BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
1 Explain the nature and measurement of stress.
Ans: Nature of stress:
Stress as such is like salt and pepper and a life without stress would be without motivation, as stress often motivates us to work in certain direction.
Thus, without any stress in life, any individual will not be motivated to perform or carry our varied activities. As, more salt than required can make food taste bad.
In a similar manner, stress beyond optimal level can have a negative effect on the individual and will interfere with his/her day today functioning.
Types of Stress: Stress can be categorised into different types as follows:
1) Eustress: Stress can be good stress that is explained as ‘Eustress’. Eustress can be defined as “good stress,caused by a positive response to a desired stressor, such as a wedding or a new job.
2) Neustress: When stress is not helpful nor harmful, it can be described as ‘Neustress’.
3) Distress: This is the third category of stress that most people commonly relate stress with. ‘Distress’occurs when the arousal experienced by the individual is very high or very low. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
4) Hyper stress: Excessive stress is termed as ‘Hyper stress’.
5) Hypostress: Insufficient stress is termed as ‘Hypostress’.
Symptoms of Stress: Stress can have an impact on various aspects of life that include behaviour, cognition, emotions as well as physical health.
Though stress will have a different effect on different individuals and each individual will react to stress in a different way, there are certain symptoms that can be related with stress. These are discussed as follows:
1) Physical symptoms: The physical symptoms of stress include low levels of energy, stomach upset, headaches and migraines, pain and aches, chest pain, rapid heartbeats, lack of sleep, dryness in mouth, experiencing tension in muscles, frequent infections and so on.
2) Emotional symptoms: The emotional symptoms include, displaying frustration, getting irritated or agitated easily, feelings of worthlessness, feeling lonely and even depressed.
3) Psychological symptoms: The cognitive symptoms related to stress include worrying constantly, experiencing racing thoughts, lack of organisation in thinking, forgetting, not able to focus, lack of judgment or poor judgment and also pessimism.
4) Behavioural symptoms: The behavioral symptoms of stress include a deterioration in performance effectiveness, indulgence in substance use, prone to accidents, nervous mannerism, poor time management, displaying checking rituals, changes in appetite, procrastination, eating faster, even talking or walking faster, impaired speech and so on.
Measurement of stress:
Measurement of stress is a prerogative for effective diagnosis of stress. There are various ways in which stress can be measured. These are discussed as follows:
1) Physiological measures: Physiological measures could serve great purpose in identifying and understanding stress experienced by an individual.
While discussing the models of stress in the next unit, we will discuss at length the physiological changes that take place as the individuals experience stressful situations.
2) Psychological tests: A psychological test can be explained as a measure of a sample of behaviour that is objective and systematic in nature. Various psychological tests that are standardized, reliable and valid can be used to measure stress.
3) Checklist: A checklist can also be used to measure stress. For instance, a checklist can be used for major life events. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
The individual is asked to check the major life events from a list that the individual has undergone in a given period of time.
4) Interview: Yet another method for measurement of stress is interview, where in-depth information is collected from the individual face to face. Interview can be structured, unstructured or semi-structured.
2 Compare between Fight or flight response and General Adaptation Syndrom.
Ans: Compare between Fight or flight response and General Adaptation Syndrom:
Fight or Flight Response:
Cannon initially termed stress as the emergency response and further elaborated that stress had its source in fighting emotions (Nelson and Quick, 2012). Cannon put forth the fight or flight response with regard to stress. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
According to Cannon stress is an outcome of an environmental demand that was external and that led to an imbalance in the natural steady state of an individual.
He further stated that body encompasses natural defence mechanisms that play a role in maintaining the homeostasis or the natural steady state of an individual.
Cannon was also interested in sympathetic nervous system activation in an individual when in stressful situation.
Thus, when an individual faces a situation that is threatening, he/ she will either get ready to fight the threat or may flight or run away from the situation.
The individual will experience certain physiological changes that gets him/her ready to fight or flight. These physiological changes include sweating, dry mouth, tensed muscles and so on.
There is also increase in blood pressure and pulse rate. Besides the breathing may also become rapid and pupils may widen. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Basically, in this moment, the individual’s body will transfer the energy from body systems that are not required to respond to the situation to the body systems that are required to function in order to respond to the situation at hand.
The stimulation of sympathetic nervous system and endocrine system takes place.
General Adaptation Syndrome:
Hans Selye put forth three stages that are experienced by an individual when he/she is in a situation that is stressful.
Stage one: The first stage is that of ‘alarm reaction’ that is denoted by a decreased resistance to stress. This stage is similar to that of fight or flight response.
During this stage, the autonomic nervous system and endocrine system are activated by the hypothalamus. Further, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the adrenalin glands.
This can be termed as a countershock, where the defence mechanisms of an individual are activated.
These defence mechanisms are activated as a result of enlargement of the adrenocortical that leads to discharge of adrenalin and thus leading to increase in functions related to respiration and cardiovascular activities.
