assemblies and the parliament in the British system. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The political parties also perform role in the representative assembly and it is there that, at least partly, the competitive fight between the government and the opposition is enacted. Various Forms of State

There are various forms of state.

It is interplay of various factors like religion, kinship, war, property, political consciousness and technological advances.

The various forms in the process of historical evolution of state are: Tribal State, Oriental Empire, Greek City State, Roman World Empire, Feudal State and the Modern Nation State.

In the year 1648, the Modern Nation state arose after the Treaty of Westphalia was signed which led to emergence of territorial state consolidating political authority within a particular territory excluding domestic from external.

The liberal and Marxist perspectives dominates the modern concept of state and the liberal perspective is dynamic as it has changed with time depending on interests and needs of individuals and the society. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

According to the Marxist notion, the liberal idea of state is rejected calling the state as an instrument of class and seeks to establish a classless and stateless society through the proletarian revolution liberal and Marxist perspectives dominates the modern concept of state and the liberal perspective is dynamic as it has changed with time depending on interests and needs of individuals and the society.

According to the Marxist notion, the liberal idea of state is rejected calling the state as an instrument of class and seeks to establish a classless and stateless society through the proletarian revolution.

BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment
BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment – II

Q. 3. Write a note on modern Liberalism/Welfarism.

Ans. Modern Liberalism/Welfarism: There was a new change in society after the problems mentioned above. The problem was the uprising of the working class.

The rising working-class examined the classical liberalism and its core argument to support negative liberty, i.e. laissez-faire marketi Laissez-faire individualism uplifted the capitalist economy and hence the working class was not given its due share.

This gave birth to a new form of liberalism came up i.e., Modern Liberalism, also known as welfarism. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The modern liberalism thinkers believed that the government has to remove hindrances that stand in the way of individual freedom. T.H.

Green was the main promoter of this statement who believed that excessive power of government might have constituted the greatest obstacle to freedom in an earlier era, but by the middle of the 19th century these powers had been greatly reduced or mitigated.

The other obhtacles were poverty, disease, discrimination and ignorance that could be overcome only with positive (positive liberty) assistance of government.

The ides of positive liberty was introduced by John Stuart Mill (1806-73) and consequently the transition from negative to positive liberalism.

Mill began with a defense of laissez-faire individualism but understood its weaknesses in the light of the new socio-economic realities and proceeded to modify it.

He was on a lookout for an area where state intervention could be justified. He drew a difference between two types of actions of men: ‘self-regarding actions’ whose effect was confined to the individual himself and the other-regarding actions which affected others.

Mill made an effort to define a sphere where an individual’s behaviour could be regulated in the interests of the community. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, he examined a positive role for the state in securing social welfare even if it meant curbing liberty of the individual to some extent.

Mill also gave a sound theory of taxation and pleaded for the limitation of the right of inheritance and stressed on state provision of education. T.H. Green (1836-82), L.T. Hobhouse (1864-1929) and H.J. Laski (1893-1950) after Mill, developed the positive concept of liberty.

Green suggested a theory of rights and stressed on the positive role of the state in creating conditions under which men could effectively exercise their moral freedom.

Hobhouse and Laski promoted that private property was not an absolute right and that the state must fix the welfare of the people – no matter if it is constrained to curtail the economic liberty of the privileged few.

An important element of negative liberty was positive liberty that complemented each other. There are many contemporary liberal thinkers, known as: Libertarians, which have sought to lay renewed stress on negative liberty.

Some of the prominent ones are Isaiah Berlin (1909-97), F. A. Hayek (1899-1992), Milton Friedman (1912-2006) and Robert Nozick (1938-2002).

A form of social liberalism emerged from the late 19th century onwards which looked more favourably on welfare reform and economic management and became the characteristic theme of modern or twentieth-century liberalism.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

John Stuart Mill best describes the view besides those of Kant, Green and Hobhouse. The modern liberalism establishes an affirmative relationship between liberty (especially, the positive variant) and human progress in a very different manner.

According to the modern liberals, the man is a progressive being with unlimited potential for self-development and one which does not jeopardize a similar potential in others.

There is a more sympathetic attitude of modern liberalism towards the state known as welfarism.

The First World War interrupted the process of modern liberalismor Welfarism as the destruction was massive in a very different manner.

According to the modern liberals, the man is a ‘progressive being with unlimited potential for self-development and one which does not jeopardize a similar potential in others.

