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BPC 1

GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY

BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

SECTION – A

Q1. Define psychology. Discuss the nature and characteristics of behavior.

Ans Psychology is the science of mind and behavior. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

It is an academic discipline of immense scope, crossing the boundaries between the natural and social sciences.

Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, linking the discipline to neuroscience. As a social science, psychologists aim to understand the behavior of individuals and groups. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Psychology is a science of activity of people which lead to an understanding of the nature of behavior.

Behavior is always the product of two things, one-the nature of the individual or organism that behaves and second the nature of the situation in which the individual find himself.

Psychology is a science of activity of people which lead to an understanding of the nature of behavior.

Behavior is always the product of two things, one-the nature of an individual or organism that behaves and second the nature of the situation in which the individual finds himself.

BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment
BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2. Discuss the structure and functions of nervous system.

Ans. the nervous system can also be divided on the basis of its functions, but anatomical divisions and functional divisions are different.

The CNS and the PNS both contribute to the same functions, but those functions can be attributed to different regions of the brain (such as the cerebral cortex or the hypothalamus) or to different ganglia in the periphery. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

The problem with trying to fit functional differences into anatomical divisions is that sometimes the same structure can be part of several functions.

For example, the optic nerve carries signals from the retina that are either used for the conscious perception of visual stimuli,

which takes place in the cerebral cortex, or for the reflexive responses of smooth muscle tissue that are processed through the hypothalamus.

There are two ways to consider how the nervous system is divided functionally.
First, the basic functions of the nervous system are sensation, integration, and response.

Secondly, control of the body can be somatic or autonomic divisions that are largely defined by the structures that are involved in the response.

There is also a region of the peripheral nervous system that is called the enteric nervous system that is responsible for a specific set of functions within the realm of autonomic control related to gastrointestinal functions.

Q3. Differentiate between coercive power and bargaining power.

Ans Coercive power is the ability of a manager to force an employee to follow an order by threatening the employee with punishment if the employee does not comply with the order.

The most important concept to understand about coercive power is that it uses the application of force.BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

It seeks to force or compel behavior rather than to influence behavior through persuasion. Examples of coercive power include threats of write-ups, demotions, pay cuts, layoffs, and terminations if employees don’t follow orders.

In order to be effective, the manager must be able to follow through on the threat.

If failure to comply doesn’t result in punishment, the threat of punishment becomes meaningless and even counterproductive because employees may cease to respect the legitimacy of the manager’s authority.

bargaining power is the relative ability of parties in an argumentative situation such as bargaining, contract writing, or making an agreement) to exert influence over each other.

If both parties are on an equal footing in a debate, then they will have equal bargaining power, such as in a perfectly competitive market, or between an evenly matched monopoly and monopsony.

There are a number of fields where the concept of bargaining power has proven crucial to coherent analysis, including game theory,BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

labor economics, collective bargaining arrangements, diplomatic negotiations, settlement of litigation, the price of insurance, and any negotiation in general.

SECTION – B

Q4. Explain the concept of social distance. Discuss its types.

Ans In sociology, social distance describes the distance between individuals or groups in society, including dimensions such as social class, race/ethnicity, gender or sexuality.

Members of different groups mix less than members of the same group.

It is the measure of nearness or intimacy that an individual or group feels towards another individual or group in a social network or the level of trust one group has for another and the extent of the perceived likeness of beliefs.

While French sociologist Jean-Gabriel De Tarde explored some related concepts as early as 1903, the modern construct of social distance are often tracked to work by sociologist Georg Simmel. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Simmel’s conceptualization of social distance is represented in his writings about a hypothetical stranger and how he is simultaneously near to and far from his social group.

Simmel’s lectures on this topic were attended by Robert Park, who later extended Simmel’s ideas to the study of relations across racial/ethnic groups.

At the time, racial tensions in the US at the time had brought intergroup relations to the forefront of academic interest.

Robert Park tasked his student, Emory Bogardus, to create a quantifiable measure of social distance.

Bogardus’s creation of the first Social Distance Scale played a large role in popularizing Park’s and Bogardus’s conceptualization of social distance, which had some significant differences from Simmel’s original ideas.

Today, while studies of social distance do exhibit some features of a cohesive body of literature, the definitions and frameworks show significant variations across researchers and disciplines.BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Nedim Karakayali put forth a framework that described four dimensions of social distance:

Affective social distance: One widespread view of social distance is affectivity. Social distance is associated with affective distance, i.e. how much sympathy the members of a group feel for another group.

