FOUNDATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY
BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1. What are the stages in memory process? Elucidate the integrative model of working memory.
Ans – Stages in memory process :
a) The sensory register or memory: This receives information from the various sensory receptors from the environment. Here, the information is held for a very brief period of time, perhaps a few seconds.
The information passes from the sensory register to the short-term memory, only if attention is paid to it.
b) Short-term store or memory: This is also known as working memory. William James referred it as primary memory. Here, the information is kept for 20 to 30 seconds.
The information that is attended to, is processed here in a rehearsal buffer and repeated again and again.
It has a very limited capacity to store information. G. A. Miller (1956) suggested that the capacity of working memory was about seven items (plus or minus two), By items, Miller argued that a lot of information could be packed in a single item.
This strategy was called chunking and the basic unit of information in working memory is known as chunk.
Chunking can help to store more information in short-term store. Several pieces of information can be combined into chunks and stored in short-term store and later retrieved. It stores sound of the speech, visual images,words, meaningful sentences.
Since the storage is very small, most of the new incoming information, displaces the previously stored information. Information that is rehearsed well, then moves to the long-term memory. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Rehearsal here means to actively maintain the item in working memory. Rehearsal can be made in two ways. In maintenance rehearsal, the information is repeated again and again. This information may not be passed on to the long-term memory.
In elaborative rehearsal, strategies are used to organize and give meaning to the material to some other concept that is encoded. Elaborative rehearsal associates the item in working memory to existing long-term memory structures.
c) Long-term store or memory: Information that is rehearsed well,then moves to the long- term memory and the information that is not rehearsed is lost. The information is organized in different ways in long term store for days months, years, and maybe forever.
Long-term memory has unlimited capacity to store information. Information is generally not forgotten from long term store, and if any forgetting occurs, it is because the information has not been retrieved or organized properly.
The information that is stored in long-term store consists of meaningful words, sentences, ideas, and various experiences of our life.
An Integrative Model: Working Memory The concept of STM propounded by Atkinson and Shiffrin was very narrow. They considered STM only as a short-term memory storehouse but later studies disapproved it. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Later studies suggested that STM is dynamic in nature i.e., it works not just as a storehouse of information but also responsible for the manipulation of incoming information for the completion of a cognitive task.
Baddeley & Hitch (1974), after incorporating the idea of level of processing (LOP) proposed a new model for STM and termed it as working memory.
Thus, working memory can be defined as “a limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks such as comprehension, learning, and reasoning” (Goldstein, 2011, p. 131).
Baddeley’s model of Working Memory (WM) consists of four components: the central executive, the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketch pad, and the episodic buffer:
The central executive, as the name suggests, works as an executive in our working memory. It coordinates and regulates cognitive operation between subordinate systems namely, phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad and episodic buffer.
It decides which of the memory will become part of long-term memory and which will fade away.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The phonological loop is responsible for storing verbal and auditory information. The information stored in the phonological loop will decay within 2 seconds, unless it is not rehearsed.
It consists of two components, phonological store, which stores information for few seconds; and the articulatory rehearsal process, responsible for rehearsing the information in order to keep the information stored in phonological store from decaying.
For instance, trying to remember a phone number, you have just been told by your friend, involves phonological loop.
The visuospatial sketch pad keeps visual and spatial information stored. For instance, the mental picture that comes up in your mind while listening to a story or solving a puzzle, involves using your visuospatial sketch pad.
The episodic buffer is responsible for combining information from phonological loop, visuospatial sketch pad and long-term memory to generating a unitary episodic representation of information.
Thus, this component helps us in making a sense of the received information.
Q 2. Discuss the components of emotional process. Differentiate between emotions, mood and feelings.
Ans – COMPONENTS OF EMOTIONAL PROCESS Emotion can be termed as an episode that is complex as well as having multiple components (Nolen- Hoeksema et al, 2009). There are six main components of emotion process. These are discussed as follows:
1) Cognitive appraisal: The first component is cognitive appraisal. Here the situation is assessed based on the personal meaning.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
For example, if a cricket team wins, there will be a cognitive appraisal with regard to the personal meaning of the situation, whether the individual supports this team or not.
If he/ she supports this team and he/ she is a diehard fan of this team, then the situation will be assessed as having personal meaning or is personally significant for the individual. The cognitive appraisal leads to the other components of emotion.
2) Subjective experience: This is related to the affective state or the feeling tone that is brought by the emotion (Nolen- Hoeksema, Freidrikson, Loftus & Lutz, 2009).
3) Thought and action tendencies: At this stage, the individual will display an urge to think in a particular manner or take certain actions. For example, when an individual is angry, he/she may act in a manner that is aggressive.
