IGNOU BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment 2022-23- Helpfirst

BPCC 131

FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY

BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment July 2022 & Jan 2023

Answer the following questions in about 500 words each.

Q 1. Discuss the main schools of thought that contributed to the development of psychology

Ans. Psychology is a multi-disciplinary field that has undergone significant development since its inception. Throughout history, various schools of thought have emerged and contributed to the development of psychology.

Some of the main schools of thought that have influenced the field include structuralism, functionalism, behaviorism, Gestalt psychology, psychoanalysis, and cognitive psychology.

Structuralism, which emerged in the late 19th century, was the first systematic school of psychology. Its founder, Wilhelm Wundt, established the first psychological laboratory at the University of Leipzig in Germany.

Structuralists believed that the mind could be studied by breaking it down into its basic components, such as sensations, feelings, and images.

They used introspection, or self-examination, as the primary method of study.

Functionalism, which emerged in the early 20th century, focused on the functions of mental processes rather than their structure.

Its founder, William James, believed that psychology should study how mental processes help people adapt to their environment.

Functionalists emphasized the study of mental processes such as perception, memory, and problem-solving, and they used methods such as naturalistic observation and case studies. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Behaviorism, which emerged in the early 20th century, focused on observable behavior as the subject of study.

Its founder, John Watson, believed that psychology should study only observable behavior, and that the mind and consciousness were not a proper subject of study.

Behaviorists emphasized the study of how environmental factors shape behavior and they used methods such as classical and operant conditioning.

Gestalt psychology, which emerged in the early 20th century, emphasized the study of perception and how people organize sensory information.

Its founders, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, and Wolfgang Köhler, believed that the mind organizes sensory information into patterns, or gestalts, and that these patterns should be studied. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

They used methods such as observation, experimentation, and introspection to study how people perceive and organize sensory information.

Psychoanalysis, which emerged in the late 19th century, emphasized the study of the unconscious mind and the role of past experiences in shaping behavior.

Its founder, Sigmund Freud, believed that mental processes such as thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by unconscious motives and conflicts.

Psychoanalysis is based on the idea that people’s behavior is driven by unconscious desires, and it uses methods such as free association and dream analysis to study the unconscious mind.BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Cognitive psychology, which emerged in the 1950s, focused on the study of mental processes such as perception, memory, problem-solving, and decision-making.

Its founders, Ulric Neisser, George Miller, and Jerome Bruner, believed that psychology should study how the mind processes information, rather than just how it behaves.

Cognitive psychology uses methods such as experiments, observations, and computer simulations to study mental processes.

These are some of the main schools of thought that have contributed to the development of psychology.

Each school has brought different perspectives and methods to the field, and together they have helped to create a more comprehensive understanding of the mind and behavior.

BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment
BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Q 2 Elucidate monocular cues and binocular cues in depth perception.

Ans Monocular cues and binocular cues are two different types of visual cues that our brain uses to perceive depth and distance.

Monocular cues are visual cues that can be seen with one eye, and they include:

Linear perspective: This is the way that parallel lines appear to converge as they recede into the distance. Our brain interprets this convergence as an indication of depth. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Texture gradient: This is the way that the texture of an object becomes smaller as it recedes into the distance. Our brain interprets this change in texture as an indication of depth.

Interposition: This is when one object partially covers another object. Our brain interprets the object that is closer as being partially obscured by the object that is farther away.

Size constancy: This is the way that our brain interprets the size of an object as being constant, even as the object moves closer or farther away.

Aerial perspective: This is the way that objects appear to be more hazy and less distinct as they recede into the distance.

Binocular cues are visual cues that require the use of both eyes, and they include:

Convergence: This is the way that the eyes rotate inward when looking at an object that is close. Our brain interprets this rotation as an indication of the object’s proximity. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Retinal disparity: This is the difference in the images that are received by each eye when looking at an object. Our brain interprets this difference as an indication of depth.

Stereopsis: This is the ability of the brain to combine the slightly different images from each eye to create a single, three-dimensional image.

Both monocular and binocular cues work together to help us perceive depth and distance.

Monocular cues provide information about the relative distance of objects, while binocular cues provide more precise information about the distance of an object. Together, they allow us to perceive a rich and detailed visual environment.

It’s worth noting that these cues are not mutually exclusive, and that they work together in an integrated way to provide the most accurate perception of depth.

Our brain use both monocular and binocular cues to perceive depth and distance, and it combines the information from each type of cue to create a more complete and accurate perception of the visual environment.

Q 3. Define personality. Explain Freud’s personality theory.

Ans Personality refers to the unique combination of characteristics, traits, and patterns of behavior that define an individual’s behavior and experience.

