BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1. Discuss the factors that influence the counseling process.
Ans. Counseling is not a linear process, but rather a dynamic process affected by so many factors.
Physical Setting/Contextual Factors: To make the process of counseling effective, it is important to have a physical setting or the context which provides a place of confidentiality and feeling of safety to client to begin with.
Although there is no universal standard that a counseling room should have, yet there are certain optimal conditions which can be created to have a conducive environment for both client and the counsellor.
The counseling room should have comfortable sitting arrangements with good ventilation and right temperature. The room should have enough lighting and with soft and soothing colour. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
It should not be too cluttered as it may deviate the attention of the client. It should be a place where privacy and confidentiality can be maintained.
If it is near the main office or in view of public, client will hesitate to approach. It should not be in a noisy place and no disturbances or distractions should be there. The sitting arrangement should be in such a way that the distance betwera client and counsellor feels comfortable to both.
Presence of table or any other furniture between the client and counsellor may create a physical and psychological or symbolic barrier which can affect the rapport building between the client and counsellor.
Different variations in physical setting can be adapted based on the client/counsellor’s comfort level, available resources and most importantly, the socio-cultural context.
The counsellor should make sure that the session should not be disturbed or interrupted during counselling. The counsellor should put the phone on silent mode and can display do not disturb ‘sign outside the room for undisturbed session.
Process Factors: The process of counselling can be facilitated by putting in a structure to it so that the client is clear of what to expect in the counselling process.
The structure gives a framework which both the client and counsellor can refer to have a clear understanding of the counselling process.
It reflects a mutual understanding between the client and counsellor regarding their respective roles and responsibilities, and also about the characteristics, conditions and procedures of counselling including the fees and ethical guidelines.
Thus structure provides a sense of objectivity to the counselling relationship and the counselling process. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
It helps clarify counsellor-client relationship, provides a direction to counselling process, protects the rights, roles and obligations of both counsellor and client; and ensures the success of counselling.
Structure is provided throughout different stages of counselling However, it is more important to provide the structure of counseling in the beginning itself, so that client is well aware about what to expect from the counselling sessions and does not have any unrealistic expectation.
Structure helps the client to know the time limit of the session, action limits i.e., what to express and how to express , role limits , and procedural limits.
Thus structure helps to bring in some sense of order for the client who is otherwise faced with confusion, chaotic situation and conflicting issues in her/his life.
The counselling process is also influenced by proper use of counselling skills by the counsellor.
The bondil between client and counsellor with open listening and unconditional acceptance helps reflection, emotional catharsis and emotional vent out which fastens the healing process.
Learning new models and ways of thinking helps the client to get empowered to deal with his/her life.
Client Factors: The therapeutic relationship between the client and counsellor depends on how they perceive each other.
The client who actively participates in the counselling process have more successful outcomes from counselling than those who are passive.
So the initiative taken by the client is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of counselling. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
It refers to the motivation to change. Those clients who have positive expectation and faith in the counselling process and counsellor, they are more likely to continue in counselling and achieve success in counselling.
An important aspect here is the source of referral – whether the client is self referred or referred by a third party.
When self-referred or the client ! come on her/his own, it is assumed that the client will take initiative and be motivated change.
However, this may not always be the case in referral by others – parents, teachers or school administrators or office boss.
There may be reluctant clients or resistant clients. Reluctant clients may be there in referral cases, however, resistant clients can be in both self referred and other-referred cases.
A reluctant client lacks motivation, is reluctant and does not take initiative. They do not want to be in counselling. They may report dissatisfaction and prematurely terminate the counselling.
Resistant clients are those who may want counselling but are unwilling, unready, or opposed to change and want to avoid the emotional pain, change in perspective, or enhanced awareness that counselling demands.
If the client is not involved in the counselling process or not doing assignments or work to change their thoughts and actions, they are being resistant to the counselling process. In such cases, the skill of the counsellor becomes very critical
Therapist/Counsellor Factors: The counsellor has an important role to play in the outcomes of the counselling sessions. Their personal and professional qualities are very important building up the relationship with the client.
There are number of qualities which a counsellor should possess in order to be more effective such as they need to be encouraging, supportive, patient listener, warm, accepting, empathetic, and non-judgemental and having positive regards for the client.
All these qualities of the counsellor are more likely to create the right conditions for success. They should also be interested in helping people.