There is a more sympathetic attitude of modern liberalism towards the state known as welfarism. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The First World War interrupted the process of modern liberalism or Welfarism as the destruction was massive but the positive outcome was the overturning of four of Europe’s great imperial dynasties – Germany, Austria, Hungary, Russia and Quoman Turkey-into liberal democracies.

Europe was reshaped by the Treaty of Versailles on the basis of the principle of self determination, which in practice meant the breakup of imperialists in nationally homogeneous states.

After that, the League of Nations was created in the hope of preventing wars and settling international disputes in a peaceful manner but these steps could not put a stop to the future wars.

There are many occasions such as harsh peace terms imposed by victorious Allies, Great Depression, Nazi uprising and Soviet Communism that threatened liberalism because during the postwar period, the old rhetoric Sharing the Wealth gave way to a concentration on growth rates as liberals inspired by the British economist J. M. Keynes’ policy – wanted the government to borrow, tax, and spend not only merely to counter contractions of the business cycle, but to encourage the expansion of economy.

Therefore, a further development of social welfare programme occurred in liberal democracies during the postwar decades. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

There were many modern welfare state practices that began in Britain and America which provided not only usual forms of social insurance but also pensions, unemployment benefits, subsidized medical care, family allowances and government-funded higher education.

Asia and Africa also adopted the liberal democratic model that emerged from the dissolution of the British and French colonial empires in the 1950s and early 60s.

The western model was taken over by many new nations believing that these model and
institutions would lead to the same freedom and prosperity that had been achieved in Europe. The outcome of the same was mixed.

Q. 4. What do you understand by Dictatorship of the Proletariat? Elaborate.

Ans. Dictatorship of the Proletariat: The dictatorship of the proletariat is the outcome of the proletariat revolution. It is also known as the socialist state created by the bourgeois to suppress the proletariat.

The stage is now opposite and the proletariat will use the state apparatus against the bourgeois.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The bourgeois will try to stage a counter revolution to restore the old system and so the coercive institutions of the state are needed to restrain the bourgeois. The main instrument of oppression is the state.

The dominant class to oppress the dependent class has created the state. It is a class instrument. The interest of the creator is taken care of by its state which is the property owning class.

This class has always been in a minority whether it is the masters or the feudal lords or the capitalists.

The minority has therefore oppressed the majority viz., the slaves or the peasants or the proletariat through the coercive organs of the state.

The state is under the control of the majority under the dictatorship of the proletariat. The coercive apparatus of the state is used by the majority against the minority.

Marx believed that all states have been dictatorships and so the socialist state is not an exception. It is also a dictatorship. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The state has always been used by one class to suppress the other class. The proletariat class will use the coercive organs of the state such as the army, the police, prison, judicial system, etc., against the bourgeois class in the socialist state.

Marx proclaimed that if democracy means the rule of the majority then the proletariat state is the most democratic state, because for the first time in the annals of history,

power comes into the hands of the majority which was in the hands of the minority before the proletariat state. Therefore, if the rule is the majority, then only the proletariat state can be called a democratic state.

Q. 5. What is Conservatism? Explain with reference to the views of Michal Oakshot.

Ans. Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization. The central tenets of conservatism include tradition, organic society, hierarchy, authority, and property rights.

Conservatism is as much as a matter of temperament as of doctrine.

A common way of distinguishing conservatism from both liberalism and radicalism is to say that conservatives reject the optimistic view that human beings can be morally improved through political and social change. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Tar from believing that human nature is essentially good or that human beings are fundamentally rational, conservatives tend to assume that human beings are driven by their passions and desires – and are therefore naturally prone to selfishness, anarchy, irrationality, and violence.

Accordingly, conservatives look to traditional political and cultural institutions to curb humans’ base and destructive instincts.

Conservatives believe that human beings are imperfect and combined with unforeseen consequences of an action, it becomes difficult to assess whether any change will be for the better or otherwise.

That is why; they try to resist change in the existing order. Change is resisted until it becomes inevitable.

In Burke’s words, people need “A sufficient restraint upon their passions,” which it is the office of government “to bridle and subdue.” BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Families, churches, and schools must teach the value of self discipline, and those who fail to learn this lesson must have discipline imposed upon them by government and law.

Without the restraining power of such institutions, conservatives believe, there can be no ethical behaviour and no responsible use of liberty.

The conservative temperament displays two characteristics that are scarcely compatible with communism.

