APPLED SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY
BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1 Describe the nature and scope of applied social psychology. Explain applied social psychology as science.
ANS: Applied social psychology can be defined as using social psychological theories, research findings, and experimental methods to understand social issues and to offer real-world solutions for a variety of social problems.
As a discipline, applied social psychology functions on the premise that social problems are, at their heart, caused by human behavior.
To understand and change these problem behaviors, applied social psychologists conduct a scientific examination of individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors as they pertain to a variety of social influences.
Through their research, applied social psychologists hope to offer practical suggestions for improving human social behavior in areas ranging from workplace productivity to safer sexual activity.
While research in basic social psychology often begins with scientific curiosity, work in applied social psychology typically starts with the identification of a specific social problem, such as teen pregnancy or hate crimes.BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Applied social psychologists seek to understand and treat these social maladies through the application of the theories and methods of social psychology.
While basic social psychologists attempt to isolate the causal relationships between a small number of specific variables that can be carefully controlled in the lab,
applied social psychologists work to identify and predict large-scale effects that can be used to design and implement social programs.
Real social issues rarely involve only one or two psychological variables. Therefore, it is often useful for applied social psychologists to consider broad combinations of psychological principles when attempting to understand a social issue.
It is also common for applied social psychologists to adopt an interdisciplinary approach to their work, incorporating economic, sociological and political perspectives.
Determining causality between two factors means determining that changes in one factor produce (i.e., cause) changes in the other factor.
Just because two factors are related does not necessarily mean that they are causally related. For instance, having a pet might have no effect whatsoever on the adjustment of the elderly even though a relationship may exist.
A third factor could be responsible for the existence of the relationship. For instance, physical health could influence both how well-adjusted people feel and whether they have a pet (because it is easier to care for a pet if one is healthy).
So, it is important not to be misled by a common tendency among people to assume that if two things are correlated, a causal relationship necessarily exists.
As a branch of social psychology applied social psychology is by definition a science and, accordingly, relies on the scientific method and is guided by the core values of science.
Moreover, applied social psychologists likewise are motivated by the aforementioned goals of science: description, prediction, determining causality, and explanation.
However, they are distinguished from other social psychologists by also having a strong interest in what may be regarded as the fifth goal of science: control (Christensen, 2004; Goodwin, 2003). BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
In science, control means being able to manipulate conditions that will cause changes in a phenomenon.
Although their ultimate goal is to effect positive change to improve the functioning of – applied social psychologists themselves may conduct research that helps them to understand the nature and causes of phenomena that concern them.
This is seen in Sherif’s (1966b) research on how competition can negatively affect intergroup relations.
As another example, applied social psychologists who are interested in reducing bullying among schoolchildren (see Chapter 9) may investigate the correlates or causes of such antisocial behavior with a view toward using the results feature research to develop effective intervention strategies.
However, it is often the case that they will draw on knowledge accumulated by other researchers who may or may not be interested in the direct application of research findings.
That is, many social psychologists are very interested in conducting research that will enhance our understanding of social problems but in their own work do not address how that understanding can be applied.
Regardless of the origin of the research evidence, interventions that applied social psychologists are involved in developing, such as bullying reduction strategies, will have solid scientific bases to them.
Q 2 Explain the application of social psychology to consumer behaviour.
ANS: The Social Psychology of Consumer Behavior brings together the most promising and theoretically fruitful research developments by internationally renowned scholars, whose work is at the cutting edge of research. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Experts from both fields – social psychology and consumer behavior – provide an informed, up-to-date overview, from an original integrative perspective.
The aim of this volume is two-fold On the one hand, the application of social psychology to consumer behavior is meant to broaden the horizon of social psychologists.
On the other hand, students and researchers of consumer behavior will be offered an advanced account of relevant theories tailored to their interests.
While the range of topics is rather broad – including the construal of judgments and decisions, affective and cognitive feelings, social and media influences, and goals and self-regulation each chapter is focused on one specific theoretical or methodological perspective and thereby gives a comprehensive and penetrative account of the relevant issues and the respective research.
The volume provides an invaluable resource to students, researchers, and instructors in social psychology, consumer psychology, consumer behavior, and marketing.
The application of social psychology is now gaining momentum in the contemporary world.
Many of the modern social psychologists are currently working in hospitals, government offices, business organizations and other semi-academic and non-academic institutions to assess, control and predict human behaviour under different settings and solve social problems.
In view of the applied bias attached to social psychology today Rodin (1985) has defined social psychology as the utilization of social psychological principles and research methods in real world settings in the attempt to solve social problems.
