YOUTH, GENDER AND IDENTITY
BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1 Explain the social psychological perspectives on identity.
ANS: Symbolic Interactionism is a type of interactionalism that is based on symbols. People behave toward items not on the basis of their tangible features, but on the basis of the meanings these objects have for them, according to symbolic interactions,
a sociological social psychological perspective. An antique table, for example, could be considered either a useless piece of furniture or a piece of memorabilia.
Humans regard themselves as objects because they have the ability to reflect back on themselves.
They are self-aware or gain consciousness with respect to their own existence, and are able to take stock of themselves, analyse themselves, and make judgments and plans for the future.
As a result, the self becomes an object. Where does identity enter into self? As we learnt earlier, there are as many different identities as many different positions we hold in society.
All of these multiple identities which constitute the overall self, are related to different aspects of social structure.
One has an identity, an internalized positional designation” (Stryker, 1980, p. 60), for each of the different positions or role relationships the person holds in society.
Thus, self as a student is an identity, similarly, considering the myriad roles we play in life, we can have self as a spouse, self as colleague, self as friend, and self as a worker/employee.
The identities refer to the ‘meanings’ one has as that role-holder or group member, or as a person, e.g., what does it mean to be a friend, or a colleague, or a worker? These meanings are the content of the identities BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Social Identity Theory:- The social identity theory (SIT) is developed by Henri Tajfel (1979).
SIT assumes that a person’s social identity is constituted by the vast number of social identifications that person has with various social categories like class, race, gender and also more transient ones like educational institution, hobby class etc.
Not all those identifications are primed, or activated, or salient, at any one time. Rather, social identity at any one time is made up of a few identifications selected to suit the particular social context. For example, being an Indian fan during a cricket match.
A powerful and perhaps universal motive is the motive to think well of one’s self, to have a
positive evaluation of identity.
There is as strong a motive to evaluate one’s social identity positively as there is to evaluate one’s personal identity positively.
This motive for a positive social identity propels much social behaviour, and is expressed as a tendency to evaluate one’s in group memberships (the social groups one belongs to) positively.
Eriksonian Perspective:- Erikson was one amongst a number of classic theorists to establish a tradition of identity theory (others include Blos, 1962; Cooley, 1902; James, 1892; G.H. Mead, 1934).
Erikson’s definition of identity included both internal (the intra psychic forces in psychology) and social contextual dimensions (environmental context of sociology).
As Erikson has stated, “ego identity…. is the awareness of … self-sameness and continuity … [and] the style of one’s individuality (which] coincides with the sameness and continuity of one’s meaning for others in the immediate community” (1968; p. 50).
Adolescence and youth is the time when the individual begins to sense a feeling of his/her own identity, a feeling that one is a unique human being and yet prepared to fit into some meaningful role in society. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Identity formation is the process of selecting and integrating talents, aptitudes and skills in identification with likeminded people and to suit the requirements of the social environment.
It also involves strengthening the defenses against threats and anxiety, as it learns to decide what impulses, needs and roles are most effective and appropriate.
Q 2. What is youth culture? Describe the various features of youth culture.
ANS:YOUTH CULTURE: a culture which puts a great value on youth, physical wellbeing and beauty, and the morals, tastes, and practices of young people.
This culture tends to negate the morals, experience, and necessities of middle-aged and older people and might generate slight psychological pressures for older adults to acclimate to the culture of youth.
i) Generational consciousness – Youth cultures are marked by a sense of generational consciousness. It is a subjective awareness of having lived through certain sociopolitical events.
For example, “The children of liberalization is a generation of Indian children born soon after the economic reforms of liberalization in 1991.
They were born in an India which was to witness rapid economic, technological and social changes due to opening up of its economy to the world.
ii) Relationship of youth lifestyles with class, ethnicity and gender – Youth cultures are often expressions of resistance stemming from one’ class, ethnicity and gender location. Example of a class based youth culture is Larrikinism in 19th century Australia.
Larrikanism refers to the culture of the working class youth much complained about by the Sydney Press and Police for their attacks on ‘respectable citizenry’ in the form of insults, assaults, loitering, riots, and resisting arrest.
Larrikan culture was described by its contemporaries as culture of overt sexuality and high costume, drinking, dancing, gambling, violent sports and a quasi gang organization.
iii) Counter culture – Often, youth culture is portrayed as a resistance against hegemonic (dominant) culture. It is seen as counter “establishment” and anti parental culture.
Youth members of a particular subculture are seen as constantly striving for mechanisms to create a space for their own ways of being which are in conflict with the adult
iii) Counter culture – Often, yosuBSARIBES CHANNEL FOR MORE UPDATESmonic (dominant) culture. It is seen as counter “establishment”and anti parental culture.
Youth members of a particular subculture are seen as constantly striving for mechanisms to create a space for their own ways of being which are in conflict with the adult world.
The hippies counter culture of the 1960’s in America is one of the most iconic examples of youth culture. The hippies felt alienated from middle class society which they saw as dominated by materialism and repression. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
iv) Lifestyle – The particular objects of consumption, like denim jeans or leather jackets or motorbikes are the central elements of the subcultural style of the youth cultures.
These elements express a range of meanings and values of a particular youth culture. For example, motorbike represents male centered experiential sensibilities such as quest for freedom, recklessness, outlaw which are sought after by the members of motorbike gangs.
The mechanical features of the motorbike also correspond to the features of the motorbike gangs themselves.
Motorbike’s strength, roughness, fierce acceleration, the aggressive thumping of its exhaust matches and symbolize the assertive masculinity and the rough camaraderic of the gang members (Willis, 1978).
v) Impact of mass media, technology and consumerism – Youth cultures are affected by the objects and ideas churned out by cultural industries like media, music and fashion.
Communities which are cut off from the kinds of technology which can disseminate ideas and information widely will have less diverse youth cultures.
The diffusion of cultural images (music, fashion, language, cultural practices) through technology has led to youth cultures becoming more heterogeneous and less static world over.
Q 3. Explain the concept of youth from a socio-cultural perspective.
ANS: Youth as a social construct The most recent perspective is based on theoretical approaches from anthropology and sociology developed in the last thirty years, defining youth as a socio-cultural construct. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
This means that youth is permanently being constructed and reconstructed, historically.
Youth isn’t solely determined by one’s age. The term “age” refers to a biological fact. The meaning and experience of age and growing up, on the other hand, are heavily influenced by the society, culture, and historical epoch we live in.
As a result, youth is socially and culturally shaped. It’s worth noting that many of the inherited assumptions in juvenile psychology are based on developmental psychology’s universal phases of development (which are universal across cultures).
Youth, like any other stage of development, is not immune to cultural influences.
Youth is a fluid concept that changes throughout time and space. Youth’s behaviour is influenced by their cultural background and historical period.
The sociocultural perspective helps us to appreciate the heterogeneity that exists within the youth population. Thus, youth is not merely a calegory.
It is also a dynamic process of experiencing life by virtue of being al a certain stage of development. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
It does have some universal or common patterns, because of the correspondence with adolescence that is characterized by universal biological process.
Nonetheless, we need to recognize the significant role of social institutions (e.g., family, school), culture (values, beliefs and practices) and of changing economic and political circumstances and their impact on youth.
The period of youth is crucial because it is the threshold to adulthood.
National Youth Policy apart from promoting youth as a productive work force, also aims at creating a strong and healthy generation with social values and community ties that participates in civic engagement activities.
It supports youth at risk and crcatcs cquitable opportunity for all disadvantaged & marginalized youth.
Q 4. Discuss how globalization has influenced youth work identity.
ANS: Globalization, Technology and Youth:- On a positive note, technology driven media and globalization are Lwins. Technology facilitates globalization.
The new media and technology bring information about events and situations in multiple formats – through videos, social media, online internet and mobile technology and this has critical impact on youth identity.BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
As the youth look at these experiences in multimedia, they feel closer to the other youth and the causes other youth espouse, thus, their political and social identities are affected.
Globalization, Youth, and Changing Work Patterns:
Education trends have changed as a result of globalisation. The possibilities of life-long learning have been revolutionised by distance education, online education through video and audio formats, and increasing exposure to information and knowledge about a number of subjects.
Exposure to locations and contexts outside of the known and familiar, as well as knowledge and proficiency in one or more languages and a willingness to travel, emerge as important elements in both schooling and employment.
Globalization, Youth and Changing Culture:- As technology is ushering in changes in our awareness about the world, it consequently brings in changes in how wc view ourselves.
With exposure to different cultures, foods, cuisines, dresses, music, dance and art, the social norms of what is acceptable and what is not; what is desirable and what is not; what is fashionable and what is not have become clearly marked.
Thus, the youth sub culture which always was a part of youth identity in pre-globalisation period can now in the globalisation cra be dramatically different from die local culture.
Q 5. Explain the General Aggression Model.
ANS: The General Aggression Model, proposed by Anderson and Bushian (2002), is the most comprehensive of all the theories of aggression. It considers a variety of aspects that may contribute to an individual’s hostility. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
However, it also discusses how our cognition and decision-making processes play a role in determining actual aggressive behaviour.
The model shown below (Fig. 8aF) shows that a variety of person and situation-related variables, such as personality, frustration, provocation, alcohol usage, media violence, and so on, combine and have an impact on the individual’s current internal states.
That is, they lead to heightened arousal level, generale hostile emotions and create negative/ hostile thoughts in the individual. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
The individual then interprets the current situation, that is, engages in appraisal of the situation and accordingly decision making is donc which leads cither to an impulsive action (aggression) or thoughtful action.
Thus, the initial input variables progress through the routes of affect, cognition and arousal and reach the outcome of aggression or no aggression through the mediating influence of appraisal and decision processes.
Q 6. Body image in adolescents
Ans: Adolescents also adapt to new body image as well as to their emerging sexuality. Body image is a mental representation – our perception of our body type, how we look and our physical attractiveness.
Physical growth leads them to be preoccupied with their bodies. Adolescent girls who mature early struggle to deal with their changing bodies and might even experience name-calling. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Adolescent boys who inature later than their peers too deal with negative peer reactions and bullying.
Negative experiences during this period, particularly relating to the body lead to psychological conditions such as body image issues, eating disorders, internalised shame regarding the gender or sexual identity.
Q 7. Holland’s theory of vocational choice
Ans: The theory of vocational choice developed by John L. Holland is one of the most widely researched and applied theories of career development.
Based on the premise that personality factors underlie career choices, his theory postulates that people project self-and world-of-work views onto occupational titles and make career decisions that satisfy their preferred personal orientations.
The theory incorporates several constructs from personality psychology, vocational behavior, and social psychology, including self-perception theory and social stereotyping.
The typology inherent in Holland’s theory organizes the voluminous data about people in different jobs and the data about different work environments to suggest how people make vocational choices and explain how job satisfaction and vocational achievement occur.
Q 8 Gender stereotyping
Ans: Gender stereotyping refers to the practice of ascribing to an individual woman or man specific attributes, characteristics, or roles by reason only of her or his membership in the social group of women or men. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Gender stereotyping is wrongful when it results in a violation or violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
In general, gender stereotyping involves how men and women are expected to act, speak, dress, and conduct themselves, based on their sex.
These preconceived gender roles can limit men’s and women’s capacity to pursue professional careers and prevent them from making individual choices about their lives. Gender stereotypes can affect us both consciously and unconsciously.
Some people may hold explicit, sexist preferences that lead them to prefer to avoid working with and hiring women; others may make deliberate decisions not to hire women due to stereotypes rooted in some truth that women are more likely than men to leave the workforce to take care of children. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Q 9. Importance of emotion regulation in reducing aggressive behavior
Ans: Self-control on emotion becomes a pivotal aspect of reducing aggressive behavior. Studies conclude that an individual’s self-control can encourage he/she reducing aggressive behavior.
The better someone in controlling themselves, the lower their level of aggressive behavior.
In addition to positive emotions, one also needs to learn how to manage or regulate the negative emotions that are bound to be generated in the day-to-day interactions and situations.
Lack of emotion regulation or ineffective managing of emotions leads to consequences/outcomes such as frustration, provocation, anger and aggression. This further affects our social relationships and interactions.
In a review study, Roberton, Daffern and Bucks (2012) highlighted three skills thought to underlie deliberate emotion regulation: emotional awareness, emotional acceptance and proficiency in a variety of emotion regulation strategies.
They indicated that treatment encompassing all of these skills may improve an individual’s ability to regulate difficult emotion states more adaptively and thereby lessen aggressive behavior. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Q 10 Spillover model of work-life balance
Ans: The spillover model proposes that information flows from one world, such as work, to another, such as family, and vice versa.
Spillover is a phenomenon in which a person’s experiences in one domain influence their experiences in another (Lavassani & Movehedi, 2014).
Positive and negative spillover are the two forms of spillover. It has to do with the spread of happiness from one location to another (Lakshmipriya & Ramakrishna, 2016).
Positive spillover describes how positive outcomes and successes in one domain can lead to similar happiness and experiences in another. BPCG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Similarly, negative spill over refers to the fact that difficulties and problems in one domain may lead to the experience of negative emotions and may also get transferred to the other domain.
BPCG 174 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BPCG 173 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
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