Stage two: In the second stage, that is ‘resistance’, the adaptation is maximum and the equilibrium is restored. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
During this stage, there is an adaptation on part of the individual and he/she resists the stimuli that create stress, though resistance to other stimuli decreases.
During this stage as well, a lot of energy is required, thus, the nonessential functions related to digestion, immune system and even reproductive system do not receive any energy.
Thus, the individual continues experiencing physiological changes such as increased pulse rate and blood pressure, rapid breathing and so on. These activities are mainly directed towards restoration of the equilibrium or balance.
Stage three: The last stage is that of ‘exhaustion’ where there is a collapse of adaptive mechanisms.Exhaustion occurs as a result of collapse in adaptation mechanisms and due to decrease in the physiological resources.
When an individual experiences stress for a long period of time, the individual’s physiological resources deplete and this can have a negative impact on the physical health of the individual and the individual may become susceptible to various illnesses and health related issues.
3 Describe Perfectionism. Discuss various moderators of stress.
Perfectionism can be described as expectations that an individual may have from self and others or both and these expectations are demanding in nature which seldom leaves chance for compromise. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Perfectionism can be categorised into internal perfectionism (expectations from self) and external perfectionism (expectations from others).
Individuals with internal perfectionism will have high expectations from themselves and this can not only affect their health but also their productivity.
It can also negatively affect their relationship and self-esteem.
Individuals who have external perfectionism will often find fault with others and are never satisfied with how others work and this can lead them to experiencing frustration as well as hostility.
Following are some of the beliefs that are characteristic of an individual with perfectionism:
- Anything that I do should be carried out perfectly.
- No mistakes should be made by me or others.
- There is always a correct way in which things should be done.
- I am failure if I don’t do things perfectly.
- If I make a mistake, I am a total failure.
Such beliefs (all or nothing) can be termed as irrational as they are loaded with injunctions and they can push an individual on the path of distress.
An individual having such beliefs is more likely to experience stress than a person with rational beliefs. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
For instance, an individual who believes, that if he/she makes a single mistake then he/she is a failure will experience prolonged sadness and anger with self and may not make any attempts in future.
However, an individual who sees a mistake as a learning experience is more likely to make attempts in future and less likely to experience stress or anger.
Moderators of Stress:
Besides the above factors, there are also certain moderators of stress that need to be mentioned. The moderators play an important role in the relationship between the stress and corresponding reactions.
These moderators may lead to individuals experiencing higher or lower stress.
Locus of control: Locus of control is a concept that was proposed by Rotter in 1954 and can be explained as the belief system possessed by an individual with regard to whether the outcome of his/her actions can be attributed to his/her own actions or to events, objects, people outside his/her control. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Hardiness: Hardiness can be described as denoting a likeness for challenges, having a strong sense of commitment and control (Schafer, 2004, pg. 236).
Individuals having high hardiness are optimistic and they see a stressful situation as an opportunity to grow. They also put in hard work because they enjoy doing so.
Social support: This is one of the significant moderators of stress. A person experiencing stress will be able to deal with it in a better way if he/she has adequate social support.
Social support can be in form of material gifts, finance, food and so on, or in terms of information to comprehend the stress and coping strategies.
Optimism and pessimism: Optimistic individuals are found to be able to deal with stress adequately and thus may not get adversely affected by stress that they experience.
Optimism can also be related to resilience that helps individuals to bounce back from stressful situations.
Gender and culture: Besides the above gender and culture may also play an important role as moderators of stress.
Socialization to a great extent may depend on gender as well as culture that can have an impact on not only the personality but also beliefs and attitudes of the individual.
4 Describe the effect of stress on relationships.
Ans: Effect of stress on relationships:
Although stress is common, it can be harmful for relationships. Oftentimes, people bottle up or keep their stress to themselves, which makes it difficult for their partners to understand what they are going through and to provide support.
Not dealing with stress can create a negative cycle where partners “catch” each other’s stress. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
This happens because stress is contagious – when our partners are stressed, we become stressed. Think back to an argument that escalated quickly.
You might have “caught” one another’s stress during the argument, which made you both feel even more frazzled and made you say things you wouldn’t have otherwise said.
Couples get stuck in this negative cycle and may be too stressed to deal with the underlying issue.
5 Discuss the concept and nature of coping.
Ans: Concept and nature of coping:
Coping in simple terms can be described as ways in which an individual tries to deal with stress experienced by him/her.
And in this context, the individual may be able to deal effectively with stress if he/ she adopts effective coping skills and he/she may not be able to deal effectively with stress if the coping skills adopted by him/her are ineffective.
Coping refers to “the individual’s response to a psychological stressor which is often related to a negative event”.
Coping can also be described as deliberate efforts that are directed towards decreasing the negative effects, that could be psychological, physical or even social, of the stressful situation. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Coping has been defined by Lazarus and Folkman in 1980 as efforts, both cognitive and behavioural, that are directed towards overcoming, decreasing or enduring the internal and external demands.
