BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q1. Explain neuroimaging techniques and neuropsychological assessment in the study of biopsychology.
Ans. Within the first 30 years of this century, patients with various forms of brain damage began to be evaluated with test instruments designed to assess “mental abilities” (Anastasi, 1988).
In 1935 Ward Halstead began his systematic research in brain-behavior relationships which, in turn, led one of his students, Ralph Reitan, to initiate his clinical research and standardization of tests designed specifically to evaluate brain function through behavior (Reitan & Wolfson, 1985).
During this period, the typical methodology in defining “brain dama 1″ or “organic” grains under investigation was to take cases with objective physical exam criteria paralysis on one side of the body following a stroke or head injury, specific type of EEG abnormality, etc.) or patients who had been operated on neurosurgically wherein the brain could be directly inspected (see review by Bigler, Yeo, & Turkheimer, 1989).
The obvious limitations of such methodologies lie with their inability to specifically quantify exact areas/regions of structural brain damage. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
What this fostered early in this century and through the decades up until the 1970s was a unitary concept of “brain damage” or “organicity” (see Bigler & Erfurth, 1983).
During this era this conceptualization of “brain injury” resulted in a clear lack of precision in defining independent variables (IV) for the study of brain-behavior relationships in humans.
This restriction in what could be defined as the classification of brain injury was due to the lack of any standardized in vivo method to quantify structural brain damage.
For example, in 1964 Reitan stated: Even though a surgeon’s instruments may impose themselves upon the situation in one way or another, the underlying condition of pathology is inevitably difficult to describe in complete or fully accurate terms.
Consequently, many unknowns are undoubtedly present to influence the variance of psychological measurements even in the best-designed investigations.
Q2. Elucidate the concept of brain lateralization. How have the split-brain studies helped in understanding cognitive functioning?
Ans. Lateralization of brain function is the view that functions are performed by distinct regions of the brain. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
For instance, it is believed that there are different areas of the brain that are responsible for controlling language, formulating memories and making movements .
If a certain area of the brain becomes damaged, the function associated with that area will also be affected.
It contrasts with the holistic theory of the brain, that all parts of the brain are involved in the processing of thought and action.
The human brain is split into two hemispheres, right and left. They are both joined together by the corpus callosum, a bundle of nerve fibres which is located in the middle of the brain.
The brain contains cortices such as the visual, motor, and somatosensory cortices. These cortices are all contralateral, meaning that each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
For example, the motor cortex in the left hemisphere controls the muscle movements of the right arm and leg.
Likewise, damage to the right occipital lobe (responsible for vision) can result in loss of sight in the left field of vision.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
In the 1950s and 1960s, Roger Sperry performed experiments on cats, monkeys, and humans to study functional differences between the two hemispheres of the brain in the United States.
To do so he studied the corpus callosum, which is a large bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain.
Sperry severed the corpus callosum in cats and monkeys to study the function of each side of the brain.
He found that if hemispheres were not connected, they functioned independently of one another, which he called a split-brain.
The split brain enabled animals to memorize double the information. Later, Sperry tested the same idea in humans with their corpus callosum severed as treatment for epilepsy, a seizure disorder.
He found that the hemispheres in human brains had different functions. The left hemisphere interpreted language but not the right.
Sperry shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1981 for his split-brain research. Sperry also studied other aspects of brain function and connections in mammals and humans, beyond split-brains, in 1940s and 1950s.
In 1963, he developed the chemo affinity hypothesis, which held that the axons, the long fiber-like process of brain cells, connected to their target organs with special chemical markers. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
This explained how complex nervous systems could develop from a set of
Sperry then also studied brain patterns in frogs, cats, monkeys, and human volunteers. Sperry performed much of his research on the split-brain at California Institute of Technology, or Caltech, in Pasadena, California, where he moved in 1954.
Sperry began his research on split-brain in late 1950s to determine the function of the corpus callosum.
He noted that humans with a severed corpus callosum did not show any significant difference in function from humans with intact corpus callosum, even though their hemispheres could not communicate due to the severing of the corpus callosum.
Sperry postulated that there should be major consequences from cutting the brain structure, as the corpus callosum connected the two hemispheres of the brain, was large, and must have an important function.
Sperry began designing experiments to document the effects of a severed corpus callosum.
At the time, he knew that each hemisphere of the brain is responsible for movement and vision on the opposite side of the body, so the right hemisphere was responsible for the left eye and vice versa. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Therefore, Sperry designed experiments in which he could carefully monitor what each eye saw and therefore what information is was going to each hemisphere.
Sperry experimented with cats, monkeys, and humans. His experiments started with split-brain cats He closed one of their eyes and presented them with two different blocks, one of which had food under it.
After that, he switched the eye patch to the other eye of the cat and put the food under the other block.
The cat memorized those events separately and could not disting with both eyes open.
Next, Sperry performed a similar experiment in monkeys, but made them use both eyes at the same time, which was possible due to special projecte brain monkeys memorized two mutually exclusive scenarios in the same time a normal monkey memorized one.
Sperry concluded that with a severed corpus callosum, the hemispheres cannot communicate and each one acts as the only brain.
Sperry moved on to human volunteers who had a severed corpus callosum. He showed a word to one of the eyes and found that split-brain people the word they saw with their right eye.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Next, Sperry showed the participants two different objects, one to their left eye only and one to their right eye only and then asked them to draw what they saw. All participants drew what they saw
with their left eye and described what they saw with their right eye. Sperry concluded that the left hemisphere of the brain could recognize and analyze speech,
while the right hemisphere could not In the 1960s when Sperry conducted his split-brain research on humans, multiple scientists were studying brain lateralization, the idea that one hemisphere of the brain is better at performing some functions than the other hemisphere.
However, researchers did not know which tasks each side of the brain was responsible for, or if each hemisphere acted independently from the other.
Sperry describes his research in cats in the article “Cerebral Organization and Behavior” published in 1961.
To test how the cutting of the corpus callosum affected mammals, Sperry cut the corpus callosum of multiple cats and had them perform some tasks that involved their vision and response to a visual stimulus. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
After severing each cat’s corpus callosum, he covered one of the cat’s eyes to monitor with which eye the cat could see sperry could switch the eye patch from one eye to the other, depending on which visual field he wanted the cat to use.
Next, Sperry showed the cats two wooden blocks with different designs, a cross and a circle. Sperry put food for the cat under one of the blocks.
He taught the cats that when they saw the blocks with one eye, for instance, the right eye, the food was under the circle block, but when they saw it with the left eye, the food was under the block with a cross.
Sperry taught the cats to differentiate between those two objects with their paws, pushing the correct wooden block away to get the food.
When Sperry removed the eye patch and the cats could see with both eyes, he performed the same experiment. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
When the cats could use both eyes, they hesitated and then chose both blocks almost equally.
The right eye connects to the left hemisphere and the left eye connects to the right only went to one hemisphere, then only that hemisphere would remember which block usually had food under it.
From that, Sperry concluded that the cats remembered two different scenarios with two different hemispheres.
He suspected that the cats technically had two different brains, as their hemispheres could not interact and acted as if the other one did not exist.
Sperry performed a similar experiment with monkeys, in which he also cut their corpus callosum. He wanted to test if both hemispheres could operate at the same time, even though they were not connected. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
That required separation of visual fields, or making sure that the right eye saw a circle, while the left eye saw a cross, like in the cat experiment, but without an eye patch and both eyes would see something at the same time instead of interchanging between the open eyes.
Sperry solved that by using two projectors that were positioned side-by-side at an angle and showed mutually exclusive images.
For example, the projector on the right showed a circle on the left and a cross on the right, while the projector on the left showed and a circle on the right.
Sperry placed special light filters in front of each of the monkey’s eyes. The light filters made it so that each eye saw the images from only one of the projectors.
That meant one of the eyes saw the circle on the right and the cross on the left, while the other eye saw the cross on the right and the circle on the left.
From his experiments with cats, Sperry knew that there was no sharing of information from right and the left hemispheres, so he made the monkeys memorize two different scenarios at the same time. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The left eye saw a scenario where food would be dispersed when the monkey pressed the button corresponding to a cross, while the right eye saw a scenario where food would be dispersed when the monkey pressed a button corresponding to a circle.
Ultimately, it was the same button, but the eyes saw it differently because of two projectors and special light filters.
