MANAGING HUMAN RESOURCES
BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1 Describe the nature, scope and objectives of Human Resource Management.
ANS HRM: According to Leon C. Megginson “From the national point of view human resources are knowledge, skills, creative abilities, talents, and attitudes obtained in the population; whereas from the view-point of the individual enterprise, they represent the total of the inherent abilities, acquired knowledge and skills as exemplified in the talents and aptitude of its employees”.
Nature of human resource management are:
Pervasive Force :
Human Resource Management is an inherent part of an organization. It is pervasive in nature and present in all enterprises at all levels of management.
It is the responsibility of each manager to select the right candidate under him and pay attention to the development and satisfaction of each sub-ordinate.
People Oriented :
Human Resource Management focuses on and values people at work both as individuals and groups. It encourages people to develop their full potential and in return give the best to the organization.
Human Resource Management does follow rules, records, and policies but it stresses the action. The focus is on providing an effective and timely solution to employees for any problems, tensions, or controversies faced by them.
Future-Oriented :BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
To sustain and grow in this competitive environment organizations follow long term strategic planning.
Effective Human Resource Management prepares people for current as well as future challenges, especially working in an environment characterized by dramatic changes.
Development Oriented :
HRM continuously works towards the development of employees. There are various tools used to make the employees reach their maximum potential.
Training programs are held to help enhance their skills and knowledge. Monetary and non-monetary reward structures are tuned to motivate the employees.
Enhance Employee Relations :
HRM helps to build a healthy relationship between the employees at various levels. It encourages mentoring and counseling to help employees in times of need.
It aims at creating a culture in the organization that is conducive to learning and growth.
Interdisciplinary Function :
The knowledge that has influenced Human Resource Management is interdisciplinary in nature. It drives knowledge from five major bodies: education, system theory, economics, psychology, and organizational behaviour.
The scope of HRM is, indeed, very vast and wide. It includes all activities starting from manpower planning till employee leaves the organisation.
Accordingly, the scope of HRM consists of acquisition, development, maintenance/retention, and control of human resources in the organisation.
The same forms the subject matter of HRM. As the subsequent pages unfold, all these are discussed, in detail, in seriatim.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
The National Institute of personnel Management, Calcutta has specified the scope of HRM as follows:
The Labour or Personnel Aspect: This is concerned with manpower planning, recruitment, selection, placement, transfer, promotion, training and development, lay-off and retrenchment, remuneration, incentives, productivity, etc.
Welfare Aspect:It deals with working conditions, and amenities such as canteen, creches, rest and lunch rooms, housing, transport, medical assistance, education, health and safety, recreation facilities, etc.
Industrial Relations Aspects: This covers union-management relations, joint consultation, collective bargaining, grievance and disciplinary actions, settlement of disputes, etc.
Objectives: The primary objective of HRM is to ensure the availability of right people for right jobs so as the organisational goals are achieved effectively. This primary objective can further be divided into the following sub-objectives:
1 To help the organisation to attain its goals effectively and efficiently by providing competent and motivated employees.
2 To utilize the available human resources effectively.
3 To increase to the fullest the employee’s job satisfaction and self-actualisation.
4 To develop and maintain the quality of work life (QWL) which makes employment in the organisation a desirable personal and social situation.
5 To help maintain ethical policies and behaviour inside and outside the organisation.
6 To establish and maintain cordial relations between employees and management.
7 To reconcile individual/group goals with organisational goals.
Q 2. Explain the nature of job analysis and discuss the methods for collecting job analysis.
ANS: nature of job analysis: The most basic building block of HR management, job analysis, is a systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed.
Job analysis usually involves collecting information on the characteristics of a job that differentiate it from other jobs. Information that can be helpful in making the distinction includes the following:
. Work activities and behaviors Machines and equipment used.
. Interactions with others Working conditions.
. Performance standards Supervision given and received.
. Financial and budgeting impact Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed
Job analysis plays a key role in designing and managing the performance appraisal system in an organisation.
It helps in identifying the key responsibility areas (KRAs) for a position and then setting the goals or objectives for the appraisal period. This forms the basis for the evaluation of an employee’s performance.
Methods for collecting job analysis:
- Observation Method:BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Three methods of Job Analysis are based on observation. These are- Direct Observation; Work Method Analysis, including time and motion studies and micro-motion analysis, and critical incident method.
- Interview Method:
It involves discussions between job analysis and job occupants or experts. Job analysis data from individual and group interviews with employees are often supplemented by information from supervisors of employees whose jobs are to be analysed.
In this method the job analyst interviews the job holders and asks questions from them while observing the following rules:
(i) Interview should be taken in leisure time.
(ii) Job analyst must introduce himself to the job holder first and tell him the purpose of the interview.
(iii) Job analyst must take an interest in job holder and his work.
(iv) He must concentrate on the job and not on the HR matters.
(v) The job holder should be motivated to speak more.
(vi) As far as possible, the atmosphere of interview must remain congenial and conversation must be held in the language of the job holder.
(vii) An average job holder should be selected for interview. The information will not be useful if the best job holder is contacted.
Daily Method: It requires the job holders to record in details their activities on a daily basis.
Technical Conference Method: In this method, services of the supervisors who possess extensive knowledge about a job are used with the help of a conference of the supervisors. The analyst initiates discussion which provides details about the job.
Functional Job Analysis (FJA): It is a method that uses precise terminology and a structured job analysis “schedule” to record information regarding the job content. It is especially useful to the recruiting and selection functions.
Questionnaire Method: These can be filled out by the employees on an individual basis or by job analysts for a group of employees.
Job Inventories or Checklists: These are structured questionnaires that require a respondent to check or rate behaviour and/or worker character necessary to a particular job or occupation.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Job inventories can either be Task/Job Oriented or Qualifications/Worker oriented.
Job Performance Method: In this method the job analyst actually performs the job in question and thus receives 1st hand experiences of contextual factors on the job including physical hazards, social demands, and emotional pressures mental requirements.
With this approach, the job analyst actually performs the job and to gets first hand exposure.
The job analyst gets an actual feel of job as well as the physical, environmental and social demands of the job. This method is not suitable for the jobs that are hazardous in nature and quite inappropriate for jobs that require extensive training.
psychographic method : According to Viteles, the following three things are essential for the job psychographic method:
(i) Accurate classification of mental qualities required for the job.
(ii) Valid method of evaluation.
Q 3. Discuss various methods of training and development.
ANS:Instructor-led Training Instructor-led training occurs in a training room with one or more instructors presenting the lecture and demonstration.
This type of training works well for complex topics and allows employees to ask their questions, and the instructors can answer them directly or guide them to the right resources.
This training method allows for the appointment of seasoned and expert instructors who are suitable for the particular training style and level required.
On-the-job Training : On-the-job training is an experiential kind of training that is tailored to address the individual requirements of employees.
As apparent from the name, it is more hands-on and conducted directly on the job. This training method is designed to help employees adapt to their current or upcoming roles.
This kind of hands-on training directly impacts employees’ jobs, such as learning a piece of new business equipment or other necessary processes. It can be time-intensive, so it is used best when there is usually no lack of available resources.
Mentoring or Coaching : Mentoring or coaching is similar to on-the-job training but with a focus on relationship-building between an employee and a higher-level professional like a veteran employee, supervisor, coach, etc.
It is a one-on-one training method that allows room for comfortable question-answer sessions, which may otherwise not be possible in a larger classroom-training setting. It can also be carried out in a virtual way through online coaching.
Mentoring is usually not advisable in a time-sensitive environment and should be implemented smartly. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
If time is what you are worried about, you can bring in a coach, but then, the employee will miss out on the valuable relationship-building part.
Group Discussion and Activities : Group discussions are good for training multiple employees at once, especially if they are in the same department or team.
These training methods are instructor-led or can be arranged online with a supervisor for review. Group discussions and activities are best for complex challenges that require collaboration and teamwork.
Lectures : Lectures are organized to impart information quickly to a very large audience. However, this type of training has been deemed to be ineffective to an extent as it allows no room for interaction and can get boring at times.
Vocal delivery and preparation are crucial to draw the attention of the audience in such sessions.
e-Learning : As a training method, e-learning utilizes online courses, videos, and tests. It is an easy training method where employees can do their training on any device, such as a phone or an office computer system.
It is targeted at a larger audience who are working remotely or have high turnover rates.
Simulation Employee : Training Simulation training is typically introduced in high-risk fields, such as aviation and healthcare. Simulation happens through a computer, AR/VR devices, etc., and it can be an expensive method of training.
However, it is necessarily used for pilots and doctors to train. Besides these fields, there are others too that use simulation as their mode of training.
Management-specific Activities : Management training may include several types of employee training approaches that are focused on the requirements of managers.
Management-specific activities include brainstorming and role-playing sessions, e-learning, demo on best practices, team-building exercises, simulations, etc.
These activities ensure the foundation that is required to support the rest of the employees in the department.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Case Studies and Reading Materials : Materials Reading materials are readily available on some employee training topics. Case studies are a great way to train employees on real issues that occur in the workplace. They are ideal for more focused topics.
These types of training programs can be self-paced or paced with other team members in a session. However, some complex topics call for other advanced types of training.
Q 4. Explain the functions of Human Resource Development.
ANS; Brings right talent: Functions of Human Resource Development The primary function played by HRD is attracting and hiring the right individuals for carrying out organizational activities.
Recruitment and selection of right type of employees is must for every business in order to attain its target goals. HRD performs the role of matching the right person with right job in order to derive maximum output.
Employees are deputed at various roles after evaluating their skills and capabilities in line with responsibilities and activities that they will be required to carry out.
Education-oriented employee benefits: HRD plans and design various education oriented programmes for enhancing the knowledge and understanding of workforce.
The benefits packages are provided to employees that include sponsorship from company regarding their college and tuition fees.
Employees are able to learn new concepts and technologies with the support of their organization thereby making them competent enough for facing challenges in future.
Better employer-employee relationships: Every organization aims at maintaining good relations among all of its member operational at distinct roles.
HRD aims at strengthening the relationship in between the employer and employees across the business organization. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
It establishes a proper communication network via which subordinates can easily raise their queries with leaders. Leaders also address the subordinates with full attention and invite them in decision making that leads to develop good relations among them.
Training and development: HRD plays an effective role in promoting overall development of each employee working within the organization.
It designs and implement various training programmes that are aimed at imparting knowledge to workforce. They are trained on how to perform efficiently using distinct tools and techniques at workplace.
HRD facilitates worker in enhancing their skills, capabilities and understanding of new concepts which makes them overall qualified for performing their roles effectively.
Performance measurement and management: Measurement of worker’s performance from time to time is a key function performed by HRD. It enables organization in detecting various issues responsible for inefficiency.
Reviewing of performance finds out the one which are underperforming. Employees are informed about their outcomes and guided by managers on how to improve their performance.
HRD by conducting timely review ensures that all individuals are delivering their roles efficiently with minimum wastage.
Q 5. Explain workplace diversity with a focus on its benefits and challenges.
ANS: Workplace diversity refers to the variety of differences between people in an organization.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
That sounds simple, but diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background and more.
An organization’s success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits.
When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as:
Increased adaptability : Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources.
Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands.
Broader service range : A diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis.
Variety of viewpoints : A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences.
The organization can draw from that pool to meet business strategy needs and the needs of customers more effectively.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
More effective execution : Companies that encourage diversity in the workplace inspire all of their employees to perform to their highest ability. Company-wide strategies can then be executed; resulting in higher productivity, profit, and return on investment.
Challenges of Diversity in the Workplace Taking full advantage of the benefits of diversity in the workplace is not without its challenges. Some of those challenges are:
Communication – Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed. Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale.
Resistance to change – There are always employees who will refuse to accept the fact that the social and cultural makeup of their workplace is changing. The “we’ve always done it this way” mentality silences new ideas and inhibits progress.
Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies – This can be the overriding challenge to all diversity advocates.
Armed with the results of employee assessments and research data, they must build and implement a customized strategy to maximize the effects of diversity in the workplace for their particular organization.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Successful Management of Diversity in the Workplace – Diversity training alone is not sufficient for your organization’s diversity management plan.
A strategy must be created and implemented to create a culture of diversity that permeates every department and function of the organization.
Q 6. Define corporate social responsibility and describe its types.
ANS: Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable—to itself, its stakeholders, and the public.
By practicing corporate social responsibility, also called corporate citizenship, companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they are having on all aspects of society, including economic, social, and environmental.
Environmental Sustainability Initiatives : Environmental sustainability initiatives enacted by businesses generally focus on two main areas: limiting pollution and reducing greenhouse gases.
As the awareness of environmental issues grows, businesses that take steps to reduce air, land and water pollution can increase their standing as good corporate citizens while also benefiting society as a whole.
Direct Philanthropic Giving : Philanthropic initiatives include the donation of time, money or resources to charities and organizations at local, national or international levels.
These donations can be directed to a variety of worthy causes including human rights, national disaster relief, clean water and education programs in underdeveloped countries.
Ethical Business Practices : The primary focus on ethics is to provide fair labor practices for businesses’ employees as well as the employees of their suppliers.
Fair business practices for employees include equal pay for equal work and living wage compensation initiatives.BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Focus on Economic Responsibility : Economic responsibility focuses on practices that facilitate the long-term growth of the business, while also meeting the standards set for ethical, environmental and philanthropic practices.
Q 7. Explain various techniques of selection.
ANS: 1. Ability tests: This assessment method helps in knowing more about the employee in a direct way.
It showcases an individual’s ability in knowing how well would he turn up for the position he has been rendered to and the duties he has to cater to.
It helps in the measurement of mental abilities of an employee such as his/her verbal, reasoning, mathematical ability and the reading ability.
- Integrity tests: Now, this test is the hardest of all. It allows the employee to show off his/her ability in a positive way so that the company chooses to select him/her.
It helps in measuring the attitude and experiences of a particular employee. Also helps in relating the individual with his honesty, the art of dependability and the nature of trustworthiness BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Personality describing tests: These tests are of utmost importance everywhere, be it a small start-up consultancy or an already established firm.
These personality tests help in the assessment of certain traits that help in the development of an employee and help pave the way to the road of success.
Data revealing biodata tests: Every company has to choose such an employee who is and will be loyal to the company for a prolonged period of time.
This can be attained only by knowing the employee’s history, his background, his work preference and many more.
Hence, a data that reveals his/her biography is conducted from the side of the employee. This test allows the employee to write about his personal characteristics, his interests, likes and dislikes and so on.
Q 8. Describe various ways in which employees can be engaged.
ANS: 1. Think “Bottom Up”, not “Top Down” You don’t build a house starting from the roof and working downwards, do you? Well, the same goes for companies.
After all, your people are the bedrock on which you are founded, and if you don’t know what it’s thinking, you’ll soon run into trouble
Show them you listen If a clear issue has been identified, then it should be acted upon. More importantly, it should be visibly adressed, particularly if you have discussed it with them.
Knowing that one’s opinions are not only listened to but also contribute to change is another way to increase engagement. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Use your internal notice boards to demonstrate what you’ve done in response to what your employees have said.
Share good practice and ideas between teams There’s nothing better than seeing your ideas and work practices being praised, so ensure that your employees have the opportunity to share and display their very best work.
Peer-to-peer learning, whether in meetings or via your Talent Development Platform, is a great way to foster engagement and create or strengthen links between your employees.
Have an employee voice Having a once-a-year satisfaction survey is not enough to gauge how your company is doing. You also need to facilitate channels where each employee can raise issues and give feedback.
For this. consider using discussion forums where your teams can air issues and get feedback their peers and managers.
Understand individual learning styles and preferences If you understand how your employees learn – whether they prefer to work independently or in groups,
for example – you will also find out a lot about how well they work and in which ways they are more likely to engage with projects.
Employ effective group learning strategies Traditional workplace training sessions are part of working life and a great way to help everyone engage with new ideas and techniques. However, there is the risk that they can become somewhat stale, manager-lead exercises.
Q 9. Explain stages and process of career development.
ANS: 1) Self Assessment A self-evaluation can help to gather information on your strengths, weaknesses, and potential areas for growth. This information is vital for the proper mapping of a career plan. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
2) Exploring Options This step helps in narrowing down career options as per industry trends, educational qualifications, work environment, etc. It is important to consider the data gathered during selfassessment while exploring your options.
3) Plan your Actions Once you have decided on career options, set a goal. After setting your goal, plan the process of action on attaining the goal. The process must include prioritizing tasks, action planning, and reality testing.
4) Find you’re at the Right Job This step primarily deals with marketing your talent using various tools and job networking modes.
With the information gathered during the first three steps, you can create a personal brand, which is the most effective strategy in gathering the attention of recruiters.
You can also opt for social and online networking, applications on job portals, etc.
Q 10. Discuss the causes and prevention of accidents.
ANS:CAUSES: Taking Shortcuts: Every day we make decisions we hope will make the job faster and more efficient. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
But do time savers ever risk your own safety, or that of other crew members? Short cuts that reduce your safety on the job are not shortcuts, but an increased chance for injury.
Being Over Confident: Confidence is a good thing. Overconfidence is too much of a good thing. “It’ll never happen to me” is an attitude that can lead to improper procedures, tools, or methods in your work.
Any of these can lead to an injury. Starting a Task with Incomplete
Instructions: To do the job safely and right the first time you need complete information.
Have you ever seen a worker sent to do a job, having been given only a part of the job’s instructions? Don’t be shy about asking for explanations about work procedures and safety precautions. It isn’t dumb to ask questions; it’s dumb not to.
Poor Housekeeping: When clients, managers or safety professionals walk through your work site, housekeeping is an accurate indicator of everyone’s attitude about quality, production and safety. Poor housekeeping creates hazards of all
Preventions : Primary prevention: removal of circumstances causing injury – eg, traffic speed reduction, fitting stair gates for young children, reducing alcohol consumption.
Secondary prevention: reduces severity of injury should an accident occur – eg, use child safety car seats, bicycle helmets, smoke alarms.
Tertiary prevention: optimal treatment and rehabilitation following injuries – eg, effective first aid, appropriate hospital care. BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
Q 11. Describe the process of employee counseling
ANS: Rapport Building: Initially the counselor-manager should level himself with his employee and tune himself to his orientations.
General opening rituals like offering a chair, closing the door to indicate privacy, asking the secretary not to disturb are all important in demonstrating the manager’s genuine interest in employee’s problems.
The counselor must listen to the feelings and concerns of the employee carefully and attentively.
Leaning forward and eye contact are important signs of active listening. The employee must feel that he is wanted and the counselors is interested in him genuinely.
Exploration: Besides active listening, the counselor should help the employee find his own weaknesses and problems through open and exploring questions. He should be encouraged to open up fully and talk more on the problem.
This would enable both parties to uncover various dimensions of the problem clearly. Once the key issue is identified, (e.g., inability to get along with colleagues, not being promoted despite hard work, boss does not like his work etc.,)
it should be diagnosed thoroughly. Open questions like- why do people pick arguments with you? On what occasions did you try to get ahead in the race? Who are coming in your way and why? BPCS 187 Free Solved Assignment
— may help the employee visualize the problem from different angles. The whole exercise is meant to generate several alternative causes of a problem.
Action Planning: Counseling should finally help the employee find alternative ways of resolving a problem. The list of alternatives could be generated after two or three brain storming sessions.
The merits and limitations of each course of action could also be identified and the best course of action picked up-keeping the background factors (boss, colleagues, work-related issues, competitive pressures etc.) in mind.
The employee should be encouraged to self-monitor the action plan without seeking further helps from the counselor. The counseling sessions could be monitored and reviewed at regular intervals later on.
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