Apart from these,s/he should be well trained and expert in the methods that they practice, with a high professional ethics. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
five important characteristics a counsellor should possess. These are: Self-awareness, honesty, congruence or genuineness, ability to communicate and knowledge.
Clients also look for expertise in the counsellor. Counsellors need to communicate in simple, jargon-free language, wear appropriate attire, and show genuine concern and interest in the client without being bossy, lecturing or criticising the client.
Most important, counsellors need to develop a trusting relationship with the client which can serve as the foundation for the client to open up and share things with the counsellor.
Q2. Explain person-centred therapy in terms of the role of counselor and the techniq used in it.
Ans. Person-centred therapy uses a phenomenological approach, that is, focusing on the experiences of the person, how does the person experience herself and the world around.
This direct personal experience or organismic experiences related to one’s self are crucial for one’s learning, enhancement and self-growth.
Role of the Counselor: In PCT the role of a counsellor is to be without a role. This is reason why PCT is also known as non-directive counselling. The counsellor’s function in the client’s life nor a teacher.
The counsellor’s role therefore is not like a mother bird who pushes a baby bird off a cliff to help it fly, but that of a steady nest, where the bird can continue to nurture itself before it flies away.
When to make the flight, how to make the flight – the counsellor puts these decisions to the client. As the therapist’s attitude holds primacy, we must explore the kind of attitude that is suitable for PCT. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
The counsellor shows care, respect, acceptance and understanding towards the client, while being genuine or authentic. She aims to facilitate and not direct a client. PCT is also open to a client’s explorations.
The client can shift the focus on therapy from the “primary concern” to other areas which have been denied in the past. The counsellor must provide such an avenue whereby the client can feel free to explore any facet of her life.
Techniques/ Strategies: As the outcomes of PCT rely solely upon the counsellor-client relationship, Rogers gave six conditions which had to be met in order for a therapeutic intervention to work.
Therapist’s Congruence or Genuineness: This condition requires the therapist to
honest and genuine with the client. This means that the counsellor must be her real self during a session.
The counsellor’s genuineness or authenticity helps her share her personal experiences, respond to the client with her real thoughts on the matter and not put on a facade. This is a condition that PCT therapists must strive towards.
It must aisan be noted that therapists are also on their journey towards actualisation and reducing the incongruence between their own real and ideal selves,
so the aim to be as genuine as possible (not to be perfect) and constantly aim to be more genuine with the client.
Unconditional Positive Regard: As mentioned in the paragliding example above, attaching conditions of worth harms a person. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
In this light, a PCT therapist provides the client with unconditional positive regard.
The therapist accepts the clients and their experiences as they are. This does not mean that the therapist approves everything that the client does, nonetheless, the counsellor accepts that this is how it is in this present moment.
As a PCT counsellor believes that each human being is capable of goodness,even if the counsellor doesn’t condone the client’s present behaviour, she would still consider the client as a whole, a valuable being.
Empathic understanding: The last condition for a counsellor to fulfill is to provide the client with empathic understanding.
This is experiencing the client’s feelings as if they were your own, but without losing the “as if” quality.
A PCT counsellor must strive to see a client’s feelings from the client’s perspective but not get carried away with those feelings.
Q3. Differentiate between assessment and testing. Explain the issues in assessment.
|Assessment is a broader and holistic evaluation covering a wide spectrum of behavior||A test is an instrument that measures a sample of behavior at a specific time.|
|It uses multiple methods of collecting information like observation, interview, rating scales, and case history, etc as well as testing.||It is ordinarily restricted to administering one or more tests.|
|It involves a collection of data from multiple sources; both direct (client) and|
indirect(parents, teachers, friends, etc.).
|Testing involves a collection of data only from the direct source, i.e the client based on her/his performance|
|The assessment uses both formal (standardized) and informal (nonstandardized) methods for gathering information.||As per the definition given by Anastasi and Urbina, (1997), tests are standardized instruments.|
|The contexts of assessment are usually natural||The contexts are usually artificial and controlled. Hence, they have less resemblance|
Assessment in counselling is crucial because if counselors do not have adequate assessment skills, they may overlook or underestimate important client-related information.
The most controversial issue is related to the use of tests. For example, while testing culturally different clients, the counselor must consider the appropriateness of the test for such a diverse population. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
Interpretation and scoring must be done with utmost care. While interpreting the scores of such people, the test-administrator has to be very careful, otherwise, the validity of the test will be at stake.
Use of unreliable and invalid test results can make more harm than good to the client.
