PSYCHOLOGY AND MEDIA
BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. Explain the concept of media. Discuss stereotypes in media representation.
ANS: The average of communication (from the Latin medum, pl. meda) refers to the instrument or form of content with which the communicational process or communication is carried out.
The phrase is typically applied to the mass media (MCM, masses, or mass media media); nevertheless, other forms of communication, such as the telephone, are not huge, but rather interpersonal. The media are constantly evolving.
The first way of communicating between humans most likely was used in prehistoric times, the signs and signals whose reflection in the material culture are the different manifestations of prehistoric art. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
The emergence of writing is taken as a milestone of the beginning of the story. Since then, economic and social changes were boosting the birth and development of different media, from writing and its mechanization (printing – 15th century-)
linked to audiovisual media associated with the era of electricity (first half of the 20th century) and the revolution of information technology and telecommunications (scientific-technical revolution or the third industrial revolution – since the second half of the 20th century)
-every one of them is essential for the various stages of the so-called globalization process.
The main purpose of the media is, precisely, to communicate, but according to their type of ideology can specialize in; inform, educate, transmit, entertain, form opinion, teach, monitor, etc.
Representation in media, and its importance, is not a new topic of conversation. In gaming, it’s around discussions of the protagonist not always being a white male.
In film, hashtags like #Oscars So White bring it to attention, or how an Asian actor was photoshopped into leading film posters to make a point. From films to games to TV series, representation is widely spoken about.
The Golden Globes recently brought it to the forefront, after the successes of Donald Glover’s TV show titled Atlanta, along with indie film Moonlight.
The common thread between both Golden Globe winners is that they featured predominantly black casts.
“We often look at Scottish stereotypes in Media Studies – there are lots of representations of them and most are not very flattering,” says Dave.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
“Students study what a stereotype is, learn to analyse texts for signs of stereotyping and to recognise the cultural and technical codes that represent people, places or things.”
This helps to develop the analytical and critical thinking skills that students need not only in their studies of mass media and culture, but which they can transfer to a wide range of other subjects, and to life in general.
“TV and film is a rich source of representation”, comments Dave, “Viewers often don’t watch programmes using their critical faculties- they watch for entertainment – but this is obviously what we want to develop in our students.”
Q 2 Elucidate media’s role in body image issues and eating behaviour.
ANS: Sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure, play an important role in the development of disordered body image. Of significant concern, studies have revealed a link between media exposure and the likelihood of having symptoms of disordered eating or a frank eating disorder.
The feminine body ideal changed throughout history and became much more uniform with the growing influence of the mass media.
As a result of this influence, the ideal female body shape has become increasingly thin, even as the size of the average woman has become progressively larger.
In this chapter, we review some of the survey, experimental, and longitudinal data indicting media as a formative and pervasive factor in women’s and girl’s body-image disturbance and eating dysfunction, outline recent theoretical approaches, and summarize promising new avenues in the prevention and early intervention arena.
As social media continues to play a central role in the lives of adolescent girls and young women, its influence on body image and the perception of beauty continues to grow.
Social media not only exposes young girls to certain beauty standards and cultural ideals of womanhood, but emerging research shows it may contribute to the development of eating disorders and body dysmorphi. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
There is no doubt that mass media are important sources of what we think about, how we evaluate what we think about what we overlook and ignore, and how we interact with important people in our lives.
There is also no doubt that media portrayals of attractiveness, gender, and technologies of health both reflect and contribute to body dissatisfaction, unhealthy eating and weight management, and disordered eating in females and males who are vulnerable to these influences.
We are gratified to see that many first-rate researchers around the world are turning their attention to the developmental interactions and transactions among mass media, other sociocultural factors, and personal factors that increase vulnerability or resistance.
The media, including social media and blogs may be a catalyst for triggering body image issues such as Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) and eating disorders (Phillips, 2005, p. 178).
Body Dysmorphic Disorder, BDD will be explained later. According to the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, even the smallest amount of exposure to these sites could be harmful and risky (2013).
Borzekowski (2010) describes these blogs and websites as a way to inform, encourage and motivate participation in disordered eating habits and routines to achieve “successfully” low body weight, and typically contain information on how men and women can starve their bodies and how to binge and purge. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
These websites facilitate these disorders by validating unhealthy behavior. Not only can the users find information on the support and maintenance of an eating disorder,
but also, these websites offer a cyber-community where young women and men can connect with others from all over the world who suffer from an eating disorder.
