IGNOU BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BPCG 171

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY

BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment -A

Q 1 Describe the theories and ways of assessing the intelligence.

Ans: Theories of the intelligence:

As a result, psychologists have developed several contrasting theories of intelligence as well as individual tests that attempt to measure this very concept.

Spearman’s General Intelligence (g): General intelligence, also known as g factor, refers to a general mental ability that, according to Spearman, underlies multiple specific skills, including verbal, spatial, numerical and mechanical.

Charles Spearman, an English psychologist, established the two-factor theory
of intelligence back in 1904. To arrive at this theory, Spearman used a technique known as factor analysis.

Factor analysis is a procedure through which the correlation of related variables are evaluated to find an underlying factor that explains this correlation.

Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities: Thurstone challenged the concept of a g-factor. After analyzing data from 56 different tests of mental abilities, he identified a number of primary mental abilities that comprise intelligence, as opposed to one general factor.

The seven primary mental abilities in Thurstone’s model are verbal comprehension, verbal fluency, number facility, spatial visualization, perceptual speed, memory, and inductive reasoning.

Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences: Following the work of Thurstone, American psychologist Howard Gardner built off the idea that there are multiple forms of intelligence.

He proposed that there is no single intelligence, but rather distinct, independent multiple intelligences exist, each representing unique skills and talents relevant to a certain category.

Gardner initially proposed seven multiple intelligences: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal, and he has since added naturalist intelligence. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Triarchic Theory of Intelligence: Just two years later, in 1985, Robert Sternberg proposed a three category theory of intelligence, integrating components that were lacking in Gardner’s theory.

This theory is based on the definition of intelligence as the ability to achieve success based on your personal standards and your sociocultural context.

According to the triarchic theory, intelligence has three aspects: analytical, creative, and practical.

Ways of assessing the intelligence:

Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon were attributed with the first attempt to measure intelligence scientifically. In 1905, they developed first intelligence test known as Binet-Simon Intelligence Scale.

Later in 1908, they coined a term Mental Age to measure the intellectual ability of a person in comparison to his or her fellow age group, and Chronological Age refers to a person’s biological age.

According to Binet, if a child has Mental Age more than her/his Chronological Age, then she/he will be classified as bright.

If the child scores two Mental Age years below than her/his Chronological Age , then she/he should be identified with intellectual disability.BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Types of Intelligence Tests:

Intelligence tests have been classified on a number of criteria, such as tests based on the number of participants who can attempt the test, tests based on items used in the test and whether the test can be used across different cultures or not.

Individual Tests: An individual test is one that is administered to one individual at a time. There are many standardised individual tests such as The Kaufman Scales, Stanford-Binet Scale and, Wechsler Intelligence Scales.

We will limit our discussion with two most famous intelligence tests i.e., Stanford – Binet Test and Wechsler Intelligence Tests.

Group Tests: A group test is one that can be administered to more than one person at the same time. Thus, making the tests quick in administration.

There are many intelligence tests that can be considered as group tests such as Multidimensional Aptitude Battery, Cognitive Abilities Test, Culture Fair Intelligence Test and, Raven’s Progressive Matrices. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

As an example, we will discuss only Raven’s Progressive Matrices briefly.

BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment
BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Elaborate upon the stages and laws of perception.

Ans: Stages of Perception:

This section will explain in details the stages involved in perception as well as the factors affecting these stages.

Stage I: Selection The first stage of perception is “selection”. Since our brain has limited capacity, therefore,it cannot attend to all stimuli.

We unconsciously or consciously select some stimuli and ignore others. The selected stimulus becomes the “attended stimulus”. Now, look at the following two figures.

What do you see? Your interpretation of these two figures depends on your organisation of the information, and organisation of the information, in turn, depends on your attention. Take for example, the second figure.

Some people give more attention to the white portion and thus see two human faces, while some focus their attention on the black part and perceive it as a vase.

These differences in answer suggest that individual differences also occur in the process of perception. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Stage II: Organization in this stage, stimuli are arranged mentally in a meaningful pattern. This process occurs unconsciously.

Many principles have been proposed to explain the process of organisation. It will help you understand how humans naturally organize stimuli to make a meaningful pattern and thus
interpretation.

Stage III: Interpretation In this last stage, meaning is assigned to the organized stimuli. Interpretation of the stimuli is based on one’s experiences, expectations, needs, beliefs and other factors.

Thus, this stage is subjective in nature and the same stimuli can be interpreted differently by different individuals.

Laws of perception:

Law of Similarity: The law of similarity states that learners will group things together that have a similar appearance. Basically, grouping like-objects is an organizational tool of the unconscious mind.

Things that are alike are perceived as more related than things that are different.