Social psychology has in a major way concentrated its attention on the following areas.
Role of social psychology in legal system, Health psychology, Psychology in work setting i.e., organizational behavior, Consumer behaviour, Solution of social problems, Social psychology in education, Social psychology in crime and delinquency, Social psychology in community and national affairs, Social psychology in military etc.
The behaviour of the individual in advertising, product information, packaging, brand names and all other factors involved in marketing products and services come under applied social psychology. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Consumer psychology is that field which deals with the factors affecting consumer behaviour (Betlman, 1986).
All these discussions lead one to conclude that application of social psychology to organizational and consumer behaviour is of crucial importance in every aspect of one’s life.
It would really be difficult to conceive any human behaviour where the findings of social psychology would be inapplicable and irrelevant.
The science of social psychology as an applied science contributes a lot indealing with the problems of national and international tension, communal and social prejudice, discrimination, and conflicts relating to socio-economic status in uncovering the relevant causes of these problems in specific situations.
The concrete details of various problems of social psychology are to be known for applying social psychology to the concrete situation.
For all these work, careful research on applied social psychology is essential.
The various problems of social psychology change from time to time and form culture to culture and even to some extent in the same culture depending upon the parental and neighbourhood and inter personal problems influence various social problems which are also studied by applied social psychologists.
However, it is reasonable to hold that the findings of social psychological research with certain exceptions can bewidely generalizable and potentially useful to all human beings of the society provided they have an applied bias. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Only formulating theories and principles on social psychology is not enough.
Q 3 What is action research? Discuss ethical issues in psychological research.
ANS: Kurt Lewin’s approach of Action Research is a research method in which the researcher intervenes in and during the research.
This serves two purposes: firstly, according to Kurt Lewin, it will bring about positive change and secondly knowledge and theory will be generated.
The term was first suggested by Kurt Lewin as described.
He described action research as ‘a comparative research on the conditions and effects of various forms of social action and research leading to social action that uses ‘a spiral of steps, cach of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action’.
Ethical Issues in Psychological Research :
Ethics states the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. Some of the ethical issues that researcher needs to follow are:
Deception: It is temporary withholding of information about a study from participants. The researcher should neglect misleading subjects about the nature of the research unless there is no substitute-and even then this would need to be judged, acceptable by an independent expert.
Informed Consent: A principle requiring that research participants be provided with information about all events and procedures a study will involve before they agree to participate in it. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Participating must be given information relating to:
Participation of subject is voluntary and that refusal to participate will not result in any consequences or any loss of benefits that the person is otherwise entitled to receive.
Purpose of the research
Procedures involved in the research
Duration of time the subject is expected to participate
Debriefing: Providing research participants with full information about all aspects of a study after they have participated in it. The objective of the debriefing is to eradicate any misconceptions and anxieties that the participants have about the research and to leave them with a sense of dignity, knowledge, and a perception of time not wasted.
Research with animals: Researcher should make sure no animals are hurt or killed while conducting any sort of research.
Confidentiality: Participants, and the data gained from them must be kept hidden unless they give their full consent. Names will be kept confidential.
Protection of participants: Researcher must ensure that those taking part in research will not be caused distress. They must be protected from physical and mental harm. This means we must not embarrass, frighten, offend or harm participants.
Q 4 Describe intervention and deiscuss its design and implementation.
ANS: An intervention is an orchestrated attempt by one or many people – usually family and friends – to get someone to seek professional help with an addiction or some kind of traumatic event or crisis, or other serious problem.
Intervention can also refer to the act of using a similar technique within a therapy session.
Interventions have been used to address serious personal problems, including alcoholism, compulsive gambling, drug abuse, compulsive eating and other eating disorders, self harm and being the victim of abuse. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Interventions are either direct, typically involving a confrontational meeting with individual in question, or indirect, involving work with a co-dependent family to encourage them to be more effective in helping the individual.
Plans for an intervention are made by a concerned group of family, friends, and counselor(s), rather than by the drug or alcohol abuser.
Whether it is invitation model or direct model, the abuser is not included in the decision making process for planning the intervention.
A properly conducted direct intervention is planned through cooperation between the identified abuser’s family or friends and an intervention counselor, coordinator, or educator.
It is important to perform the intervention in an open, large space so as to reassure the abuser that they are not trapped or cornered.
Ample time must be given to the specific situation, however, basic guidelines can be followed in the intervention planning process.
(An intervention can also be conducted in the workplace with colleagues and with no family present.) There are questions about the long-term effectiveness of interventions for those addicted to drugs or alcohol. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
A study examining addicts who had undergone a standard intervention (called the Johnson Intervention) found that they had a higher relapse rate than any other method of referral to outpatient Alcohol and Other Drug treatment.