It encompasses a wide range of aspects, such as emotions, thoughts, motivations, and behaviors, and it influences how an individual interacts with others and with the world around them. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Sigmund Freud’s personality theory is one of the most well-known and influential in the field of psychology.

According to Freud, personality is composed of three structures: the id, the ego, and the superego.

The id is the most primitive and instinctual part of the personality. It is driven by the pleasure principle, which seeks immediate gratification of basic needs and desires, such as hunger and sex.

The ego is the rational, logical part of the personality that mediates between the id and the outside world. It is driven by the reality principle, which seeks to satisfy the id’s desires in a socially appropriate way.

The superego is the moral and ethical part of the personality that internalizes society’s values and ideals. It serves as a kind of internalized conscience, judging the ego’s actions and decisions. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

According to Freud, these three structures are in constant conflict with one another, with the ego trying to balance the demands of the id and the superego.

He also believed that the way these conflicts are resolved in childhood has a significant impact on a person’s personality in adulthood.

He proposed that, during the first five years of life, children pass through several psychosexual stages in which different parts of the body are the focus of pleasure and fixation, which can lead to the development of certain personality traits.

Freud’s personality theory has been both influential and controversial, with many of its ideas and concepts being debated and criticized by other researchers and clinicians.

While some of his ideas have been discredited by more recent research, many of his concepts and methods continue to be influential in the field of psychology, including his emphasis on the unconscious mind and the role of early childhood experiences in shaping adult behavior. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Section B

BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment
BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Q 4. Systematic Observation

Ans. Systematic observation refers to a method of observing and collecting data in a controlled, structured, and systematic way.

It involves the use of predefined procedures, such as a set of specific behaviors to observe or a standardized recording instrument, to ensure that data is collected in a consistent and reliable manner.

This method is often used in research studies, such as in the field of psychology, to study human behavior and gain a deeper understanding of a particular phenomenon. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Systematic observation allows for the collection of objective, quantitative data and can be used to test hypotheses and draw conclusions about the behavior or phenomenon being studied.

Q 5. Raven’s Progressive Matrices

Ans. Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) is a nonverbal test of abstract reasoning and general intelligence.

The test consists of a set of visual puzzles, called matrices, that the test-taker must complete by choosing the missing piece from a set of options.

The test is designed to measure a person’s ability to identify patterns and relationships, to reason logically, and to think abstractly.

The test is divided into three sections, each of which becomes progressively more difficult. The first section consists of simple matrices that can be solved by recognizing basic patterns.

The second section includes more complex matrices that require the test-taker to identify relationships between different parts of the matrix.

The third section includes matrices that are highly abstract and require the test-taker to think critically and creatively to solve.

Raven’s Progressive Matrices is considered a culture-fair test, meaning that it does not rely on language or specific knowledge, making it suitable for people from different cultural backgrounds. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

It is widely used in research and educational settings, as well as in clinical settings, for assessing cognitive abilities, such as intelligence and problem-solving skills.

It is also used in many countries for educational and occupational selection.

Q 6.Insight learning

Ans. Insight learning is a theory of learning that describes the process by which an individual gains new knowledge or understanding through a sudden realization or insight.

It is characterized by a sudden understanding of a problem or situation that was previously not understood.

Insight learning is thought to be a cognitive process that involves the reorganization of existing knowledge and the formation of new associations.

Insight learning is often associated with problem-solving and is thought to be an important aspect of creativity and innovation.

It is thought to be triggered by a change in the individual’s perception of the problem or situation, which can be caused by a change in the information available or by a change in the individual’s perspective.

The theory of insight learning was first proposed by Wolfgang Köhler in the early 20th century. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

He observed that chimpanzees were able to solve problems in a sudden, unexpected way and proposed that this was due to an “aha” moment or insight.

Insight learning has been the subject of much research, and it is thought that it may be related to other cognitive processes such as divergent thinking, working memory, and cognitive flexibility.

Studies have suggested that insight learning is associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that is involved in problem-solving and decision-making.

Q 7. Poggendorff Illusion

Ans. Insight learning is a theory of learning that describes the process by which an individual gains new knowledge or understanding through a sudden realization or insight.

It is characterized by a sudden understanding of a problem or situation that was previously not understood. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Insight learning is thought to be a cognitive process that involves the reorganization of existing knowledge and the formation of new associations.

Insight learning is often associated with problem-solving and is thought to be an important aspect of creativity and innovation.

It is thought to be triggered by a change in the individual’s perception of the problem or situation, which can be caused by a change in the information available or by a change in the individual’s perspective.

The theory of insight learning was first proposed by Wolfgang Köhler in the early 20th century.

He observed that chimpanzees were able to solve problems in a sudden, unexpected way and proposed that this was due to an “aha” moment or insight.