Similar appearance may even equate to similar function: the reason why designs tend to use blue, underlined links, or otherwise make links appear distinct from other text but the same as each other. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Additionally, similarity plays a significant role in creating unity the more alike two items are, the more likely they are to form a group.

Likewise, dissimilar items usually appear more varied and resist grouping. The three main ways to create similarity (or dissimilarity) are shape, size, and colour.

Law of Proximity: According to this principle, users assume that components spaced closely to one another are related and vice versa.

As our brain naturally groups closer elements together into a coherent whole, cognitive load is reduced and information is easier to learn by relieving learners of the need to process a large amount of small stimuli.

Law of Simplicity: Also called law of Prägnanz or law of good figure, the law of simplicity is central to gestalt.

It states that users perceive objects in an environment in a way that makes the object appear as simple as possible: they see the screen as a whole instead of a collection of components.

Users prefer things that are clear and ordered as such objects take less time to process and are less likely to be dangerous surprises.

Law of Closure: Like the above, the law of closure is concerned with simplicity; however, instead alluding to combinations of parts to make a simpler whole, it refers the learners’ ability to fill in missing information based on their past experiences.

It states that when learners see a complex arrangement of elements, they seek simple, recognizable patterns while their brains ignore contradictory information.

Assignment - II

Q 3 Discuss the various methods and applications of Psychology.

Ans: Methods of Psychology: Psychologists use many scientific methods for research purposes to understand various psychological issues more scientifically.
Some of the important methods are: BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Introspection Method: Introspection or self-observation may be considered as a old method but it is something we are doing almost constantly in our everyday life.

Observation Method: This is the most commonly used method especially in relation to behavioural science, though observation as such is common in everyday occurrences, scientific observations are formulated in research places.

Experimental Method: The experimental method is most often used in laboratory. This is the method of observation of the behaviour or the ability of the individual under controlled condition fixed circumstances.

Case Study (History) Method: It is a detailed description of a particular individual. It may be based on careful observation or formal psychological testing.

Interview Method: This involves collection of data by having a direct verbal communication between two people.

Personal interviews are popular but telephone interviews can also be conducted as well. This method is also called face to face method.

Survey Method: This method involves in asking large numbers of individuals to complete the given questionnaires or through interviews by interviewing people directly about their experiences, attitudes or opinions. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Applications of Psychology:

Mental health, organizational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings.

Q 4 Explain the structure of nervous system.

Ans: Structure of nervous system:

The nervous system can be divided into anatomic and functional parts; however, these parts are usually indistinguishable.

The conductive nerve fibers run without limitations from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system and vice versa. All parts of the nervous system influence each other.

Central nervous system: The central nervous system, which comprises the brain and the spinal cord, has to process different types of incoming sensory information.

The brain is protected by the skull, while the spinal cord is protected by the spinal column.

Peripheral nervous system: All parts of the nervous system outside the central nervous system constitute the peripheral nervous system.

The peripheral nervous system includes the cranial nerves and their branches as well as the spinal cord and its corresponding spinal nerves that branch out into the periphery.

Somatic nervous system: The somatic nervous system consists of sensory and motor neurons, and its main purpose is communication between the body and its environment.

Autonomic nervous system: The autonomic nervous system contains sensory and efferent neurons that primarily control the functions of the internal organs.

The sensory neurons pass on the information from the autonomic sensory receptors, located, for example,in the stomach or the lungs, to the central nervous system.

The efferent neurons conduct the impulses received from the central nervous system to the smooth muscles (e.g., the heart) and to the glands.

Enteric nervous system: Special part of the nervous system is the enteric nervous system the ‘brain of the gut’. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

The enteric nervous system consists of approximately 100 million neurons in the enteric plexus, which is an intramural nervous system in the gastrointestinal tract made up of sympathetic and parasympathetic fiber networks and parasympathetic cells and small ganglia.

Q5 Explain the process of thinking.

Ans: Process of thinking:

We think either in words or mental images. The thought we “hear” in our mind in the form of statements or words is known as propositional thought.

Sentences such as “one should not waste water” or “black is a beautiful colour” are proposing or claiming something.

Therefore, it is called as propositional thought. Another mode of thinking is visual thought or imaginal thought.

It is the type of thought that we “see” in our mind. These (propositional thought and imaginal thought) are the two primary modes of thinking.

To understand imaginal thought, first, we need to understand “mental images” and to understand propositional thought, we need to understand “concept.”

Pictures in Your Mind: Mental Imagery: Suppose, you were told by your friend that he saw a beautiful yellow bird with a colorless beak in his garden.

If you were paying enough attention to his description, you might form a visual image of that bird. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

The visual image of the bird that you formed is known as ‘mental image’ or ‘mental imagery’, it is a mental representation of stimuli that are not presently perceived by the
senses.

Concept: “A concept represents an entire class; it is the set of properties that we associate with a particular class”.

Our concept of a ‘car’, for example, includes the properties of having four wheels, a petrol engine, steering, and seats.

Concepts help us in reducing the mental complexity of our world by categorising it into manageable information. Further, it helps us in developing prototypes of the concepts.

Propositions: Many researchers proposed that thinking can not be limited to images or words only, but it is also abstract.

A propositional theory was given by some researchers to support this view. A proposition is a form of mental representation but neither in the form of words or nor images.

BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment
BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment - III

Q 6 Functions of emotions.

Ans: Functions of emotions: From what has been discussed above, there must be no doubt in your mind that emotions are important.

But, it is also important to understand the functions of emotions, that are discussed as follows: BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Emotions prepare an individual for action: Emotions serve as a link between the situation and the individual’s reaction.

For example, if an individual is crossing a road and suddenly sees a truck coming his/her, the emotional reaction that s/he would display, that of fear which would be linked with the physiological arousal.

Emotions play a role in shaping of future behaviour of an individual: Learning takes place as a result of emotions experienced by us and thus for example, the situations that evoke negative emotions are avoided by us.

Emotions help in effective interaction with others: Emotions that are communicated via verbal and non verbal communications may help individuals to interact with each other more efficiently because emotions act as signals thus helping individuals understand what the other person is experiencing.

Future behaviour of individuals can also be predicted based on this.

Q 7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.

Ans:Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs:

Maslow sees human needs in the form of a hierarchy, starting in an ascending order from the lowest to the highest needs and concludes that when one set of needs are satisfied then the need for other set arises.

According to Maslow, human being is an organism, which drives into action to satisfy its needs. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

The hunger drive or any other physiological drive cannot become a cantering point in explaining the theory of motivation.

A sound theory of motivation centres upon the basic goals of human beings. Human behaviour is a reflection of more than one need.

Classification of needs into specific groups is a requisite in formulating a motivation theory. He says that classification of motivations must be based upon goals rather than upon instigating drives or motivated behaviour.

He further says that a situation in which a human organism reacts is a valid point in motivation theory, but the emphasis should always be on the behaviour of the organism rather than on the situation.

Q 8 Concept of problem solving.

Ans: Concept of problem-solving: In our day to day life we usually solve problems be it the classroom, family, or workplace. It is nearly inescapable in everyday life.

We use problem-solving when we want to reach a certain goal, and that goal is not readily available. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

It involves situations in which something is blocking our successful completion of a task. To study problem-solving satisfactorily, a good way will be to start the chapter by solving some problems. Give these ones a try:

Problem 1: What one mathematical symbol can you place between 2 and 3 that result in a number greater than 2 and less than 3?

Problem 2: Rearrange the letters new door to make one word.

Problem 3: How many pets do you have if all of them are birds except two , all of them are cats except two, all of them are dogs except two.

There are many different kinds of problems, including many kinds of recreational problems, career and school oriented problems, personal problems, and scientific problems etc.

Q 9 Freud’s psychosexual stage of development.

Ans:Freud’s psychosexual stage of development:

The concept of psychosexual stages of development, as envisioned by Sigmund Freud is the central element in his sexual drive theory.

For him, the sex drive is the most important motivating force in man, including children and even infants. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Man’s capacity for orgasm or sexuality is neurologically present from birth. Sexuality, for Freud, is not only intercourse, but all pleasurable sensation from the skin.

At different times in our lives, different parts of our skin give us greatest pleasure. For example, an infant finds greatest pleasure in sucking, especially at the breast.

Freud had the making of psychosexual stages of development in man with regard to pleasurable sensation.

Each stage is characterized by the erogenous zone that is the source of the libidinal drive during that stage. These stages are, in order: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital.

Q 10 Lifespan perspective on development.

Ans: Lifespan perspective on development:

Life span refers to the ongoing process that we go through while growing up. It is the period of time from conception extending to death.

Studying life span development is very important because it helps in describing and explaining the mysteries of human development.

Life span development includes issues such as the extent to which development occurs through the gradual accumulation of knowledge versus stage-like development, or the extent to which children are born with innate mental structures versus learning through experience. BPCG 171 Free Solved Assignment

Many researchers are interested in the interaction between personal characteristics, the individual’s behavior, and environmental factors including social context, and their
impact on development.

The scientific study of development is important not only to psychology, but also to sociology, education, and health care.

By better understanding how and why people change and grow, one can then apply this knowledge to help people live up to their full potential.

BPAS 184 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2021-22

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