There are a few different types of eating disorders. Eating Disorders are defined as a “persistent disturbance of eating or eating related behavior that results in the altered consumption or absorption of food that impairs physical health or psychological functioning” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013, p.329).
Eating disorders include avoiding food, restricting food intake, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder.
Q 3 Discuss the functions and significance of media.
ANS: 1. Gives us immense knowledge & transmits information – Media keeps us informed about various happening around the world.
It lets us know what is happening around us and all over the world. With the help of media, we get immense knowledge on various subjects.
Media plays a vital role in the dissemination of information. It broadcasts, prints and updates information from time to time so that the general public stays aware of what is going on in the country and in the entire world.
Raises our consciousness – Media ignites awareness in us by providing information and knowledge. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
It does not enforces its own opinion on us, but provides facts, figures and news to us so that we can analyze the information and can understand, what is wrong and what is right?
Raises voice against social evils – Media also plays a constructive role for the society by raising social issues.
Presently, there are many examples of social evils like dowry, female foeticide, gender discrimination, etc. that have been raised by media.
When media presents and unveils such issues, the public becomes aware and the necessary steps are taken for resolving the issues! Media also helps reach the voice of masses to the concerned authorities.
Provides true pictures and live telecast for various events – Be it the cricket world cup, FIFA matches, our prime minster or president addressing the nation,
the areas affected by flooding or just any other incident, media helps us see the true picture by providing the LIVE or recorded telecast for almost all important events.
Educates the society – One of the most important roles of media is to educate the society. We can explore and analyze various product reviews,
do price comparison for various items, read news about politics, fashion, war, weather, health and much more with the help of media.
Media exposes issues like poverty, illiteracy, social backwardness, etc., and educates people on the same. It also educates people about their rights and duties and helps enforce law as well.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Q 4 Explain ethical issues in media psychology research.
ANS: Voluntary Participation: Every participant in the research should voluntarily participate in it, and should not be forced to do so.
Even if research is being conducted on specific groups such as a particular group of criminals (say rapists), they should be given the option to participate in the research voluntarily, not forcibly encouraged to do so.
Informed Consent: All participants should be aware of the kind of tests that are going to be conducted and the effects of each test on them. Informed consent requires the participant to give the researcher written consent for the tests to be carried out.
Deception: No participant should be deceived or misguided regarding the test. No information should be withheld from the participant. However, in some cases, deception is an inherent part of research.
In such cases, it should be ensured that deception is the only alternative to carry out the research.
Participants should at least have a general idea of what is to be expected in the course of research. Researchers should make an attempt to find out what kind of reactions withholding information may elicit.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Debriefing: It is the responsibility of the researcher to ensure that a participant is not psychologically or emotionally affected after participating in the research.
The expected results of the research should be communicated to the participant so that they are prepared for them. In short, they should not be overwhelmed after the research is over.
Permission to Withdraw from Participation: Every participant should be allowed to withdraw from the research process at any time should she/he feel uncomfortable or uneasy, irrespective of the payment incentive provided to them, which should be made to them in any case.
Confidentiality: Confidentiality of each participant should be maintained in terms of their personal information, the specific tests conducted on them, and the results of the research, unless otherwise specified in the initial stages, and officially written.
In such a case a participant may choose to continue or withdraw from the research.
Safety of Participant: All participants should be asked if they have any pre-existing conditions that will interfere with the research, be it physical or psychological.
Adequate protection must be provided to them in such a case, or they should not be allowed to participate if the intensity of the condition cannot be altered.
Q 5 Elucidate the new formats of modern-day advertising.
ANS: 1. Digital or Online Advertising When you are using the internet and visiting websites, you automatically notice advertisements there. Likewise, you can also see ads in search engines. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
All of these are basically forms of online or digital advertising.
They started out as simple ones, but have expanded to include web banner ads, which are quite similar to billboards on roads, bandwagon advertising as well as ads on social media networks.
There are video ads as well that you can find on Facebook and other social platforms.
Mobile Advertising :
A relatively new addition to the world of modern advertising methods is mobile advertising. Even though it is quite new, there is no denying that it is dominating the advertising market.
This is primarily due to the fact that there has been an increase in the use of mobile devices like smartphones and tablets.
According to the CEO of Orange Label Advertising, mobile advertising can have a powerful impact when done the right way and is becoming popular quickly for this reason.
The current trends in mobile advertising involve the use of major social platforms like Snapchat, Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.
Guerrilla Advertising:BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
In the last 20 years, another form of advertisement has become quite noticeable and this is guerrilla advertising or ambient media.