Insight learning has been the subject of much research, and it is thought that it may be related to other cognitive processes such as divergent thinking, working memory, and cognitive flexibility. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

Studies have suggested that insight learning is associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, an area of the brain that is involved in problem-solving and decision-making.

Q 8. Generalization

Ans. Generalization is a process by which an individual applies knowledge or skills learned in one situation to another, similar situation.

It is a fundamental aspect of learning and is necessary for the transfer of knowledge from one context to another.

Generalization is the ability to apply what has been learned in one situation to new situations.

Generalization can occur in various forms of learning, such as classical and operant conditioning, and it is a key component of cognitive learning as well.

In classical conditioning, an organism learns to associate a previously neutral stimulus with a stimulus that naturally evokes a certain response.

Once the organism has learned this association, it will generalize the response to similar stimuli. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

In operant conditioning, generalization occurs when an organism learns a new behavior in response to a specific stimulus and then demonstrates that behavior in response to similar stimuli.

For example, a dog that has been trained to sit in response to the command “sit” may also sit in response to similar commands such as “stay” or “down”.

In cognitive learning, generalization occurs when an individual learns new information and then applies it to other similar situations.

For example, a student who learns a math formula in one context can then apply it to solve similar problems in other contexts.

Q 9. Flashbulb Memory

Ans. Flashbulb memory refers to the phenomenon of forming a highly vivid, detailed, and long-lasting memory of an emotionally significant event.

These memories often feel like a “snapshot” in the mind’s eye and are thought to be encoded in a way that is different from everyday memories.

The term “flashbulb memory” was coined by psychologist Roger Brown and psychologist James Kulik in 1977. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

They proposed that the intense emotional arousal associated with a highly significant event leads to the creation of a special kind of memory that is more vivid, detailed, and long-lasting than normal memories.

Examples of events that can create flashbulb memories include personal experiences such as the birth of a child, or public events such as the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, or the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

Research on flashbulb memories has shown that they are often highly accurate, but not always entirely accurate.

Studies have also shown that the characteristics of flashbulb memories may depend on the individual’s emotional state at the time of the event, the proximity of the event, and the availability of other sources of information about the event.

Overall, flashbulb memories are a unique type of memory that is formed in response to emotionally significant events, they are often vivid, detailed, and long-lasting but not always entirely accurate.

Q 10. Spearman’s Theory of Intelligence

Ans. Spearman’s theory of intelligence, also known as the two-factor theory of intelligence, is a theory proposed by Charles Spearman in the early 20th century.

According to this theory, intelligence is composed of two factors: general intelligence (g) and specific intelligence (s).

General intelligence (g) is considered as a general ability that underlies all intellectual tasks and is responsible for overall cognitive ability.

It is thought to be the result of the interaction of a large number of cognitive processes and abilities, such as memory, attention, and problem-solving.

Specific intelligence (s), on the other hand, refers to the specific abilities or aptitudes that are required for particular tasks or domains.

For example, a person may have a high level of specific intelligence in mathematics but a low level of specific intelligence in music.

Spearman believed that both general and specific intelligence are inherited, although general intelligence is considered to be more heritable than specific intelligence. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

He also proposed that general intelligence is positively correlated with specific intelligence, meaning that individuals with high general intelligence tend to also have high specific intelligence in different areas.

Spearman’s theory of intelligence has been widely studied and debated, and it has been modified and expanded upon by other researchers.

However, it remains an influential theory in the field of intelligence and cognitive psychology and it’s considered as one of the first theories of intelligence.

Q 11. Motivational Cycle

Ans. The motivational cycle refers to the process by which an individual’s motivation changes over time in response to specific events or circumstances.

The motivational cycle is often represented as a loop or spiral, with different stages that repeat over time. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

The cycle typically begins with a state of high motivation, characterized by a strong desire to engage in a specific behavior or activity.

This can be followed by a period of high effort and performance, as the individual works towards their goal.

As the individual gets closer to achieving their goal, their motivation may begin to decrease, leading to a period of lower effort and performance.

This can be followed by a period of disengagement or demotivation, characterized by a lack of interest or motivation to continue.

However, as the individual reaches their goal or receives feedback, their motivation may increase again, leading to a renewed sense of engagement and effort.

This cycle can then repeat itself as the individual sets new goals or is faced with new challenges. BPCC 131 Solved Free Assignment

The motivational cycle can be influenced by various internal and external factors, such as the individual’s goals, values, and self-efficacy, as well as environmental factors such as feedback, rewards, and obstacles.

Understanding the motivational cycle can help individuals and organizations to identify and address factors that may be affecting motivation, and to develop strategies to sustain motivation over time.

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