4) Internal bodily changes: There are physiological reactions mainly involving the autonomic nervous system. Thus, there could be changes in heart rate or the individual may start perspiring. For example, when a person is angry, she/ he may breathe faster.
5) Facial expressions: In this, there is movement in the facial landmarks like cheeks, lips, noses and so on (Nolen- Hoeksema et al, 2009). For example, when an individual is happy, he/ she will smileBPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
6) Response to emotion: This is related to how an individual copes and reacts with one’s own emotions.
Any emotion is a result of these six components. To further highlight any emotion, it will thus have the physiological, cognitive and behavioural components.
When an individual experiences anger, he/ she may experience physiological arousal in terms of sympathetic arousal. This also has a cognitive component as the individual may believe that she/he is in danger.
Thus, the individual may display tendencies of avoidance that are related to the behavioural component. Similarly, when an individual is angry, she/he will experience sympathetic and parasympathetic arousal.
The individual will have a belief that she/he is being mistreated and thus will have attack tendencies (Rathus, 2008).
Difference between Emotions and Mood
|1) Emotions have a cause that is clear. For example, a person may be amazed while looking at a beautiful monument||1) “Moods are free-floating and diffuse affective states” (Nolen- Hoeksema et al, 2009, pg 465). For example, an individual may feel cheerful on a day and may feel irritated the next day|
|2) They are brief and may last for few seconds or minutes||2) Moods are comparatively long-lasting|
|3) Emotions are a multicomponent episode||3) Moods are mainly related to the experience that is subjective|
|4) Emotions can fit in certain categories that are discreet, like anger, joy and so on||4) Moods may vary with regard to pleasantness and arousal|
Difference between Emotions and Feelings :::–
|1) Emotions are comparatively more complex. It is basically an affective process that is simple in nature||1) It is basically an effective process that is simple in nature|
|2) Any emotional experience is preceded and accompanied by feelings. For example, the feeling of pleasure will lead or will be accompanied with the emotion of happiness/ joy||2) In feeling, emotional experience may or may not occur. For example, an individual may experience feelings of pleasure or pain without experiencing any emotions.|
|3) Emotion is an effective process that is much more active||3) Feeling is a process that is comparatively less active|
|4) Emotion is both subjective and objective||4) Feeling is subjective in nature|
|5) Emotions are of different types, for example, anger, joy, jealousy and so forth||5) Feelings are mainly categorised in to pleasure and pain|
|6) Physiological changes are experienced||6) Physiological changes may not be noticed.|
Q 3. Explain Gardener’s theory of intelligence. Discuss the various tests to measure intelligence.
Ans – Gardner’s Theory of Intelligence Howard Gardener (1993b, 1999a) refuted the classic view of intelligence as a capacity for logical reasoning.
He proposed that there is no one form of intelligence but a number of intelligence work together. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
According to him, intelligence is the “ability to solve problems or fashion products that are of consequence in a particular cultural setting or community” (1993). Initially, he proposed seven distinct types of intelligence namely,
1) Linguistic: People who are high on this type of intelligence have good linguistic abilities i.e., they can easily articulate and express their thoughts by choosing the most appropriate words.
They can easily play with the words. Poets and writers have a higher level of linguistic abilities.
2) Musical: People high on this are knowledgeable and sensitive to music. They can manipulate musical pattern to create different music.
People carrying this intelligence are good signers, play musical instruments and good music composers
3) Logical-mathematical: This involves having the ability to think critically and on abstract problems. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Such people have a scientific aptitude and are good with numbers and abstract problems. Scientists have a higher level of this intelligence.
4) Spatial: This intelligence is related to one’s ability to manipulate and use visual images or mental images. Navigators, pilots, architects, and painters have high spatial intelligence.
5) Bodily-kinesthetic: It is the ability to control and train your body or a part of it for construction of products and problem-solving.
People serving in the military, intelligence agencies, sports person, actors and, dancers have higher levels of bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.
6) Intrapersonal: Being aware of one’s own feelings, emotions, needs, and motives are having intrapersonal intelligence. Philosophers and spiritual leaders are high on intrapersonal intelligence
7) Interpersonal: Your ability to understand other person’s behavior, motive, and feelings. People high on this intelligence use their understanding of other people to develop a comfortable bond with other people.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Counselors, politicians, teachers, social workers are high on interpersonal intelligence.
Later, he added another type of intelligence.
(8) Naturalist: It refers to being sensitive to different features of nature. They have compassion for nature and are usually nature lovers. Wildlife and botanists possess a higher level of this intelligence.
Each individual has a unique combination of these eight types of intelligence, which explains the individual differences.
Gardner and his colleagues proposed that the typical paper-pencil tests for intelligence do not measure many aspects of intelligence such as interpersonal ability.
For instance, many students performed poorly on the intelligence test but become great leaders because of their refined interpersonal qualities.
Thus suggesting, that intelligence is more than merely mathematical, verbal and analytical abilities, measured by the traditional intelligence test.
Types of Intelligence Tests : BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Intelligence tests have been classified on a number of criteria, such as tests based on the number of participants who can attempt the test, tests based on items used in the test and whether the test can be used across different cultures or not.
1) Individual and Group Intelligence Tests
A) Individual Tests: An individual test is one that is administered to one individual at a time. There are many standardised individual tests such as The Kaufman Scales, Stanford-Binet Scale and, Wechsler Intelligence Scales.
We will limit our discussion with two most famous intelligence tests i.e., Stanford – Binet Test and Wechsler Intelligence Tests. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
B) Group Tests A group test is one that can be administered to more than one person at the same time. Thus, making the tests quick in administration.
There are many intelligence tests which can be considered as group tests such as Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB; Jackson, 1984),
Cognitive Abilities Test (Lohman & Hagen, 2001), Culture Fair Intelligence Test (1940) and, Raven’s Progressive Matrices (1938,1992).
2) Verbal and Nonverbal Tests BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
A) Verbal Tests : Verbal intelligence is the ability to use and solve problems using language-based reasoning. Verbal tests are those which require the use of language for successful performance in it.
Verbal intelligence is the ability to comprehend and solve language-based problems. Initially, approximately all intelligence tests were based on language only but later it was realised that such tests are of no use for people who were illiterate, young children who have not acquired the language abilities fully and people with speech difficulties.
To overcome the limitation of these verbal tests, many psychologists came up with a number of non-verbal intelligence tests.
Moreover, many verbal standardised tests such as Wechsler scales and Kaufman scales now also have some non-verbal test components. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
B) Non-Verbal Tests A nonverbal test of intelligence measures one’s ability to analyze visual information and solve problems without necessarily using words.
Nonverbal tests are also known as performance tests as they generally require a construction of certain patterns. Some of the famous nonverbal tests are Koh’s Block Design Test, Cube Construction Tests, and Pass along Tests.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices (1938, 1986, 1992, 1995) is also a well-known nonverbal intelligence test which has been discussed in the previous section.
3) Culture-Fair Tests and Culture-Biased Tests
A) Culture-Fair Tests: Every culture is unique in terms of their values, language, expectations, demands and environmental experiences. A child reared in the US will be very different in many respects with a child been brought-up in Indian sub-urban area.
Due to this reason, for assessing individual belonging to different cultures, psychologists came up with tests which are free from any cultural biases.
Some of the famous culturefair tests are The Culture Fair Test (Cattell, 1940), Raven’s Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1938, 1986, 1995), BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Roid & Miller, 1997) and, Draw-a-Man Test (Goodenough, 1926). All these and other culturally fair tests are non-verbal in nature.
B) Cultural-Biased Tests: Many psychologists have attempted to develop culture-fair intelligence tests by making it non-verbal in nature.
However, it was realized that the impact of culture cannot be eliminated completely from these tests even after making it nonverbal completely. Due to this reason, only the term ‘culture fair’ is used in place of ‘culture free’ tests.
Q 4. Psychoanalysis
Ans – Psychoanalysis was founded by Austrian psychiatrist, Sigmund Freud (1856-1938). Freud proposed that unconscious motivation plays an important role in nervous disorders and stressed the importance of early childhood experiences in personality development.
Freud believed that urges and drives are expressed in behavior and thought.The focus is on the role of unconscious thoughts, memories and feelings.
These unconscious thoughts and memories were revealed through free-talk and dream interpretation, in a process called psychoanalysis. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Freud influenced psychologists like Carl Jung (1875–1961), Alfred Adler (1870–1937), Karen Horney (1855–1952) and Erik Erikson (1902-1994).
There approach was known as psychodynamic approach and were referred as Neo-Feudians.
Q 5. Indian approach to personality
Ans – The Indian intellectual tradition has a deep understanding of the human nature and there are conceptual frameworks which are connoted as ‘theories of personality’ in modern psychology (Paranjpe, 2016).
In the Indian context, svabhava is the Sanskrit word that is used to reflect the unique and stable characteristics of the person. Another word used is Prakriti.
It is a term that is derived from Samkhya system. It reflects the inherent features of all events as well as humans. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Prakriti has three gunas, namely, sattva, which means enlightenment, rajas meaning energy and movement, and tamas refers to darkness and inertia.
Bhagavad-Gita refers to three types of personality based on gunas and is referred as guna theory. The three types of personality that emerge are :
1) Sattvik: When sattva guna dominates, people tend to be emotionally stable. The inherent desire is to be good and caring.