• The first is a distrust of human nature, rootlessness (social disconnectedness), and untested innovations,together with a corresponding trust in unbroken historical continuity and in the traditional frameworks for conducting human affairs.

Such frameworks may be political, cultural, or religious, or they may have no abstract or institutional expression at all.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

• The second characteristic of the conservative temperament, which is closely related to the first, is an aversion to abstract argument and theorizing.

Attempts by philosophers and revolutionaries to plan society in advance, using political principles purportedly derived from reason alone, are misguided and likely to end in disaster, conservatives say.

In this respect the conservative temperament contrasts markedly with that of the liberal. Whereas, the liberal consciously articulates abstract theories, the conservative instinctively embraces concrete traditions.

For just this reason, many authorities on Conservatism have been led to deny that it is a genuine ideology, regarding it instead as a relatively inarticulate state of mind.

Whatever the merits of this view, it remains true that the best insights of conservatism seldom have been developed into sustained theoretical works comparable to those of liberalism and radicalism.

Oakeshott’s Views on Conservatism

For Oakeshott, conservatism is not a credo, a body of principles, or an ideology. It is disposition to enjoy what is available rather than to look for something else.

Let innovation be within the limits of knowledge and probability, for people really seldom know what they are doing.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Innovation under gradualism is the procedure of the conservative; the innovator must prove there will be some benefit; innovation should resemble growth; it should be aimed at a specific defect to be cured;

it should be slow enough in pace for one to observe consequences and make adjustments; and finally innovation is important and it should be limited to what is intended. Rules and their stability are important, and apparently they may be adopted in the sense of a premeditated goal.

For the conservative, government is limited in that it provides general rules of conduct or regulation, and people are permitted the enjoyment of making their own choices.

Government should not be an instrument to inflame the passions of men: rather it masustrive for moderation – not because moderation is a virtue or a truth about men – but because, pragmati-cally speaking,BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

moderation is essential if men are to escape being locked in an encounter of mutual frustration, Government moderation provides for us the skepticism for which we do not have the time or inclination.

While Oakeshott affirms the function of a moral ideal, he does not, as Burke did, affirm its truth. He is an Englishman because he is an Englishman, and that is that.

Thus, in education the tradition is passed on-not the text which tells how to do something technical, but the language of inquiry and explanation which we get from what some of us has called “The Great Tradition.”

Many comments on education run through the essays, and they suggest, indeed, that the author is not the sophisticated atheist that he sometimes intimates he might be (e.g., on p. 197 he associates religious rites and magical spells in rather a loose manner).

The educated man is thus more than a manipulator of tools; he is one who understands them and appreciates their stubborn resistance to change.

Whether or not the tradition is true, Oakeshott believes, I think that we should be initiated into the moral and intellectual habits and the achievements of our society,

a partnership between the past and the present, and we should share such concrete knowledge as we may have. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

“Habit is perhats the word for the author, who, like Duns Scotus, might say that knowledge is in the will rather than in a Thomistic intelligence.

But Oakeshott has much in his favour when he shows his preference for traditional British education.

His study of Hobbes is no doubt the most brilliant of the essays in the volume, but the most lucid, most damning, and most compelling is the final one, “The Study of Politics in a University.”

From this, it would seem that the British universities are beginning to drift into the superficiality of behaviourism and into the non-intellectualism of vocational training in political activity.

Political Science becomes ideology; it is problem-solving outside of habit or tradition, its professors write the cookbooks for the young men who are wasting their lives in the bureaucracy. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The rationalists produce “cribs” or “ponies” for those who think politics is easy, like Isocrates at the end of Aristotle’s Politics. No doubt, both England and America must start over their university teaching of politics.

Assignment – III

Q. 6. Write a note on Ecological Feminism.

Ans. Ecological Feminism: The eco-feminists believe that the oppression of women and domination of nature are connected and are mutually reinforced and therefore they should be treated collectively.

There are many ecofeminists like: Alice Walker, Vandana Shiva, Ivone Gebara, Rosemary Ruether, Sallie McFague, Paula Gunn Allen, Andy Smith and Karen Warren amongst others who believe in the moral basis of connection of human to nature.

The ecological feminism evolved with the intersection of environmental and feminist theories.

Eco-feminists proclaimed that patriarchy exhibits itself in society through the dualistic structures of hierarchy: culture vs. nature, male vs. female, matter vs. spirit, white vs. non-white, etc. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The eco-feminists are against the division of culture into any hierarchical binaries. Their historical methodology is suggestive of replacing hierarchical dualities with observing a relationship within the diversity.

The method stresses upon the strength of such diversities is a feminist approach and
connects the ideas of environment with that of feminism.

Q. 7. Examine Jacques Derrida’s views on Post-Modernism

Ans. Jacques Derrida: Jacques Derrida is a French philosopher who is famous for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as Deconstruction, which he discussed in various texts and refined it in the context of phenomenology.

He is one of the famous thinkers who are connected with post-structuralism and postmodern philosophy.

He used the term deconstruction in his book of Granimatology and it questioned assumptions of the Western philosophical tradition.

He did not give a clear and concrete definition of deconstruction and described his own writings as a series of ongoing attempts to figure that out.

He wrote: “All my essays are an attempt to have it out with this formidable question”.

The followers of Derrida used the term deconstruction and others beyond the specific context in which Derrida employs it and has consistently been misconstrued as an assault against all forms of reasoning. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Derrida used the term deconstruction as an active movement rather than a method which look at demonstrating its dependence on that irreducible alterity which refuses to further passage.

The famous thinkers like Plato, Heidegger, Husserl, Nietzsche Austin, Marx, Rousseau, Saussure and Freud read the text thoroughly and Derrida often picks out an apparently marginal comment or motif and makes it central to his account, showing a text’s internal tensions and contradictions, the moments when it undermines its own central messages and meanings. The reader does not deconstructs texts rather they deconstruct themselves, hence his claim that deconstruction defies definition and is not, strictly speaking, a method at all.

The theory of deconstruction by Derrida is a reaction against the old assumption of the presence of a stable centre, objectivity and absolute truth held commonly by what he calls logocentrism-western philosophy’s search for a foundation to all knowledge.

In a logic or reason or truth which is self-evident, self-confirming- Phonocentrism (privileging of speech over writing) and linguistic structuralism in favor of a hermeneutics type of suspicion about these categories. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Derrida believed that the beginning of the deconstructive strategy is from the idea that the metaphysical, epistemological, ethical and logical systems of the past (logocentrism) were constructed on the basis of conceptual oppositions (binary oppositions) such as transcendental/bnpirical, internal/external, original/derivative, good/evil, universal particular and God/devil.

Another thing demonstrated by Derrida is that there is no such thing as pure presence or an absolute origin or foundation or stable nature of meaning claimed by the western philosophy (logocent-rism or metaphysics of presence).

Deconstruction has at least two aspects: literary and philosophical. The literary aspect concerns the textual interpretation, where invention is essential to finding hidden alternative meanings in the text.

The philosophical aspect concerns the main target of deconstruction: the “Metaphysics of presence,” or simply metaphysics.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

Starting from a Heideggerian point of view, Derrida argues that metaphysics affects the whole of philosophy from Plato onwards.

Metaphysics creates dualistic oppositions and installs a hierarchy that unfortunately privileges one term of each dichotomy (presence before absence, speech before writing, and so on).

The deconstructive strategy is to unmask these too-sedimented ways of thinking, and it operates on them especially through two steps – reversing dichotomies and attempting to corrupt the dichotomies themselves. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The strategy also aims to show that there are undecidables, that is, something that cannot conform to either side of a dichotomy or opposition.

Undecidability returns in later period of Derrida’s reflection, when it is applied to reveal paradoxes involved in notions such as gift giving or hospitality, whose conditions of possibility are at the same time their conditions of impossibility.

Because of this, it is undeeidable whether authentic give or hospitality is either possible or impossible.

Derrida believed that speech is not aware of the gap between the word as sound and the infinity of possible meaning. It is a poor form of writing which makes us aware that meaning incorporates and generates endless difference.

Derrida stressed on what he calls the inter-textuality method and argues that we can never master language.

In all, Derrida believed that all foundations are dead. The main objective of deconstruction is to reveal logocentrism (metaphysics) and phonocentrism prevalent in the history of western thought from Plato onwards.

He added that rather than attempting to find a true meaning, a compatible point of view or unified message in a given work, a deconstructive reading carefully teases out.

Q. 8. Distinguish between Procedural and Sustantative Democracy.

Ans. Procedural/Minimalist and Substantive/Maximalist Dimension: There are two different views in which democracy can be understood in the best manner-procedural (minimalist) and substantive (maximalist).BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The procedural dimension does not concentrate on the procedures or mepns in place to attain democracy rather argues that regular competitive elections on the basis of universal adult franchise and plural political participation would produce a democratically elected government.

Joseph Schumpeter, in his 1942 book, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, said that democracy is “Institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions in which individuals acquire the power to decide by means of a competitive struggle for the people’s vote”.

Also similar views were given by Huntington who believed that “The central procedure of democracy is the selection of leaders through competitive elections by the people they govern.”

According to Terry Karl views the minimalist view could also lead to Fallacy of Electoralism’, a situation where electoral process is given priority over other dimensions of democracy.

Another thinker Fareed Zakaria believed that it is an ‘Illiberal Democracy’, a case where governments are democratically elected, but ignore constitutional limits on their power and deprive their citizens of basic rights and freedoms.BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The focus of substantive democracy is that on the outcomes like social equality instead of ends in order to truly work for the governed.

This means that it talks about Common Good rather than the benefit of limited individuals.

The marginalized sections like women and the poor are protected through re-distributive justice so that conditions can be created through state intervention for their participation in political process.

There are many political scientists like: John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill who have contributed to emergence of this view.

Rousseau believed that formal variety of democracy is equivalent to slavery and it is only egalitarian democracies which have political legitimacy.

Q. 9. Examine the issue of representation in democracy.

Ans. Representation in Democracy: In democracy, the representative is the govern-ments as they are elected. BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

The government works for the interest of the people if elections are freely contested and if participation is widespread and if citizens enjoy political liberties.

Representation refers to the process by which political power and influence which the entire citizenry or a part of it might have upon actions of the government with their express or implied approval and is exercised on its behalf by a small number among them with a binding effect upon the whole community thus represented.

A representative government is a government which means the whole people’, or some numerous portion of it.

The function of this government is to control the power through deputies periodically elected by the people themselves.

According to J.S. Mill, ‘the people must possess this ultimate power completely and they must be masters of all the operations of government’. There are five important principles of representation in a liberal democracy as follows:

• The ultimate power is in the hands of the people (the popular sovereignty principle);

• There are very few who enjoys this power on behalf of the many (the depuitation principle

• There are periodic elections to elect the deputies; or representatives;

• The decisions taken by these deputies have a binding effect on the community (the governance principle), BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

• The people are the ultimate masters and remain the final judge of performance of the government and their deputies (the accountability principle).

According to Edmund Burke, an English philosopher and politician, a representative should be directed by four things, namely:

• Constituency opinions
• Rational judgement

• Consideration of the national interest,
• Personal convictions or conscience.

The people of the modern world view a representative in Burke’s explanation which said that a person with discretion and inclined or expected to act in response to local, national and personal exigencies.

The structure of the representative institutions since its formation has been the same everywhere BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

In this situation, government represents varying interests:

A government is representative if it works on the best available knowledge and if individuals are sufficiently well instructed so that each of them or the average one is more likely than not to reach the correct decision, this knowledge is disclosed by the verdict of the majority of voters.

The government can constitute the interest of the individual.

The government can depict the collective interest of the people which is better off under the centralized decision than they would have been had they all pursued individual interests.

People are constrained for their own good and the government is representative in such situations when it pursues the collective interest.

A government is representative when the structure of interests is such that any course of action puts individuals in conflict situation. The government works in the best interest of a majority.

Q. 10. What are the limits of a representative democracy? Elaborate.

Ans. Advantages of representative democracy, especially as opposed to direct democracy, include that: BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

• The people cannot be expected to have the time or interest to make important and sgular decisions

Representatives can educate the public on political issues

• Representatives ensure the interests of all sections of society (including minorities) are taken into account,and can be held accountable for their decisions

• Representatives are able to aggregate the differing demands of people into a more coherent and politically logical programme

Disadvantages of representative democracies include that:

•Representatives may distort peoples demands to suit their political preferences

• Representatives may not make themselves accountable enough between elections and can only be removed by elections if they lose the respect of the people

• The electoral mandate of representatives is flawed, as voters have to accept or reject a whole manifesto, not being able to make clear which parts of it they oppose, and there is more information in this day and age for people to be able to make better decisions

• Representatives also have to decide whether to be delegated for their constituents, merely putting forward their view, or using their best judgment to represent their constituents (a concept called Burkean Representation’). BPSC 101 Free Solved Assignment

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