Emory Bogardus, the creator of the “Bogardus social distance scale” was typically basing his scale on this subjective-affective conception of social distance:

“lin social distance studies the center of attention is on the feeling reactions of persons toward other persons and toward groups of people.”

Normative social distance: A second approach views social distance as a normative category. Normative social distance refers to the widely accepted and often consciously expressed norms about who should be considered as an “insider” and who an “outsider/foreigner”.

Such norms, in other words, specify the distinctions between “us” and “them”.

Therefore, normative social distance differs from affective social distance, because it conceives social distance is conceived as a non-subjective, structural aspect of social relations. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Examples of this conception can be found in some of the works of sociologists such as Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim and to some extent Robert Park.

Interactive social distance: Focuses on the frequency and intensity of interactions between two groups, claiming that the more the members of two groups interact, the closer they are socially.

This conception is similar to the approaches in sociological network theory, where the frequency of interaction between two parties is used as a measure of the “strength” of the social ties between them.

Cultural and Habitual Distance: Focuses cultural and habitual which is proposed by Bourdieu (1990). This type of distance is influenced by the “capital” people possess.

It is possible to view these different conceptions as “dimensions” of social distance, that do not necessarily overlap.

The members of two groups might interact with each other quite frequently,but this does not always mean that they will feel “close” to each other or that normatively they will consider each other as the members of the same group.

In other words, interactive, normative and affective dimensions of social distance might not be linearly associated. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q5. Discuss the perception of pain and its explanations.

Ans. Perception of pain occurs when stimulation of nociceptors is intense enough to activate.

Activation of nociceptors reaches to the dorsal horn of the spine along the axons of the peripheral.

After that, nerve messages are relayed up to the thalamus by the spinothalamic tract. The thalamus serves sensory information to the cerebral cortex.

Both thalamocortical and corticolimbic structures create somatosensory input and output neural impulses which influence pain perception (Garland, 2012).

Suffering is a negative emotional and psychophysiological reaction to pain and includes autonomic, endocrine, and immune responses, which result in increased fear, anxiety, heart rate, and galvanic skin response (Tousignant-Laflamme and Marchand, 2006).

Prolong pain experience is not only a sensory and emotional experience but also consists of behavioral reactions, such as the grimacing face, rubbing, lying down, sighing, limping (Keefe et al., 1984). BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Being aware of the multiple components of the pain experience can guide the clinician in evaluating and planning pain management.

There are several factors that might influence pain perception in the later years of life.

These include loss of receptors for pain (nociceptors), changes in conduction properties of primary nociceptive (pain) afferents, changes in central mechanisms subserving the coding and sensation of pain, and psychosocial influences affecting the meaning of pain to the individual (Garland, 2012).

The pain experience has four determinants-nociception, pain perception, suffering, and pain behaviors.

Nociception is the sensory nervous system’s response to certain harmful or potentially harmful stimuli by specialized transducers on primary afferent A-delta and C nerve fibers.

The perception of pain is affected by the central processing of nociceptive input from the lesions in the peripheral and central nervous systems (Garland, 2012).

Pain is a normal feature of the human experience. Commonplace pain has particular psychology that provides the foundation for all pain management behavior.

Normal psychology of pain seeks to explain the shared experience of pain that is uncomplicated and short-lived. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

It is straightforward in the sense that it is diagnostically minor (such as headaches) or related to slight trauma that does not require clinical intervention (such as bruises).

1 There are two core aspects beyond the sensory features of normal pain:

. its social or communicative function;2 and
. its interruption of mental preoccupations or escape/avoidance.3

Pain is hard-wired as a social alarm of a threat, which is then selected over other competing demands and triggers behaviors that interfere with normal life functioning.

Each individual’s experience of pain and its expression is a product of the sensory experience,

the person’s personal background, the interpersonal context, and the meaning it has for the individual.BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q 6. Describe the types and determinants if attention.

Ans.Types of Attention

Classification of Attention by Ross: According to Ross, attention can be classified into Non-Volitional (Involuntary attention) and Volitional (Voluntary attention).

Non-Volitional (Involuntary Attention): This type of attention does not involve any role of will; instead it is aroused either by instincts and hence called enforced attention or is produced by our sentiments and therefore called as spontaneous non-volitional attention.

