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BPCC 109

DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY

BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment One

Q 1 Give an overview of developmental changes across lifespan stages.

ANS: As you might imagine, developmental psychologists often break down development according to various phases of life. Each of these periods of development represents a time when different milestones are typically achieved.

People may face particular challenges at each point, and developmental psychologists can often help people who might be struggling with problems to get back on track.

Prenatal :

The prenatal period is of interest to developmental psychologists who seek to understand how the earliest influences on development can impact later growth during childhood.

Psychologists may look at how primary reflexes emerge before Birth how fetuses respond to stimuli in the womb, and the sensations and perceptions that fetuses are capable of detecting prior to birth.

Developmental psychologists may also look at potential problems such as Down syndrome, maternal drug use, and inherited diseases that might have an impact on the course of future development.

Early Childhood :

The period from infancy through early childhood is a time of remarkable growth and change.

Developmental psychologists look at things such as the physical, cognitive, and emotional growth that takes place during this critical period of development.

In addition to providing interventions for potential developmental problems at this point, psychologists are also focused on helping kids achieve their full potential.

Parents and healthcare experts are often on the lookout to ensure that kids are growing properly, receiving adequate nutrition, and achieving cognitive milestones appropriate for their age. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Middle Childhood :

This period of development is marked by both physical maturation and the increased importance of social influences as children make their way through elementary school.

Kids begin to make their mark on the world as they form friendships, gain competency through schoolwork, and continue to build their unique sense of self.

Parents may seek the assistance of a developmental psychologist to help kids deal with potential problems that might arise at this age including social, emotional, and mental health issues.

Adolescence :

The teenage years are often the subject of considerable interest as children experience the psychological turmoil and transition that often accompanies this period of development.

Psychologists such as Erik Erikson were especially interested in looking at how navigating this period leads to identity formation.

At this age, kids often test limits and explore new identities as they explore the question of who they are and who they want to be.

Developmental psychologists can help support teens as they deal with some of the challenging issues unique to the adolescent period including puberty, emotional turmoil, and social pressure. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Early Adulthood :

This period of life is often marked by forming and maintaining relationships. Critical milestones during early adulthood may include forming bonds, intimacy, close friendships, and starting a family.

Those who can build and sustain such relationships tend to experience connectedness and social support while those who struggle with such relationships may be left feeling alienated and lonely.

People facing such issues might seek the assistance of a developmental psychologist in order to build healthier relationships and combat emotional difficulties.

Middle Adulthood :

This stage of life tends to center on developing a sense of purpose and contributing to society. Erikson described this as the conflict between generativity and stagnation.

Those who engage in the world, contribute things that will outlast them, and leave a mark on the next generation emerge with a sense of purpose.

Activities such as careers, families, group memberships, and community involvement are all things that can contribute to this feeling of generativity.

Older Adults : BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

The senior years are often viewed as a period of poor health, yet many older adults are capable of remaining active and busy well into their 80s and 90s.

Increased health concerns mark this period of development, and some individuals may experience mental declines related to dementia. Erikson also viewed the elder years as a time of reflection back on life.

Those who are able to look back and see a life well-lived emerge with a sense of wisdom and readiness to face the end of their lives, while those who look back with regret may be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.

Developmental psychologists may work with elderly patients to help them cope with issues related to the aging process.

BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Explain Kohlberg’s theory on moral development.

ANS: Kohlberg’s theory proposes that there are three levels of moral development, with each level split into two stages. Kohlberg suggested that people move through these stages in a fixed order, and that moral understanding is linked to cognitive development.

The three levels of moral reasoning include pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Level 1 – Preconventional morality

Preconventional morality is the first stage of moral development, and lasts until approximately age 9.

At the pre-conventional level children don’t have a personal code of morality, and instead moral decisions are shaped by the standards of adults and the consequences of following or breaking their rules.

For example, if an action leads to punishment is must be bad, and if it leads to a reward is must be good.

Authority is outside the individual and children often make moral decisions based on the physical consequences of actions.

Stage 1. Obedience and Punishment Orientation. The child/individual is good in order to avoid being punished. If a person is punished, they must have done wrong.

Stage 2. Individualism and Exchange. At this stage, children recognize that there is not just one right view that is handed down by the authorities. Different individuals have different viewpoints. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Level 2 – Conventional morality

Conventional morality is the second stage of moral development, and is characterized by an acceptance of social rules concerning right and wrong.

At the conventional level (most adolescents and adults), we begin to internalize the moral standards of valued adult role models.

Authority is internalized but not questioned, and reasoning is based on the norms of the group to which the person belongs.

A social system that stresses the responsibilities of relationships as well as social order is seen as desirable and must, therefore, influence our view of what is right and wrong.