The socio cultural context needs to be taken into account while interpreting the test findings. Counselor needs to be aware of the adverse effect of labeling of the client based on test scores.
Especially in case of intelligence test, one may get labeled as being less intelligent or dull or good for nothing etc. based on low scores.
Another issue is use of computers and technology in counselling and assessment. Computer-mediated assessments may pose several problems. First, it may not be suitable for all types of clients.
In a country like India, not all people are educated enough to use technology, nor the facility to use technology is available to all.
Secondly, counselors are not unanimous regarding the comparability of computer-mediated assessment and traditional paper-pencil modes of assessment.
While some studies report that both the methods yield identical results, others have obtained different results.
Q4. Explain the defense mechanisms.
Ans. The ego makes use of different defenses to protect itself from being overwhelmed due to these different anxieties.
They are called defence mechanisms or ego defenses. They are strategies that are unconsciously used to ward off anxiety arising from unacceptable thoughts or feelings.
1) Repression: This is the principal defense mechanism where the ego unconsciously pushes the painful, troubling or threatening thoughts, experiences, events into the unconscious.
A lot of survivors of childhood abuse tend to forget the details of the abuse. This has not happened because they wanted to forget, but because the psyche couldn’t go on functioning with the memories of trauma continuing to remain in conscious memory.
2) Regression: During stressful times we go back to behaving in ways as we did as a child,e.g., reverting to thumb sucking when in a stressful situation.
3) Suppression: When the ego consciously tries to push experiences into the unconscious, it is known as suppression. An example of this would be trying to forget being scolded in class.
4) Displacement: When the impulse is satisfied by substituting the object. For example, a woman who is upset with her mother-in-law might show her anger on her child.
5) Denial: Overwhelming situations are blocked by the ego from awareness. For example believing that COVID-19 is a hoax or showing unwillingness to take vaccination for it.
Intellectualization: This defense mechanism uses intellectual components to distance painful emotions related to an event. Its aim is to relieve anxiety that is attached to a particular event. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
An example of this would be telling oneself that a loved one who has passed away has gone to a better place, and is no longer sick and in pain. In this way,sense can be made of a loved one’s death, without it causing a psychological breakdown.
6) Rationalization: When an individual uses logic to explain his or her mistakes away, it is called rationalization. It absolves an individual of accountability, e.g., saying “he was one who hit me first” as a way to justify physical violence.
Reaction formation: When the ego cannot accept the unconscious desires and beliefs transforms the individual to act in a way which is completely opposite of those View thoughts and beliefs.
Q5. Define music therapy and describe the benefits of music therapy.
Ans. Music therapy is different from just playing and listening to music. In music therapy, there is a purpose behind playing or even selecting a particular musical piece.
Music acts as the mode of communication between the client and the therapist, especially for patients who have speech difficulty or general difficulty in expressing through words.
Music therapy helps in providing an outlet for expression of patient’s thoughts and emotions, and meeting the patient’s family members ’emotional needs as well. Music therapy is a complex concept to be described by one single line definition.
However, music therapy should not be confused with the concept of ‘music medicine”. Bradt & Dileo state that, music therapy is performed by qualified music therapists, however, music medicine sessions can be conducted by health professionals.
For example, a music therapist has studied and qualified to be a music therapist. They develop the treatment plans based on music therapy. But let’s say a nurse plays music for a patient as part of the treatment plan. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
That is essentially music medicine where music is used as a medicine for the patient’s better mental health. Benefits of Music Therapy : Studies have revealed activation of different parts of the bram when listening to music or playing a musical instrument.
For instance, the memory aspect and experiences related to music are controlled by the hippocampus. The motions involved playing musical instruments in controlled by the cerebellum while the visual cortex is utilized for comprehending music.
Benefits of music therapy have been observed in a wide range of physical and mental health issues.
Music helps lower hypertension, increase muscle relaxation and lower heart rate by calming the patient. The emotional benefits of music therapy are equally significant and range from reduced stress and fatigue to improved pain management.
Development of communication skills, increased concentration and memory retention are some of the known cognitive benefits of music therapy.
Positive response to music therapy on cognitive skills were evidence in study conducted on children with autism and neonatal care.
A similar research involving children in post-operative care and recovery in age group of 9-14 conducted at the Lurie Children’s hospital of Chicago found that children who were allowed to listen to their favourite music reported lesser pain.
The selection of appropriate music and the choice of music used in music therapy sessions has an impact on the results achieved through music therapy. Each individual is unique and so are their music choices.
Thus, the selection of music and the assessment of the music choices plays a vital role.
It is like having individual treatment plans for each individual based on their needs and choices as this gives a sense of autonomy to the patient allowing for greater results with the therapist playing an active role in making such selections and treatment plans.
Factors affecting these individual choices and music selection by the therapist can range from age, gender, personality traits, family background to the mental state of mind and present conditions of the patient. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
Music makes people happy with the release of hormones such as dopamine, endorphins, and cortisols. Hence music has the potential to make people feel the pleasure and reduce their pain sensation.
It has been found to have similar effects like drugs,alcohol and sex. Also, music helps in neuroplasticity of brain, it can induce structural and functional changes in the brain helping patients recover from brain damage.
Music therapy addresses problems in communication also as it gives people with verbal communicate problems, a mode of expressing themselves through their music choices
Q6. Standardized tests.
Ans. The use of psychological tests has been severely criticized and also challenged many times in the court of law. Still, it is going on increasing rather than decreasing, particularly in schools.
For most counselors, tests are the basic assessment device to know their clients. A psychological test (or simply, test) is defined as “essentially an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior” (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997).
Standardization means uniformity in the procedure of administration and scoring the test. Testi conditions and instructions should be the same for all test takers.
Objective means administration; scoring and interpretation of scores are free from the subjective judgment of the examiner.
That means whoever may be the examiner, the test taker, ideally, should obtain the same score. The scores on a test represent the quantity of the particular behavior measured by that test. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
Ans. What it is: This is the part of the personality that contains all our “shoulds”. It contains our ideal self and our conscience.
superego takes up the most space and is equally in the conscious and the unconscious areas of our psyche.
This shows how expectations we have from ourselves and expectations that others have from us are deep-seated and therefore, when we act against these expectations,
for example even when we oppose our parents over something that is valid and important, we are punished by the superego in the form of feeling guilt and shame.
Unlike the id which is passed down to us from our forefathers and is present in us even as babies, the superego is acquired through our experiences. Children developed superego by the ages of 3-5 years. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
As this superego is not a need, but an internal representation of external values, interaction with other humans and society become important to develop it.
What it wants: It wants individuals to be good boys or good girls in the eyes of society, follow the moral values. Whatever image that we create of the perfect version of ourselves also comes into play here.
When the superego does not get its way, we experience emotions of shame and guilt what principle does it function on: The superego functions on the principle of Morality.
Q8. The ABC Model.
Ans. The A-B-C model says every situation can have multiple emotional reactions to it, depending upon the way a person chooses to process it.
Whenever an incident happens (Activating event) beliefs related to the event (Beliefs) (Consequences) to the incident. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
Ellis explains that it is our arising from how we interpret the situation/event, that leads to negative consequences.
So this model makes it possible for applying an intervention (or therapy) to the beliefs (B), in order to bring about change in emotions and behaviours.
Hence the focus is on irrational beliefs of the individual 1, wheras the focus in Beck’s theory is on the cognitive triad.
Ans. Psychoeducation as the name suggests, refers to giving education to the client and/or to family about the condition or psychological state of the client.
Psychoeducation is considered an evidence-based therapeutic intervention for clients and their families that provides information and support to better understand and cope with condition or the illness. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
It is giving information about the causes, symptoms, prognosis, and treatments of their diagnosed condition.
It is the right of families and client to know about the problem which can help them understand and evaluate their quality of life and better ways of coping with their daily difficulties.
Psychoeducation is given not only for the psychological or mental conditions such as anxiety disorders, clinical depression, dementia, schizophrenia, eating disori personality disorders, and developmental disorders but also for physical illnesses, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiac illnesses, etc. especially where long-term management is required.
Q10. Marital schism and marital skew
Ans. Lidz et al. (1957) reported two types of marital discord in their client’s families, namely marital schism and marital skew. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
Marital schism develops in a family where one parent undermines the worth of the other parent in front of children to get their sympathy and support.
In marital skew, one parent either denies the abnormal behavior of the other parent or tries to justify it as ‘normal’, e.g., an abusive father is never confronted by the mother who either denies the abuse or gives justifications for it.
It also involves dominating of the family situation and interaction by one parent and there is neglect of the other parent. BPCE 145 Free Solved Assignment
This puts pressure on children as their reality in distorted and they have to maintain status quo at any cost.