Examples of nonvolitional attention could be attention paid to the members of the opposite gender or a mother’s attention on noticing her crying child.

Volitional (Voluntary Attention): Volitional attention exercises the will and demands our conscious effort for arriving at a solution or achieving certain goals.

Unlike Non Volitional attention, Volitional attention is less spontaneous or automatic. Examples of volitional attention could be paying attention while solving a maths problems or attention focused on while answering examination questions.

Attention can further be categorized on the basis of needs or circumstances which we may be faced with: BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Sustained Attention: It is the ability to pay attention to only one task by consciously concentrating on that task only for a long time enough and by avoiding all other forms of distractions or deviations.

This kind of attention requires a good deal of focus as well as determination for being able to concentrate on a given task by keeping away all the distractions.

Sustained attention examples could be reading a book, memorizing a chapter or following a classroom lecture.

Selective Attention: In this case, the listener chooses to pay attention to only a specific stimulus that is present in the environment while ignoring the other stimuli.

This kind of attention does not depend on the stimulus but depends essentially on the attentive capabilities of an observer. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Divided Attention: In the case of divided attention, the user pays attention to two or more tasks at the same time and is also sometimes regarded as Multi-tasking which involves juggling between two or more two tasks at the same time.

Its examples could be texting somebody while attending a meeting. Divided attention uses mental focus on a very large scale; hence because of divided attention, the user may get exhausted very quickly.

Alternating Attention: Though this attention can be closely related to divided attention, but is different as in the case of divided attention we split our attention between two tasks, while in the case of alternating attention,

the entire attention is shifted from one task to another or is done alternately.

Visual Attention: Visual attention makes use of the sensory organ eyes for paying attention to certain details.

Visual attention pays attention to the details or inputs which are received by the eyes only and blurs out all the other stimuli which is present in the environment.

Visual attention is put to use in case of advertising and reading.

Auditory Attention: This form of attention pays attention only to the sense of hearing only.

Paying attention to an important announcement can be an example of auditory attention. Auditory and visual attention both function in conjunction with each other.

Determinants of Attention :

Attention can be influenced by both external and internal factors.

External factors: These are the factors that are external in nature and are usually governed by the characteristics of the stimuli. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

These external factors could be related to the nature of the stimuli, the intensity as well as the size of the stimuli, the degree to which contrast, variety, or change is present in the stimuli.

The extent to which the exposure to a stimulus is repeated will also determine the strength of the attention.

Moreover, a stimulus that is in a state of motion will be able to catch our attention more quickly than a stationary one.

Internal (Subjective) factors: The subjective factors which influence attention are interests, motive, mindset and our attitudes & moods.

It is believed that interest is the mother of attention, as we pay attention or focus on those objects about which we have an interest.

Similarly, our needs or motives equally govern our attention for specific events or objects.

Moreover, the mental readiness of a person to respond to certain stimuli or preparedness will also determine the attention level for that person.

Q7. Elucidate the processes and basic determinants of observational learning.

Ans Observational learning, method of learning that consists of observing and modeling another individual’s behavior, attitudes, or emotional expressions.

Although it is commonly believed that the observer will copy the model, American psychologist Albert Bandura stressed that individuals may simply learn from the behavior rather than imitate it. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Observational learning is a major component of Bandura’s social learning theory.

He also emphasized that four conditions were necessary in any form of observing and modeling behavior: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation.

If an organism is going to learn anything from a model, he or she must be paying attention to it and the behavior it exhibits. Many conditions can affect the observer’s attention.

For instance, if the observer is sleepy, ill, or distracted, he or she will be less likely to learn the modeled behavior and imitate it at a later date.

In addition, the characteristics of the model have an influence on the observer’s attention. Bandura and others have shown that humans pay more attention to models that are attractive, similar to them, or prestigious and are rewarded for their behaviors.

This explains the appeal that athletes have on the behavior of young children and that successful adults have on college students.

Unfortunately, this aspect of modeling can also be used in detrimental ways.

For example, if young children witness gang members gaining status or money, they may imitate those behaviors in an effort to gain similar rewards.

The second requirement of observational learning is being able to remember the behavior that was witnessed. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

If the human or animal does not remember the behavior, there is a less than probable chance that they will imitate it.

Modeling has been used successfully in many therapeutic conditions. Many therapists have used forms of modeling to assist their patients to overcome phobias.