Sperry concluded that both hemispheres of the brain were learning two different, reversed, problems at the same time.
He noted that the split-brain monkeys learned two problems in the time that it would take a normal monkey to learn one, which supported the assumption that the hemispheres were not communicating and each one was acting as the only brain.
That seemed as a benefit of cutting corpus callosum, and Sperry questioned whether there were drawbacks to the procedure.
Sperry performed the next set of experiments on human volunteers, who had their corpus callosum severed previously due to outside factors, such as epilepsy.
Sperry asked volunteers to perform multiple tests. From his previous experiments with cats and monkeys, Sperry knew that one,
opposite hemisphere of the brain would only analyze information from one eye and the hemispheres would not be able to communicate to each other what they saw. He asked the participants to look at a white screen with a black dot in the middle.
The black dot was the dividing point for the fields of view for a person, so the right hemisphere of the brain analyzed everything to the left of the dot and the left hemisphere of the brain analyzed everything that appeared to the right of the dot.
Next, Sperry showed the participants a word on one side of the black dot for less than a second and asked them to tell him what they saw.
When the participants saw the word with their right eye, the left hemisphere of the brain analyzed it and they were able to say what they saw.
However, if the participants saw the word with their left eye, processed by right hemisphere, they could not remember what the word was.
Sperry concluded that the left hemisphere could recognize and articulate language, while the right one could not. Sperry then tested the function of the right hemisphere.
He asked the participants of the same experiment that could not remember the word because it was in the left visual field to close their eyes and draw the object with their left hand, operated by the right hemisphere, to which he presented the word.
Most people could draw the picture of the word they saw and recognize it. Sperry also noted that if he showed the word to the same, then the person would recognize it as a word they saw, but if he showed it to the different visual fields,
then the participants would not know that they saw the word before. Sperry concluded that the left hemisphere was responsible not only for articulating language, but also for understanding and remembering it, while the right hemisphere could only recognize words, but was not able to articulate them.
That supported the previously known idea that the language center was in the left hemisphere. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
sperry performed another similar experiment in humans to further study the ability of the right hemisphere to recognize words.
During that experiment, Sperry asked volunteers to place their left hand into a box with different tools that they could not see.
After that, the participants saw a word that described one of the objects in the box in their left field of view only.
Sperry noted that most participants then picked up the needed object from the box without seeing it, but if Sperry asked them for the name of the object, they could not say it and they did not know why they were holding that object.
That led Sperry to conclude that the right hemisphere had some language recognition ability, but no speech articulation, which meant that the right hemisphere could recognize or read a word, but it could not pronounce that word, so the person would not be able to say it or know what it was.
In his last series of experiments in humans, Sperry showed one object to the right eye of the participants and another object to their left eye.
Sperry asked the volunteers to draw what they saw with their left hand only, with closed eyes.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
All the participants drew the object that they saw with their left eye, controlled by the right hemisphere, and described the object that they saw with their right eye, controlled by the left hemisphere that supported Sperry’s hypothesis that the hemispheres of brain functioned separately as two different brains and did not acknowledge the existence of the other hemisphere, as the description of the object did not match the drawing.
Sperry concluded that even though there were no apparent signs of disability in people with a severed corpus callosum, the hemispheres did not communicate, so it compromised the full function of the brain.
Sperry received the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his split-brain research. Sperry discovered that the left hemisphere of the brain was responsible for language understanding and articulation, while the right hemisphere could recognize a word, but could not articulate it.
Many researchers repeated Sperry’sf experiments to study the split-brain patterns and lateralization of function.
Q3. Nature of biopsychology
Ans. Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that analyzes how the brain, neurotransmitters, and other aspects of our biology influence our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. This field of psychology
is often referred to by a variety of names including biopsychology, physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience, and psychobiology. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Biopsychologists often look at how biological processes interact with emotions, cognitions, and other mental processes.
The field of biopsychology is related to several other areas, including comparative psychology and evolutionary psychology.
while biopsychology might seem like a fairly recent development thanks to the introduction of advanced tools and technology for examining the brain, the roots of the field date back thousands of years to the time of the early philosophers.
while we now consider the mind and brain synonymous, philosophers and psychologists long debated what was known as the mind/body problem.
In other words, philosophers and other thinkers wondered what the relationship was between the mental world and the physical world.
One important thing to remember is that it is only fairly recently in human history that people have come to understand the actual location of the mind.
Aristotle, for example, taught that our thoughts and feelings arose from the heart. Greek thinkers such as Hippocrates and later Plato suggested that the brain was where the mind resides and that it served as the source of all thought and action.
Later thinkers such as Rene Descartes and Leonardo da Vinci introduced theories about how the nervous system operated. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
While these early theories were later proven wrong, they did establish the important idea that external stimulation could lead to muscle responses.
It was Descartes who introduced the concept of the reflex, although later researchers demonstrated it was the spinal cord that played a critical role in these muscle responses.
Ans. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the body. Their job is to transmit signals from nerve cells to target cells.
These target cells may be in muscles, glands, or other nerves. The brain needs neurotransmitters to regulate many necessary functions, including:
• heart rate
• sleep cycles
• muscle movement
The nervous system controls the body’s organs, psychological functions, and physical functions.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Nerve cells, also known as neurons, and their neurotransmitters play important roles in this system.
Nerve cells fire nerve impulses. They do this by releasing neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that carry signals to other cells.
Neurotransmitters relay their messages by traveling between cells and attaching to specific receptors on target cells.
Each neurotransmitter attaches to a different receptor – for example, dopamine molecules attach to dopamine receptors. When they attach, this triggers action in the target cells.
After neurotransmitters deliver their messages, the body breaks down or recycles them
Q5. Frontal lobe
Ans. The frontal lobes are the largest of the lobes in your brain. They’re located at the front of your brain. It’s estimated they make up about one-third of your cerebrum.
• The frontal lobe of primates, particularly humans, is much larger than those of other species. You might say the frontal lobe is the most important area for our various “human” skills, such as reasoning and language.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
• The frontal lobes are extensively connected with nerve pathways to other areas of the brain, reinforcing their importance in a vast array of functions.
As such, damage to the frontal lobes may cause a “ripple effect” to other parts of the brain.
• Your frontal lobes are the last areas of your brain to mature. In some cases, they may not be fully developed until your mid-30sTrusted Source
• The frontal lobes are important for movement. In fact, researchers have tapped trusted Source the areas of the frontal lobes that control the movement of specific body parts.
This map is called the motor homunculus.
The frontal lobe plays a role in many higher level functions of your brain. This can include:
• voluntary movements (which are movements you control of the opposite side of your body
•sequencing of complex or multistep movements, such as getting dressed or making a cup of tea
• speech and language production in the humane fontal lobe (opposite your dominant hand)
• attention and concentration BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
• working memory, which involves processing recently acquired information
• reasoning and judgment
• organization and planning
• regulation of emotions and mood, including reading the emotions of others
• personality expression
• motivation, including evaluating rewards, pleasure, and happiness
• impulse control
• controlling social behaviors
Q6. Spinal nerves
Ans. Spinal nerve, in vertebrates, any one of many paired peripheral nerves that arise from the spinal cord. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
In humans there are 31 pairs: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each pair connects the spinal cord with a specific region of the body. Near the spinal cord each spinal nerve branches into two roots.
One, composed of sensory fibres, enters the spinal cord via the dorsal root, its cell bodies lie in a spinal ganglion that is outside the spinal cord.
The other, composed of motor fibres, leaves the spinal cord via the ventral root; its cell bodies lie in specific areas of the spinal cord itself.
Q7. Functions of thyroid gland
Ans. The thyroid gland produces hormones that regulate the body’s metabolic rate controlling heart, muscle and digestive function, brain development and bone maintenance.
Its correct functioning depends on a good supply of iodine from the diet. Cells producing thyroid hormones are very specialised in extracting and absorbing iodine from the blood and incorporate it into the thyroid hormones. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The signal comes from a small gland located at the bottom of our brain called the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland produces and sends out a hormone called thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
TSH then tells the thyroid how much hormones to produce and secrete TSH levels in your blood are rising and falling depending on your body’s needs to produce more or less thyroid hormones.
There is a third actor involved in this communication. The pituitary gland responds either directly to the thyroid hormones in the blood, but it also responds to signals from the hypothalamus, which sits above the pituitary gland as part of your brain.
The hypothalamus releases its own hormone thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). TRH in turn stimulates the release of TSH in the pituitary, which then signals to the thyroid gland.
This whole network is also referred to as the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT) and it adapts to metabolic changes and your body’s need
The thyroid gland produces thyroxine (referred to as T4), which is a relatively inactive prohormone. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
The highly active hormone is triiodothyronine (referred to as T3). Collectively, thyroxine and triiodothyronine are referred to as the thyroid hormones.
The thyroid gland produces just 20% of the high active T3, but it produces 80% of the prohormone T4.
Once secreted by the thyroid, specific enzymes in other tissues like the liver or kidneys may transform T4 in to the active hormone T3.
In addition, there are other hormone-producing cells within the thyroid gland called C-cells. These cells produce calcitonin.
Calcitonin plays a role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood, which is important for your bone health and maintenance.
Q8. Disorders of the central nervous system
Ans. When the brain is damaged due to stroke, or injury, tumor, or nutritional problems it causes various behavioral and cognitive changes.
For example, when there is damage to the Broca’s area, which is in the frontal part of the left hemisphere, then the person is unable to speak.BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
When there is a degeneration process, it destroys many neurons in the brain. This influences the individual’s memory, attention, and motor responses adversely.
Thus degenerative discase is known as dementia. Alzhcunct’s discase is the most common cause of donantia.
The cause identified is mostly genetic People suffering froin this have difficulty in memory, remembering runes, people, places and lave a very short attention span.
They have great difficulty in maintaining personal hygiene and retaining Uicir mental abilities. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) caused by the HIV virus may in for the ocurons that lead to progressive degeneration of the brain causing denscatia.
Huntington’s disease, a genetic discase that results in unvoluntary movements that are not desired, may also cause severe deinentia and can be fatal.
Parkinson’s Disease:BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
It is a movement disorder, more prevalent in males and the onset is middle and old age. The most common symptom is tecnor during inctivity, but not during voluntary moveinents, or sleeping. It is characterized by cognitive defreits.
Sometimes an injury or a disease only destroy the tissue in the brain and neurons involved in motor movement.
Strokes may be caused because of cerebral hemorrallage (bleeding in the brain) or cerebral ischemia (interruption in the blood supply to an cca of the brain).
In cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), the blood flow though the vessels is stopped due to hemorrhage.
This chesthekesh Beygen and if the neurons die that leads to damage in motor neurons, thus leading to partial or complete paralysis. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Apart from paralysis, the common result of a stroke can be amnesia, aplasia (language problems), and even con.
It is an autoimmune disorder and a progressive disorder that attacks tle Encyclia sheath, the protective covering of the axons of the CNS.
The usual onset of the disease is during young age. Common symptoms are visual disturbances, muscular weakness, trainers, and ataxia.
The causes of autoimmune diseases remain largely unknown. There is growing consensus that autoimmune diseases likely result from interactions between gonctie and environmental factors. BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Cerebral Palsy :
This is a common disease that occurs during childhood when there is any damage to the brain tissue die to an infection, trauma, or reduced oxygen supply at birth.
This causes permanent damage to the movement of body muscles. The voluntary muscle control is unpaired and causes specific paralysis that affects one side of the body.
This is characterized by sudden bursts of seizures that cause a temporary change in the functioning of the brain, such as changes in consciousness, motor control or nurselo contractions.
Epilepsy is an example. The frequency and severity of seizures can be controlled with medication.
Amnesia: BPCC 102 Free Solved Assignment
Amnesia is any anjor loss of actory while other mental functions are working. The cause can be infection, stroke, tumor, dries, oxygen and Alzheimer’s disease.
Amnesia can also be porchogenic, resulting from trauma or hypnotic suggestion (Nikson &Makowitsch, 1999).
In the classic case of HM (refer to Box 2.3, Unit 2), annesia was due to bilateral donnage to the medial Icnrporal lobc, which includes the hippocampus.
The surviving functions are perception, cogation intelligence, action, sometimes working memory is also sparred, remota memories, and nonconscious memories (implicit memory) that lack awareness of the previously experienced information.
Anuncsia can be of two types; anterograde amnesia refers to post damage memory deficit and retrograde amnesia refers to memory loss immediately before the damage.
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