2) Rajasik: People tend to be active and emotional when rajas guna dominates. Rajas dominant person is full of attachment. Enthusiasm, interest and activity are some qualities of this guna.
3) Tamasik: When tamasik guna dominates, the person tends to be sluggish and ignorant, but the positive manifestation of tamas guna is willingness to work hard.
Q 6. Sociogenic Motives
Ans – The sociogenic needs are more complex as they are extrinsic needs that are learned in social groups, as peers, or family where one grows.
These needs may vary from person to person, depending upon the personality type. There are many kinds of social motives and it is very difficult to suggest which is most important or which is least important.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
It is also very difficult to measure social motives. Achievement motivation, a type of sociogenic motive, refers to the need to achieve or accomplish on a task and surpass the other people.
Affiliation motivation implies the need to make friends and seek co-operation with others. Aggression motive refers to the need to fight and take revenge, to belittle or curse or ridicule the other.
Nurturance motive is the need to take care of others or to help others when they are in a problem or sick.
Dominance motives are displayed when a person tries to control or influence the other person, to become a leader.
The power motive is the need to gain power or do things that make a person feel powerful and strong.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Q 7. Latent learning
Ans – Gestalt psychologist, Edward Tolman was the main proponent of latent learning. Tolman and his colleagues (Tolman &Honzik, 1930; Tolman, Ritchie, & Kalish, 1946) in a series of experiments on rats demonstrated that learning can take place without immediate reinforcement.
In a study by Tolman and Honzik (1930), hungry rats were trained to run in a maze (see Figure 3.6).
They took three groups of rats; reward group, no-reward group and, no-reward/reward group. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
For the first group, they placed hungry rats in a complicated maze with food at the end, while the second group never received any food after coming out of the maze successfully.
Rats of the third group received no food for the first ten sessions but for their eleventh session, they received food as reinforcement.
Results suggest that rats of the first group took lesser time for every next trial to reach their goal while the rats of the second group showed very slight improvement in their time and errors.
Interestingly, rats of the third group initially also showed very slight improvement in their error but once they became aware of the presence of food by its smell, their performance improved dramatically and in fact, it was on par with the performance of rats of the first group. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
This change in behaviour was attributed to latent learning or the learning that takes place but does not express until the situation for it is conducive.
Q 8. Illusion
Ans – The process of perception is capable of going wrong or misused. Knowingly or unknowingly, we tend to make mistakes and misinterpret the stimuli.
When we ‘misinterpret’ the sensory information, then it is known as an illusion. Illusion also been defined as “a discrepancy between one’s awareness and some stimulus” (Reynolds, 2008).
Some typical examples of illusions include perceiving tree branches as ghosts or perceive rope as a snake at night.BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Q 9. Process of sensation
Ans – The process of sensation is very easy to understand.
Physical energy, such as light, sound waves, heat, emanating from objects becomes stimuli and is received by concemed sense organs like eyes, ears, and elsewhere through specialised receptor cells.
The energy is next converted into electrical impulses and this process is known as transduction.
The translation of a physical energy into electrical impulses by specialized receptor cells is known as transduction. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
The electrical impulses then travel from the sense organs along nerve fibers to the central nervous system and finally to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex.
The process of sensation includes the direct reception and transmission of messages to cerebral cortex.
Q 10. Case Study
Ans – Case study is based on a small set of participants, this may include one participant or a small group.The basic premise is that each person is unique.
It gives a detailed account of an individual’s behavior and emotions.
Interesting examples who have used case study are Freud, who used case study as a method to gather information from his patients that helped him to conclude the psychoanalytic theory of personality. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Jean Piaget also used case studies of his own children to come out with the most important theory on cognitive development.
Rokeach (1964) ‘The Three Christs of Ypsilanti: A Psychological Study’, is an important case study of three patients with schizophrenia.
The main disadvantage of case study is that the results cannot be easily generalized. The method is very subjective and hence, is prone to subjective bias.
Q 11. Spontaneous recovery
Ans – Spontaneous recovery is a phenomenon of learning and memory that was first named and described by Ivan Pavlov in his studies of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning.
In that context, it refers to the re-emergence of a previously extinguished conditioned response after a delay. BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
Such a recovery of “lost” behaviors can be observed within a variety of domains, and the recovery of lost human memories is often of particular interest.
Spontaneous recovery is associated with the learning process called classical conditioning, in which an organism learns to associate a neutral stimulus with a stimulus which produces an unconditioned response, such that the previously neutral stimulus comes to produce its own response,
which is usually similar to that produced by the unconditioned stimulus.
Although aspects of classical conditioning had been noted by previous scholars, the first experimental analysis of the process was done by Ivan Pavlov,
a nineteenth-century physiologist who came across the associative effects of conditioning while conducting research on canine digestion BPCC 131 Free Solved Assignment
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