Stage 3. Good Interpersonal Relationships. The child/individual is good in order to be seen as being a good person by others. Therefore answe relate to the approval of others.

Stage 4. Maintaining the Social Order. The child/individual becomes aware of the wider rules of society, so judgments concern obeying the rules in order to uphold the law and to avoid guilt. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Level 3 – Postconventional morality

Postconventional morality is the third stage of moral development, and is characterized by an individuals’ understanding of universal ethical principles.

These are abstract and ill-defined, but might include: the preservation of life at all costs, and the importance of human dignity.

Individual judgment is based on self-chosen principles, and moral reasoning is based on individual rights and justice. According to Kohlberg this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get.

Only 10-15% are capable of the kind of abstract thinking necessary for stage 5 or 6 (postconventional morality).

That is to say, most people take their moral views from those around them and only a minority think through ethical principles for themselves.

• Stage 5. Social Contract and Individual Rights. The child/individual becomes aware that while rules/laws might exist for the good of the greatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest of particular individuals.

The issues are not always clear-cut. For example, in Heinz’s dilemma, the protection of life is more important than breaking the law againshstealinge.net

• Stage 6. Universal Principles. People at this stage have developed their own set of moral guidelines which may or may not fit the law. The principles apply to everyone.

E.g., human rights, justice, and equality. The person will be prepared to act to defend these principles even if it means going against the rest of society in the process and having to pay the consequences of disapproval and or imprisonment.

Kohlberg doubted few people reached this stage. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

                                Assignment Two

Q 3. Growth and Development

ANS: We have often heard our parents saying, ‘this is important for your growth.’ Many advertisements on television usually try to guide us as to what is important for our growth over the years, i.e., what we must eat, drink or play for better growth.

Now, we are always confused between growth and development. In schools, we are taught that growth and development are essential for a child.

But what do growth and development mean? We must not confuse ourselves between these two terms.

Growth

Growth can be defined as the development of a person in age, height, weight, habits, etc. In biology, growth is considered as an increase in the size of an organ or cell.

Growth can be called as the fundamental function of the body. In terms of plants, the growth is indefinite. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

The seed or sapling grows to be an adult plant wherein the growth is indefinite, i.e., we might not know from where the plant is growing and where it is going to reach.

Development

On the other hand, development is defined as the growth process wherein a person develops in relation to physical, environmental, and social factors.

Development can have several meanings. In terms of children, the development of a child depends upon several factors like physical, nutritional, genetic, and environmental.

Now, what are the points of contrast between growth and development? Let us look at some crucial points.

GROWTHDEVELOPMENT
. Growth is defined as the development of a person in weight, age, size, and
habits.
. On the other hand, development is defined as the process wherein a person’s growth is visible in relation to the physical, environmental, and social factors.
. Growth is a process that focuses on quantitative improvement. For instance, a child visibly grows in weight and height. Development focuses on both qualitative and quantitative refinement. For instance, a child’s IQ increases with the growing age.
. Growth is limited to a certain level, i.e., a person’s height grows till a
certain age.
. On the other hand, a person is developing every single day in terms of his/her habits, maturity level, IQ. etc.
. Growth depends upon the cellular changes, i.e., a child grows into an adult. The child undergoes many changes throughout his/her childhood to adulthood.. Development is basically dependent upon organizational growth, i.e., the environment in which a child lives or studies affect them immensely. The skill-set of a child changes in such an environment. For instance, a child develops reading habits or acquires an interest in the abacus.
. Growth can be considered as physical growth that is seen from one stage to another.. On the other hand, development is considered as a gradual change in skill-sets, behaviour, habits, etc.
. Growth is an external process.. Development is an internal process.
. Growth changes the physical changes of a person. On the other hand, development changes the character of a person.
. Growth is limited, i.e., it happens till a particular point in time. Development takes place throughout life, i.e., it doesn’t depend upon time or age.
. Growth focuses on only one aspect,i.e., an increase in the child’s size.. Development focuses on various aspects like interpersonal skills, intelligence, etc.
. Growth is structural.. Development is considered as functional.
. Growth is influenced by the development. Development is not dependent upon growth.

So, these are some points of contrast between growth and development. Well, there are four types of human growth. Let us first look at them.BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Q 4 Critical evaluation of Piaget’s theory on cognitive development

ANS: It is argued that one of Piaget’s main criticisms is that he underestimates children in his theory (Lourenco & Machado, 1996).

Donaldson argued that most preschool children are capable of solving problems associated with operational thought if they were given help and was very critical of Piaget’s experimental methodology as situations weren’t presented as optimal and helpful as they could have, not showing us the child’s true potential (Sutherland, 1992).

Though it proves higher competency in children than previously thought by Piaget (see Donaldson, 1978 and Grieve And haghes 1990,

the studies that try to demonstrate operational thought on preoperational children haven’t brought any evidence that these competencies are equivalent to the operational and the logic mathematical competencies which Piaget was interested (Lourenco & Machado, 1996).

Another criticism to Piaget’s theory is that he establishes age norms disconfirmed by data. Operational thought in pre-operational children has been shown to have controversy as it has been theorised that children develop operational thought not in one bunch, but in different areas of cognition (Sutherland, 1992).

Furthermore, the sensorimotor stage has lacked evidence on babies thinking ability (Sutherland, 1992). BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Lourenco and Machado, 1996, argued that Piaget was primarily interested in sequence of changes instead of age attainments.

Furthermore, it is argued that Piaget characterizes development negatively, however, his theory is based on the conception of development as a transition from absence to presence which is what constructivist beyond Piaget claimed.

Q 5 ‘Turning Point’ in Life Course Theory

ANS: Turning point, a key concept in the developmental life course approach, is currently understudied in the field of substance abuse, but merits further research.

A turning point often involves a particular event, experience, or awareness that results in changes in the direction of a pathway or persistent trajectory over the long-term.

The life course perspective has been applied to several areas of family inquiry in North America (particularly in the United States), as well as inter-nationally.

Although space limitations do not permit full coverage of this vast body of work, several studies are highlighted to illustrate recent applications of the approach.

In the United States, researchers have adopted this framework to investigate: men’s housework (Coltrane and Ishii-Kuntz 1992)the timing of marriage and military service (Call and Teachman 1996); BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

work history and timing of marriage (Pittman and Blanchard 1996); families, delinquency and crime (Sampson and Laub 1993) as well as many other substantive areas

Q 6 Types of play

ANS: Unoccupied Play

Unoccupied play primarily occurs in infants, from birth to three months. This is the first stage of play, and to the untrained cyc, likely docsn’t look like play at all.

Solitary (Independent) Play

Solitary play is just what it sounds like your child playing alone. This type of play is important because it teaches a child how to keep themself entertained, eventually setting the path to being self-sufficient.

Onlooker Play BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Onlooker play is when a child simply observes other children playing and doesn’t partake in the action. Your child may watch what you or other adults are doing as well.

Parallel Play

Put two 3-year-olds in a room together and this is what you are likely to see: the two children having fun, playing side by side in their own little worlds.

It doesn’t mean that they don’t like one another, they are just engaging in parallel play. This type of play begins around age two and differs from playing together in that neither child trics to influence the play of the other.

Associative Play

Slightly different from parallel play, associative play, which commonly begins between ages three or four, also features children playing separately from one another.

Q 7 Development of aggression

ANS: Preschoolers who have not successfully developed age-appropriate strategies for regulating aggressive behaviour are at high risk for engaging in chronic aggressive and antisocial behaviour. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

Aggression co-occurs with several common problems in early childhood including impulsivity, emotion dysregulation and language delays.

Exactly how these other problems interact with aggression is still under investigation. Aggression may be worsened by these cooccurring problems in some children.

In other children, deficits in these other areas of functioning may have preceded the difficulties with aggression. Defining atypical aggression during the preschool years has been controversial.

This is in part because of the fear of using labels or concepts that are developmentally inappropriate.

Aggression has been broadly defined in the developmental and abnormal psychology literature, resulting in a set of behaviours that range from typical and adaptive to atypical final adaptive. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

We now know that young children who are manifesting high levels of aggression are at high risk for continued problem behaviour and are in need of services.

Q 8 Ethological perspective on human development

ANS: As theory, ethological theory suffers from serious problems of verifiability. For example, what types of data can prove that a particular behavior ensures survival or the species?

There is also some question about generalizing from behavior patterns observed in animals to human behavior.

Moreover, while ethologists have provided many new concepts to the study of behavior and development, many of the terms–for example, critical periods and instincts–are not well-defined and are difficult to measure.

The ethological theory has helped expand the way we think about the causes of human behavior. BPCC 109 Free Solved Assignment

While other theories cited in this chapter have emphasized either the immediate causes of behavior or the effects of early experience on later development, ethological theory finds explanatishare redevelopment in the evolution of the species.

These explanations help us to understand why certain behaviors are universal, and why other behaviors vary enormously from one social context to another.

It also helps us to accept that there may be limits to our ability to change certain aspects of human behavior.

It has also heightened our awareness of the concept of readiness, warning us that while the timing may not be everything in development, it often influences the magnitude of our effects on children’s behavior and development.

BPCC 110 FREE SOLVED ASSIGNMENT 2022

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