This term is broadly used to define anything that’s unconventional. Moreover, in guerrilla advertising, the customer is invited to interact with or participate in some way.
Timing is as important as a location with this method and creative ideas and innovation serve as driving forces behind guerrilla marketing or advertising.
There was a time when print advertising was deemed as a huge driver of sales, but it has taken a backseat as digital marketing methods emerged.
Nonetheless, it doesn’t mean that this form of advertising has lost its impact. As a matter of fact, when combined with digital methods, print advertising can also work wonders in boosting sales and marketing efforts.
Broadcast Advertising:BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Until recently, this form of advertising was the only one available when businesses wished to reach a large audience.
This mass-market form of communication typically involved the use of radio and television, but it has taken a beating in the last couple of years.
But, it is still a popular way to reach your audience, especially on special occasions or at specific times when you know they will be watching the TV or listening to the radio.
Q 6 Media Psychology
Ans: Media psychology focuses on how human behavior interacts with both media and technology.
It isn’t just mass media or even the content of the media; it’s also how the technology behaves, and how it impacts, create a design, and actually can share the behavior.
It focuses on technology advancement and uses critical analysis, along with the investigation, to develop a model of the perception on the media.
It is used as a whole in society, or even on an individual level. Lots of times, it involves the consulting, design, or even the production of different media.
While they do sometimes do different showcase media, it’s more than that; it understands how the brain behaves to media.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Q 7 Media Fandom
Ans: Media Fandom is a broad, poorly-defined term for a segment of fandom which is generally interested in TV shows and movies as its primary focus, and which encourages creative fanworks. Media fandom is often described in opposition to Science Fiction Fandom, however there is a lot of crossover between the two.
The differences commonly described between media and science fiction fandom are:
Media fandom = tv shows, science fiction fandom = books
Media fandom tends more female and younger
Media fandom centres around communication on LiveJournal and similar platforms
Media fandom encourages fannish creative works such as fan fiction and fanvids
while SF fandom prefers professionally created works
Q 8 Parasocial Relationship
Ans: Parasocial interaction (PSI) is a type of psychological relationship that audiences have with performers in the mass media, particularly on television and online.
Despite having no or limited interactions with media figures, viewers or listeners come to regard them as friends. BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
PSI is defined as an illusory experience in which media viewers connect with personas (e.g., talk show hosts, celebrities, fictional characters, and social media influencers) as if they are in a reciprocal relationship.
Donald Horton and Richard Wohl created the term in 1956.
After continuous exposure to the media persona causes the media user to acquire illusions of closeness, friendship, and identification, a parasocial encounter, or an exposure that piques interest in a persona, transforms into a parasocial relationship.
As more positive information about the media persona is learned, the relationship becomes more attractive, and the relationship progresses.
The media persona provides trust and self-disclosure, which improves parasocial relationships.
By studying and interpreting the persona’s look, gestures, voice, dialogue, and conduct, media consumers are loyal and feel personally linked to the persona, much like they do to their close friends.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Q 9 Online/Virtual Learning
Ans: Online learning always involves an internet connection and can include virtual face-to-face interactions (webinar, online lecture, virtual meeting)
Uses online tools for learning, such as online curriculum or virtual space or conferencing software.
Could be considered a mix of virtual learning and blended learning.
Instruction is delivered through the internet, software, or both.
Can be used inside or outside the physical building of the educational organization.
Uses the computer and an online program or software to enhance the learning experience.
Can be used in a self-pacing format (individualized) or live web conferencing between students and instructors.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Students have remote access to content and instructors.
Student can connect and interact with other students and their instructors online.
Q 10 Cybercrime
Ans: Cybercrime is criminal activity that either targets or uses a computer, a computer network or a networked device.
Most, but not all, cybercrime is committed by cybercriminals or hackers who want to make money.BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Cybercrime is carried out by individuals or organizations.
Some cybercriminals are organized, use advanced techniques and are highly technically skilled. Others are novice hackers.
Rarely, cybercrime aims to damage computers for reasons other than profit. These could be political or personal.
Types of cybercrime
Here are some specific examples of the different types of cybercrime:
Email and internet fraud.
Identity fraud (where personal information is stolen and used). Theft of financial or card payment data.
Theft and sale of corporate data.
Cyberextortion (demanding money to prevent a threatened attack).
Ransomware attacks (a type of cyberextortion).BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment
Cryptojacking (where hackers mine cryptocurrency using resources they do not own).
Cyberespionage (where hackers access government or company data).
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