Q 5 Define community and explain its categories.
ANS: A community is a group of people that live at the same place and share some common characteristics.
There are many types of communities that we are going to discuss in detail, but first, let us look at the standard features of a community.
According to sociology, a community is a set of meaningful social connections within a group.
The size of the group may vary, but all the members have something in common. Communities are social.
It consists of a web of relationships operating within certain boundaries that are shared and agreed among its members either implicitly or explicitly.
Each community is characterized by established traditions and particular patterns of behavior which can be implied or even defined.
Some bond is shared among the members such as geographical area, background, experiences, etc.
Rural community:- Types of Community The rural community can be characterized as a natural phenomenon. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Every society has a rural community, no matter how distinct their culture or pattern of social life is.
People who have extreme similarities in objectives and ambitions of living, shape up a community that is a product of natural, free will.
Sub-urban Types of Community :- Suburban communities are often perceived as intermediate to rural and urban communities.
That is why it is known as “suburban.” They are more abundant in population as compared to the rural community and less in number relative to an urban community.
Such communities are often outlying a larger city. They have limited resources and little political autonomy.
Urban community:- An urban community is often perceived as the opposite of a rural community.
The lifestyle of an urban community is highly impersonal, complex, and heterogeneous in their identities and lifestyle.
Q 6 Explain the influence of media on political behaviour.
ANS: Research shows that social media can have a minor but still significant influence on voter behavior. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
Social media has improved information flows, outreach, mobilization, and fundraising; however, it has also increased surveillance, political polarization, the spread of misinformation, and harassment
Each aspect of social media’s influence on politics is the subject of ongoing research and debate in political science.
At the same time, policymakers are increasingly scrutinizing social media platforms, particularly in the domains of data privacy, innovation, and the spread of misinformation.
Social media has big implications for advocates of social causes too as the platforms provide an innovative way to spread messages.
An often overlooked aspect of social media’s impact on politics, however, is that communities across the world have formed different relationships with these platforms.
The new media is a double-edged sword for politics, giving space to some while making others targets. The media is sometimes accused of adding to the cynicism surrounding UK politics and politicians. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
The tabloid press, for example, focuses more on political scandals and allegations of incompetence and failure (perhaps due to commercial pressures).
As a result of the increasing role of the media, there is now an emphasis amongst politicians in dealing with this, which in itself may have contributed to the negative perception of politics and politicians.
Politicians now receive extensive media training, which has led to the impression of them avoiding answering questions properly, delivering meaningless soundbites, only appearing at careful stage-managed events, and generally appearing less like ‘real people’.
The emphasis on ‘spin’- the biased or distorted presentation of information in the media- also creates the impression that politicians are less trustworthy.
Q 7 Elucidate teams in the context of sports.
ANS: Teams are formed when individuals with a common taste, preference, liking, and attitude come and work together for a common goal.
Teams play a very important role in organizations as well as our personal lives. “Coming together is a beginning. Keeping together is progress. Working together is successHenry Ford” BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
The above proverb by Henry Ford can very well highlight the importance of working together in teams.
Team sports are essential for more than just the physical benefits gained from participating. Exercise is always critical at any age, but what about the mental and social benefits gained in team sports?
Studies on team sports have shown that athletes tend to have higher graduation rates than non-athletes and also tend to be more emotionally stable and able to calm themselves down faster than non-athletes.
Team sport athletes have a rotating door of new participants and must acclimate themselves regularly.
Whether you’re participating on a high school, college, or professional team, there is a constant annual influx of new players. Seniors graduate high school, which forces newer players on to the team.
In professional sports like Major League Baseball, contracts expire, and players change teams regularly. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
It’s gotten to thc point in professional sports that a player rarely starts and ends their career with the same team.
Q 8 Discuss the application of social psychology to promoting health and healthy behaviours.
ANS: Applied social psychology and more specifically, health psychology seek to answer these questions and apply psychological theories and knowledge to promote healthy behaviors.
One of the main theories used to help communities and find solutions is the health belief model.
Social psychology is the study of human experience within social contexts.
That is, how the people around us impact our thoughts, feelingswand behaviors Social psychology can look at large groups, like society as a whole, or at small groups, like a single family or group of friends.
As Julia’s friend told her, social psychology research relates to pretty much every aspe life, including health and law.
To help Julia understand better, let’s look at how social psychology can be applied to the health services and legal professions. BPCC 110 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 109 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT