IGNOU BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BPCC 107


BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022

Ans. Ethics refers to the correct rules of conduct necessary when carrying out research. We have a moral responsibility to protect research participants from harm.

However important the issue under investigation psychologists need to remember that they have a duty to respect the rights and dignity of research participants.

This means that they must abide by certain moral principles and rules of conduct. In Britain, ethical guidelines for research are published by the British Psychological Society and America by the American Psychological Association.

The purpose of these codes of conduct is to protect research participants, the reputation of psychology, and psychologists themselves. Moral issues rarely yield a simple, unambiguous, right or wrong answer. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

It is therefore often a matter of judgment whether the research is justified or not. For example, it might be that a study causes psychological or physical discomfort to participants, maybe they suffer pain or perhaps even come to serious harm.

On the other hand, the investigation could lead to discoveries that benefit the participants themselves or even have the potential to increase the sum of human happiness.

Rosenthal and Rosnow (1984) also talk about the potential costs of failing to carry out certain research. Who is to weigh up these costs and benefits? Who is to judge whether the ends justify the means?

Finally, if you are ever in doubt as to whether research is ethical or not it is worthwhile remembering that if there is a conflict of interest between the participants and the researcher it is the interests of the subjects that should take priority.

Studies must now undergo an extensive review by an institutional review board (US) or ethics committee (UK) before they are implemented.

All UK research requires ethical approval by one more of the following:

. Department Ethics Committee (DEC): for most routine research.

. Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC): for non routine research.

. External Ethics Committee (EEC): for research that is externally regulated (e.g. NHS research).BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Committees review proposals assess if the potential benefits of the research are justifiable in the light of the possible risk of physical or psychological harm.

These committees may request researchers make changes to the study’s design or procedure, or in extreme cases deny approval of the study altogether.

The British Psychological Society (BPS) and American Psychological Association (APA) have both issued a code of ethics in psychology that provides guidelines for the conduct of research.

Some of the more important ethical issues are as follows:

Informed Consent: Whenever possible investigators should obtain the consent of participants. In practice, this means it is not sufficient to simply get potential participants to say “Yes”.

They also need to know what it is that they are agreeing to. In other words, the psychologist shoulu, so far as is practicable explain what is involved in advance and obtain the informed consent of participants.

Before the study begins the researcher must outline to the participants what the research is about, and then ask their consent (i.e. permission) to take part.

An adult (18ys +) capable of giving permission to participate in a study can provide consent. Parents/legal guardians of minors can also provide consent to allow their children to participate in a study. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

However, it is not always possible to gain informed consent. Where it is impossible for the researcher to ask the actual participants, a similar group of people can be asked how they would feel about taking part.

If they think it would be OK then it can be assumed that the real participants will also find it acceptable.

This is known as presumptive consent. However, a problem with this method is that there might there be a mismatch between how people think they would feel/behave and how they actually feel and behave during a study?

In order that consent be ‘informed’, consent forms may need to be accompanied by an information sheet for participants setting out information about the proposed study (in lay terms) along with details about the investigators and how they can be contacted.

BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Q2. Explain the various facets of conformity, compliance and obedience.

Ans. Two aspects that are important in group behavior are conformity and compliance. Bow.. conformity and compliance are prevalent in all types of groups, but first is important to point out the differences between these two types of behavior.

Conformity within a group entails members changing their attitudes and beliefs in order to match those of others within the group. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Those that conform tend to be obedient and compliant. In order to conform, the group member must attribute someone as having the legitimacy and credibility to lead or influence the group’s behavior.

Without this “leader”, conformity toward the group’s goals will be less prevalent. If a member of the group fails to conform to the groups needs, he/she would lose credibility with the rest of the group.

The concept of compliance is similar to conformity, yet slightly different. For compliance to occur within groups, one must adapt his/her actions to another’s wishes or rules.

A person that conforms must have a disposition that allows him/her to yield to others. Requests for and acts of compliance occur in everyone’s lives. Simply asking someone to perform a task is a request for compliance.

The most effective method to gain compliance is through rational persuasion and inspiration.

Although this person is asking another to perform a task, he/she is not asking the person to agree or disagree with the task in question.

The person requesting the performance of the task is not necessarily attempting to change the other’s beliefs, but simply needs or wants the task to be performed. This notion is what sets conformity and compliance apart. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

The central aspect of conformity is that the person being influenced by the group change his/her attitudes and/or beliefs while the main point of compliance is the achievement of some specified task.

Research on the topic of conformity began in 1951, when Solomon Asch performed a series renowned studies.

In his studies, Asch used groups of seven to nine people who were told they we participating in a study on visual perception.

These subjects were asked to match the length of a standard line to three comparison lines. One would think that this would be a relatively easy

exercise, but Asch’s groups only contained one real subject. The rest of the group was made up of confederates who were instructed to unanimously give incorrect responses in some trials.

The results of this experiment found that the control group made errors only five percent of the time. Those exposed to the incorrect responses conformed to these answers 33% of the time, with 75% of these subjects conforming at least once.

This shows how easily it is to make a person conform in a group situation. The Michigan Militia Corps is a group in the state of Michigan, which is self-described as an unorganized militia. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

The militia has a number of requirements with which it members must comply. Among these requirements are abiding by MMC rules and regulations, agreeing to a background check, and completing a one year probationary period.

Also, the MMC requires that their members regularly attend meetings and engage in various types of military training.

Although this is the case all members do not go through the same training as some are not willing and able. Another reason for this is that all members do not serve the same roles within the organization.

But should a member opt not to comply with these rules and regulations, he or she would lose credibility within the group and risk expulsion.

The notion of compliance is essential within military type operations and training. It is essential for soldiers to carry out their commanding officer’s orders quickly and efficiently.

A soldier is not asked to agree with the orders in question but is simply asked to comply without question.

If this was not the case in a military group, the objectives of the group might not be carried out as quickly, or at all. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

This hesitation could also put the lives of the group and other in jeopardy. Obedience and Cults: Obedience is the act of following orders without question because they come from a legitimate authority.

There are many legitimate authorities in a person’s life from their parents to teachers at school and even spiritual leaders. Most of these authority figures that have been named are given their authority by society.

We are just told to follow what they tell you to do. In other words we are obedient to these people.

Every person at some time in their life has followed a superior without questioning why they are doing what they are doing.

For example we never question why we take tests in school. We just take them because we are told to do so.

We never question a lot of the rules that people say in are best interest because they are usually told to us by someone that is in a position higher than we are at.

There have been two very important psychological experiments that deal with the issue of obedienc. The first was done right after World War 2 to try to find out why the Nazis may have exterminated all of the Jews. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

It was done by Stanley Milgram. The experiment involved two people one a confederate would play the part of a student trying to remember different words that they had heard the other person who was the subject played the role of a teacher and gave him the test.

He was told to shock the “student” everytime he missed a word. Milgram thought that most people wouldn’t shock another human being and especially not all the way up to deadly levels of electricity.

As the “teachers” were told to increase the dosage as they got more answers wrong.

He found out that most people would shock their fellow man in this experiment and would be obedient to all the demands made by the instructor since he was the one in a position of authority.

The other important study was the one known as the prisoner experiment. This one was performed by Zimbardo and involved taking at random college students to pretend to be either guards or prisoners in a fake jail.

The previous experiment had a person the experimenter who was easily seen as a authority figure.

Here thought both sets of students started out equally but once some became guards and others became prisoners. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

The “guards” to the “prisoners” became true authority figures so that there were obedient to them just as if they were real guards.

The students got into their roles so much that a two week experiment had to be stopped after only a few days.

From these experiments, you can see that obedience is a trait that can be seen in everybody under the right circumstances or situations. The question now is how do cults use this trait to make people more committed to their group.

Since it seems that the majority of people like to follow others it seems reasonable that cults give people a direction and focus that might not otherwise be there. They see their leader as a messiah type figure.

They may feel that he can lead them to salvation. Since it has been ingrained into them by society that authority figures are to be obeyed it is easy for the leader who is usually charismatic to make his followers obey without question.

[image drawn by Mick Rakauskas) One cult that we looked at was the Brethren (a.k.a. Garbage Eaters).

This cult has a charismatic leader and around 200 members all over the US. It like other cults hides behind the guise of being a religious group.

The leader Jim Roberts says that to follow his way is the only way into heaven all others that don’t follow his way of thinking will be destroyed in hell.

When you join you must change your name which leads you to help to forget your former identity and brings you closer to the group. The leader has complete control over the group from where you live to even who you marry. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

One way that he is shown to be a legitimate authority figure is by interpreting the scriptures for his followers. He does pervert the interpretations to suit his own needs.

the group if he feels that they aren’t being helpful to the group. This could be used as a way to su that God has chosen only a select few for salvation and all others must perish thus making the members feel special.

BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment Two

Q3. Self Presentation tactics.

Ans. Social media are applications that enable people to interact with each other and build social networks that increase social capital (Barnes, 2008).

Kaplan and Haenlein (2010) defined social media more theoretically as “a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0,

which allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content” (p. 64). Spannerworks (2007) gave a similar working definition of social media as new kinds of online media that share most or all of the characteristics of participation, openness, conversation, community and connectedness. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Comm (2010) suggested that the “social” part of social media means that “publishing is now about participation” (Comm, 2010, p. 3).

Those who use social media sufficiently create not only content, but also conversations, and those conversations combine further to create communities (Comm, 2010).

Results from focus groups among adolescents in urban Chir indicated that IM, SNS, blogs, and microblogs were their four most widely used social media.

The results were absolutely in accord with the statistics reported by CNNIC showing that in 2011 and 2012, IM, blogs, microblogs, and SNS were the four most popular online communication applications among adolescents in China (CNNIC, 2012, 2013).

Therefore, the social media this study focuses on consists of IM, SNS, blogs, and microblogs.

Self-Presentation :

Goffinan (1959) was among the fust to acknowledge that individuals need to present themselves to others as acceptable person.

He described how the self-as-performer has a basic motivational core, and how people can be strategic in managing the impression they give.

Individuals wear masks, play roles and present themselves in the ways they see themselves or in the ways they desire to be seen by others (Goffinan, 1959).

They engage in complex intra-self negotiations in order to project the desired impression and maintain it through consistently performing coherent and complementary behaviors (Schlenker, 1980; Schneider, 1981).BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Gilmore and his colleagues defined impression management as “conscious or unconscious attempts to influence images during interaction” (Gilmore, Stevens, Harrell-Cook & Ferris, 1999, p. 322).

Individuals manage their impressions when they wish to present a favorable image of themselves to others (Bolino, Kacmar, Turnley & Gilstrap, 2008).

Thus, the concept of impression management is based on die assumption that individuals have an inherent need to be accepted and included, and therefore act accordingly (Leary, 1996).

Self-presentation serves the goal of impression management (Goffinan, 1959). Therefore these two concepts are inseparable and interchangeable (Tedeschi & Riess, 1981).

Jones and Pictman (1982) proposed that individuals typically use five self-presentation tactics: self-promotion, ingratiation, supplication, intimidation and exemplification (Jones & Pittman, 1982).

The opportunity to manage impressions has been advanced by new communication technologies (Walther, 1993).

In the Internet era, people can make and remake themselves, choosing the details of their online impression (Mnookin, 1996). Adolescents now can manage the impression they make through social media in in any ways.BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

These impression management opportunities come with the visual anonymity of the social media, providing users much greater degree of freedom (Joinson, 2003).

People can manipulate various characteristics online to present Jiemselves as more bounteous, more friendly, or more likable than in daily life (Chester, 2004).

Dominick (1999) found that tale five impression management tactics proposed by Jones and Pittman (1982) in offline communication extended to the online setting of personal home pages.

One feature diar distinguishes online self-presentation from self-presentation in daily life lies in the full control users have over their published information, allowing the self-presentation to be more strategic (Kraner & Winter, 2008).

Online self-presentation can be based on longer and more systematic considerations than in a lively self-presentation (Leary, 1996).

Thus, users can highlight certain aspects of themselves (Marvick, 2005) or think about which photos convey the best images of dienselves (Ellison, Hennio, & Gibbs, 2006). Studies showed diat people tend to exaggerate and are not always honest when they present themselves online.

For example, “Fakesters” publish fake profile information in SNS and pretend to be more interesting and successful (Boyd, 2004).

Some individuals just switch between their “real” self and their “fake” self on SNS (Jung. Youn, & McClung, 2007).BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, users actively participate in SNS to manage their impression (Kramer & Winter, 2008). Indeed, social media provide an ideal place for self-presentation. In IM, users can manage their impression through chatting with others, trying to be more humorous, more interesting, or more knowledgeable.

They can also provide an explanation to friends. IM if they did something wrong or deliver an apology if they hurt others.

In SNS, users can manage their impression by creating personal profiles, uploading photos, writing on others’ walls, or commenting on others’ files In blogs and microblogs, users can manage their impressions through writing diaries, sharing their personal lives everywhere, or showing their care and friendliness to friends by connecting on others’ blogs of microblogs.

Supilar to Jones and Pitunan (1982), Jung. Youn and McClung (2007) discussed four self-presentation tactics in blogs:

1) demonstration of competence revealing that de bloggers showed their abilities, performance, and qualifications indirectly;

2) supplication indicating that the bloggers deprecated Uiemselves indirectly and showed weakness to others.

(3) exemplification showing that the bloggers tend to be self-disciplined and devoted to others; and BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

4) ingratiation demonstrating that die bloggers showed humor and familiarity in the blogs.

Rosenberg (2009) also studied the management of online impressions, and identified four self-presentation tactics used in Facebook: manipulation, damage control, self-promotion, and role model.

Many other features might also contribute to online self-presentation in social media.

For example, more friends presented on one’s profile leads to a positive evaluation, popularity and pleasantness were greater when profiling owners bad a larger number of linked friends (Kleck Reese, Behnken, and Sundar, 2007).

Q4. Agents of Enculturation.

Ans. Enculturation agents are individuals and institutions that serve a role in shaping individual adaptions to a specific culture to better ensure growth and effectiveness.

Parents and caretakers are primary enculturation agent for their young. Psychologists have attempted to answer questions about the influences on parents and understand why parents behave the way they do.

Because parents are critical to a child’s development, a great deal of research has been focused on the impact that parents have on children.

Parenting is a complex process in which parents and children influence one another. There are many reasons that parents behave the way they do.

The multiple influences on parenting are still being explored. Both caretakers and their children bring unique personality traits, characteristics, and habits to the parent-child dynamic that ultimately impacts the child’s development.

Culture also influences parenting behaviors in fundamental ways. Although promoting the development of skills necessary to function effectively in one’s community is a universal goal of parenting, the specific skills necessary vary widely from culture to culture.

Parents have different goals for their children that partially depend on their culture (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2008) BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Differences in caretaking reflect differences in parenting goals, values, resources, and experiences.

As previously stated, culture is learned. Regardless of the specific choices parents make, it can be said that caretakers play a pivotal role in exposing a child to early cultural learning.

In fact, many researchers believe that parents/caretakers serve as the single, most important enculturation agent in any child’s life.

While some parenting priorities are culturally universal (parents are expected to play a role in nurturing and raising their young), many more childrearing values and habits are culture-specific

culture-specific influences on caretaking choices can be subtle or overt, and promote a narrative of what parents “ought” to do in order to successfully raise their children.

For example, American parents are encouraged to enculturate a sense of independence and assertiveness in children, while Japanese parents prioritize self-control, emotional maturity, and interdependence (Bornstein, 2012).

Undoubtedly, every society places expectations on caretakers as enculturation agents to raise their young in ways that promote culture-specific goals and expectations.

Q5. Types of schema.

Ans. Types of schemas: Schemas act as filters, accentuating and downplaying various elements. There are four basic types of schemas that help to understand and interpret the world around us. They are:
• Role schema
• Object schema
• Self-schema BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment
• Event schema

Role schema is norms and expected behavior from people with a specific role in society. It includes both achieved roles and ascribed roles. Achieved roles encompass both occupation and professions, such as a doctor or teacher.

Ascribed roles include social categories, such as age, gender, and race. These categories are often referred to as stereotypes.

The person belonging to specific stereotypes is expected to behave in a certain way that fits into the schema. Stereotypes about people could affect one’s behavior towards them.

Object schema helps to interpret inanimate objects. It informs one’s understanding of what various objects are, how they should function, and what one can expect from them.

For example, one’s understanding of how to use a pen, open a door, start a car.

Self-schema is described as knowledge one accumulates about themselves by interacting with the natural world and human beings around them. Self-schema about oneself are grounded in the present and based on past experiences.

Memories are framed in the light of one’s self-conception. They are expectations about the self that organize and guide the processing of self-relevant information.

They continue to develop throughout life, supporting the lifespan developmental perspective.

Event schema is commonly referred to as cognitive scripts that describe behavioral and event sequences in daily activities. They provide the basis for anticipating the future, setting goals, and making plans. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

For example, the appropriate behavior sequence to eat at a restaurant is to enter the restaurant, wait to be seated, look and order from the menu, pay the bill, and then leave.

Q 6. Theories of attribution.

Ans. Attribution theory is concerned with how ordinary people explain the causes of behavior and events.

For example, is someone angry because they are bad-tempered or because something bad happened? A formal definition is provided by Fiske and Taylor (1991, p. 23):

“Attribution theory deals with how the social perceiver uses information to arrive at caus explanations for events. It examines what information is gathered and how it is combined to form a causal judgment”.

Heider (1958) believed that people are naive psychologists trying to make sense of the social world.

People tend to see cause and effect relationships, even where there is none! Heider didn’t so much develop a theory himself as emphasize certain themes that others took up.

There were two main ideas that he put forward that became influential: dispositional (internal cause) vs situational (external cause) attributions.

Q 7. Types of communication.

Ans. Verbal Communication: Verbal communication occurs when we engage in speaking with others. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

It can be face-to-face, over the telephone, via Skype or Zoom, etc. Some verbal engagements are informal, such as chatting with a friend over coffee or in the office kitchen, while others are more formal, such as a scheduled meeting.

Regardless of the type, it is not just about the words, it is also about the caliber and complexity of those words, how we string those words together to create an overarching message, as well as the intonation (pitch, tone, cadence, etc.) used while speaking.

And when occurring face-to-face, while the words are important, they cannot be separated from no verbal communication.

Non-Verbal Communication: What we do while we speak often says more than the actual words. Non-verbal communication includes facial expressions, posture, eye contact, hand movements, and touch.

For example, if you’re engaged in a conversation with your boss about your cost-saving idea, it is important to pay attention to both their words and their non-verbal communication.

Your boss might be in agreement with your idea verbally, but their nonverbal cues: avoiding eye contact, sighing, scrunched up face, etc. indicate something different.

Written Communication: Whether it is an email, a memo, a report, a Facebook post, a Tweet, a contract, etc. all forms of written communication have the same goal to disseminate information in a clear and concise manner – though that objective is often not achieved.

In fact, poor writing skills often lead to confusion and embarrassment, and even potential legal jeopardy.BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

One important thing to remember about written communication, especially in the digital age, is the message lives on, perhaps in perpetuity.

Thus, there are two things to remember: first, write well – poorly constructed sentences and careless errors make you look bad; and second, ensure the content of the message is something you want to promote or be associated with for the long haul.

Listening: The act of listening does not often make its way onto the list of types of communication.

Active listening, however, is perhaps one of the most important types of communication because if we cannot listen to the person sitting across from us, we cannot effectively engage with them.

Think about a negotiation – part of the process is to assess what the opposition wants and needs. Without listening, it is impossible to assess that, which makes it difficult to achieve a win/win outcome.

Visual Communication: We are a visual society. Think about it, televisions are running 24/7, visual with memes, videos, images, etc., Instagram is an image-only platform, and advertisers use imagery to sell products and ideas.

Think about from a personal perspective – the images we post on social media are meant to convey meaning – to communicate a message.

In some cases that message might be, look at me, I’m in Italy or I just won an award. Others are carefully curated to tug on our heartstrings – injured animals, crying children, etc.

Q8. Types of leadership.

Ans. Types of Leadership Styles
• Democratic Leadership

• Autocratic Leadership BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

• Laissez-Faire Leadership

• Strategic Leadership

• Transformational Leadership

• Transactional Leadership

• Coach-Style Leadership
Bureaucratic Leadership

Democratic Leadership

Commonly Effective:
Democratic leadership is exactly what it sounds like – the leader makes decisions based on the input of each team member. Although he or she makes the final call, each employee has an equal say on a project’s direction.

Democratic leadership is one of the most effective leadership styles because it allows lower-level employees to exercise authority they’ll need to use wisely in future positions they might hold.

It also resembles how decisions can be made in company board meetings. For example, in a company board meeting, a democratic leader might give the team a few decision related options.

They could then open a discussion about each option. After a discussion, this leader might take the board’s thoughts and feedback into consideration, or they might open this decision up to a vote. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Autocratic Leadership
Rarely Effective: Autocratic leadership is the inverse of democratic leadership. In this leadership style, the leader makes decisions without taking input from anyone who reports to them.

Employe. are neither considered nor consulted prior to a change in direction, and are expected to adhere to the decision at a time and pace stipulated by the leader.

An example of this could be when a manager changes the hours of work shifts for multiple employees without consulting anyone – especially the affected employees.

Frankly, this leadership style stinks. Most organizations today can’t sustain such a hegemonic culture without losing employees.

It’s best to keep leadership more open to the intellect and perspective of the rest of the team.

Laissez-Faire Leadership
Sometimes Effective: If you remember your high-school French, you’ll accurately assume that laissez-faire leadership is the least intrusive form of leadership.

The French term “laissez-faire” literally translates to “let them do,” and leaders who embrace it afford nearly all authority to their employees.

In a young startup, for example, you might see a laissez-faire company founder who makes no major office policies around work hours or deadlines.

They might put full trust into their employees when they focus on the overall workings of running the company. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Although laissez-faire leadership can empower employees by trusting them to work however they’d like, it can limit their development and overlook critical company growth opportunities.

Therefore, it’s important that this leadership style is kept in check.

Strategic Leadership
Commonly Effective: Strategic leaders sit at the intersection between a company’s main operations and its growth opportunities.

He or she accepts the burden of executive interests while ensuring that current working conditions remain stable for everyone else.

This is a desirable leadership style in many companies because strategic thinking supports multiple types of employees at once.

However, leaders who operate this way can set a dangerous precedent with respect to how many people they can support at once, and what the best direction for the company really is if everyone is getting their way at all times.BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

Transformational Leadership
Sometimes Effective: Transformational leadership is always “transforming” and improving upon the company’s conventions.

Employees might have a basic set of tasks and goals that they complete every week or month, but the leader is constantly pushing them outside of their comfort zone.

When starting a job with this type of leader, all employees might get a list of goals to reach, as well deadlines for reaching them.

While the goals might seem simple at first, this manager might pick up the pace of deadlines or give you more and more challenging goals as you grow with the company.

This is a highly encouraged form of leadership among growth-minded companies because it motivates employees to see what they’re capable of.

But transformational leaders can risk losing sight of everyone’s individual learning curves if direct reports don’t receive the right coaching to guide them through new responsibilities.

Transactional Leadership
Sometimes Effective: Transactional leaders are fairly common today. These managers reward their employees for precisely the work they do.

A marketing team that receives a scheduled bonus for helping generate a certain number of leads by the end of the quarter is a common example of transactional leadership.

When starting a job with a transactional boss, you might receive an incentive plan that motivates you to quickly master your regular job duties.

For example, if you work in marketing, you might receive a bonus for sending 10 marketing emails. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

On the other hand, a transformational leader might only offer you a bonus if your work results in a large number of newsletter subscriptions.

Transactional leadership helps establish roles and responsibilities for each employee, but it can also encourage bare-minimum work if employees know how much their effort is worth all the time.

This leadership style can use incentive programs to motivate employees, but they should be consistent with the company’s goals and used in addition to unscheduled gestures of appreciation.

Coach-Style Leadership
Commonly Effective: Similarly to a sports team’s coach, this leader focuses on identifying and nurturing the individual strengths of each member on his or her team.

They also focus on strategies that will enable their team to work better together. This style offers strong similarities to strategic democratic leadership, but puts more emphasis on the growth and success of individual employees.

Rather than forcing all employees to focus on similar skills and goals, this leader might build a team where each employee has an area of expertise or skillset in something different.

In the long run, this leader focuses on creating strong teams that can communicate well and embrace each other’s unique skillsets in order to get work done.

A manager with this leadership style might help employees improve on their strengths by giving them new tasks to try, offering them guidance, or meeting to discuss constructive feedback. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

They might also encourage one or more team members to expand on their strengths by learning new skills from other teammates.

Bureaucratic Leadership
Rarely Effective: Bureaucratic leaders go by the books. This style of leadership might listen and consider the input of employees – unlike autocratic leadership – but the leader tends to reject an employee’s input if it conflicts with company policy or past practices.

You may run into a bureaucratic leader at a larger, older, or traditional company. At these companies,when a colleague or employee proposes a strong strategy that seems new or non-traditional, bureaucratic leaders may reject it.

Their resistance might be because the company has already successful with current processes and trying something new could waste time or resources if it doesn’t work.

Employees under this leadership style might not feel as controlled as they would under autocratic leadership, but there is still a lack of freedom in how much people are able to do in their roles. BPCC 107 Free Solved Assignment

This can quickly shut down innovation, and is definitely not encouraged for companies who are chasing ambitious goals and quick growth.




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