Thus, there is an effort to deal with the demands that are created on the resources of an individual as a result of stress.
6 Discuss mindfulness and biofeedback as techniques of stress management.
Ans: Mindfulness and biofeedback as techniques of stress management:
Meditation is yet another technique that can be used to deal with stress. Meditation is the English word for Sanskrit term ‘Dhyana’.
It can be described as a process of “quieting the mind in order to spend time in thought for relaxation with a goal to attain inner state of awareness and intensify personal and spiritual growth”.
Meditation also will relax your body and thus the negative impact of stress on the body is reduced. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Biofeedback is a technique of making unconscious or involuntary bodily processes perceptible to the senses in order to manipulate them by conscious mental control”.
It can also be described as a process that is non-invasive in nature and helps in comprehending the effect of stress on one’s body.
It helps monitor the bodily changes that take place when stress is experienced and with the help of such a feedback, the bodily reactions can be managed and resilience towards stress can be improved.
Explain the techniques of time management.
Techniques of time management: Following ere the techniques of time management:
Planner System: One of the major techniques of time management is Planner System. This system can help one make most of one’s time. This planner system can be in form of a diary or a notebook or any other form that one finds to be convenient. These days planners can be created on the mobile phones or
computers as well. In fact, many phone companies today have planners as default apps as well.
Blocking Time Wasters: Yet another way to manage time is by blocking the time wasters. There could be time wasting mails and emails. It is good idea to not let any paper work get piled up.
Delegation: Delegation can also be used whenever possible to manage time effectively. Delegation is nothing but assigning the task to someone else.
Dealing with Procrastination: In order to manage time effectively, one also needs to deal with procrastination. Procrastination involves intentional postponement or delaying of task or activities. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
7 Describe emotional intelligence
Ans: Emotional intelligence:
Emotional intelligence refers to the ability to identify and manage one’s own emotions, as well as the emotions of others.
Emotional intelligence is generally said to include a few skills: namely emotional awareness, or the ability to identify and name one’s own emotions;
the ability to harness those emotions and apply them to tasks like thinking and problem solving; and the ability to manage emotions, which includes both regulating one’s own emotions when necessary and helping others to do the same.
The ability to express and control emotions is essential, but so is the ability to understand, interpret, and respond to the emotions of others.
Imagine a world in which you could not understand when a friend was feeling sad or when a co-worker was angry. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Psychologists refer to this ability as emotional intelligence, and some experts even suggest that it can be more important than intelligence quotient in your overall success in life.
9 Explain various types of Asanas.
Ans: Various types of Asanas: Asanas are also called yoga poses or yoga postures in English.
The 10th or 11th century Goraksha Sataka and the 15th century Hatha Yoga Pradipika identify 84 asanas; the 17th century Hatha Ratnavali provides a different list of 84 asanas, describing some of them.
The asanas are poses mainly for health and strength. There are innumerable asanas, but not all of them are really necessary, I shall deal with only such asanas as are useful in curing ailments and maintaining good health.
Various types of asanas are Ardha Chakrsana, Tadasana, Trikonasana(triangle Posture), Veerabhadrasana-2, Parshwa Konasana, Bhujangaasana, Padahastasana, Ustrasana, Marjarasana, Paschimottanasana, Ardha Matsyendrasana, Padmasana, Ananta Shayanasana, Pavana Muktasana, Purvauttanasan, Vrkshaasana, Garudasana, Shalabhasana, Dhanurasana (Bow Posture), Ardha Halasana, Vipareeta Karani Mudra, Sarvangasana, Uttana Padasana, Halasana, Chakrasana, Naukasana (Boat Posture), Gomukhasana, Shavasana, Makaraasana.
10 Describe emotion focused coping and problem focused coping.
Ans: Emotion-focused coping and problem focused coping: Emotion focused coping can be differentiated from problem focused coping as its purpose is to manage emotions that are related with the stressful situation rather than modifying the situation.
Emotion focused coping involves management of the emotional reactions towards the events causing stress.
“Emotion-focused coping strategies aim to reduce and manage the intensity of the negative and distressing emotions that a stressful situation has caused rather than solving the problematic situation itself”. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
Problem-focused coping involves identifying the source of the problem so as to either deal with it or modify it.
The proactive coping that we discussed earlier can be closely related with this type of coping.
Further, problem focused coping also involves taking control of the stressful situation, seeking information about it and evaluation of positive and negative aspects in a situation (Roncaglia, 2014).
In problem focused coping the first step involved is identification of the problem so that the source of stress is clear And this is important as this coping style can be effective only when there is clarity with regard to the problem. BPCS 186 Free Solved Assignment
BPCS 185 Solved free assignment in hindi 2021-2022
BPCS 185 Solved Free assignment 2021-22