For example, adults with claustrophobia may observe a model in a video as they move closer and closer to an enclosed area before entering it.

Once the model reaches the enclosed area, for instance a closet, he or she will open the door, enter it, and then close the door.

The observer will be taught relaxation techniques and be told to practice them anytime he or she becomes anxious while watching the film.

The end result is to continue observing the model until the person can enter the closet himself or herself.

Bandura’s findings in the Bobo doll experiments have greatly influenced children’s television programming.

Bandura filmed his students physically attacking the Bobo doll, an inflatable doll with a rounded bottom that pops back up when knocked down.

A student was placed in the room with the Bobo doll. The student punched the doll, yelled “sockeroo” at it, kicked it, hit it with hammers, and sat on it.

Bandura then showed this film to young children. Their behavior was taped when in the room with the doll. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

The children imitated the behaviors of the student and at times even became more aggressive toward the doll than what they had observed.

Another group of young children observed a student being nice to the doll. Ironically, this group of children did not imitate the positive interaction of the model.

Bandura conducted a large number of varied scenarios of this study and found similar events even when the doll was a live clown.

These findings have prompted many parents to monitor the television shows their children watch and the friends or peers with which they associate.

Unfortunately, the parental saying “Do as I say, not as I do” does not hold true for children. Children are more likely to imitate the behaviors versus the instructions of their parents.

BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment
BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q8. Explain the concept of psychophysics. Describe main psychophysical methods.

Ans Psychophysics, the study of quantitative relations between psychological events and physical events or, more specifically, between sensations and the stimuli that produce them.

Physical science permits, at least for some of the senses, accurate measurement on a physical scale of the magnitude of a stimulus.

By determining the stimulus magnitude that is just sufficient to produce a sensation (or a response), it is possible to specify the minimum perceptible stimulus, or the absolute stimulus threshold (stimulus limen), for the various senses.

The central inquiry of psychophysics pertains to the search for a lawful, quantitative relation between stimulus and sensation for the range of stimuli between these limits.

Psychophysics was established by German scientist and philosopher Gustav Theodor Fechner. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

He coined the word, developed the fundamental methods, conducted elaborate psychophysical experiments, and began a line of investigation that still persists in experimental psychology.

Fechner’s classic book Elemente der Psychophysik (1860) may be looked upon as the beginning not only of psychophysics but also of experimental psychology

Trained in physics, Fechner in his later life became interested in metaphysics and searched for a way of relating the spiritual to the physical world.

He hit upon the notion of measuring sensation in relation to its stimulus.

German physiologist Ernst Heinrich Weber had discovered that the amount of change in magnitude of a given stimulus necessary to produce a just-noticeable change in sensation always bore an approximately constant ratio to the total stimulus magnitude.

This fact, properly speaking, is Weber’s law: if two weights differ by a just-noticeable amount when separated by a given increment, then, when the weights are increased,

the increment must be proportionally increased for the difference to remain noticeable.

Fechner applied Weber’s law to the measurement of sensation in relation to a stimulus. The resulting formula Fechner named Weber’s law (often called the Fechner-Weber law).

It expresses the simple relation that the magnitude of a stimulus must be increased geometrically if the magnitude of sensation is to increase arithmetically.

For physiologists and for many philosophers, this allowed the measurement of sensation in relation to a measured stimulus and thereby created the possibility of a scientific quantitative psychology BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

More recently, psychophysicists have suggested that psychic magnitudes be assessed by direct scaling experiments rather than by deriving a sensation scale based on discrimination judgments.

Psychophysical methods are used today in studies of sensation and in practical areas such as product comparisons and evaluations (e.g., tobacco, perfume, and liquor) and in psychological and personnel testing.

Q9. Functionalism

Ans Functionalism, in psychology, a broad school of thought originating in the U.S. during the late 19th century that attempted to counter the german school of structuralism led by Edward B. Titchener.

Functionalists, including psychologists William James and James Rowland Angell, and philosophers George H. Mead, Archibald L. Moore, and John Dewey, stressed the importance of empirical, rational thought over an experimental, trial-and-error philosophy.

The group was concerned more with the capability of the mind than with the process of thought.

The movement was thus interested primarily in the practical applications of research.

Q10. Psychology, law and criminology

Ans Criminal psychology also referred to as criminological psychology, is the study of the views, thoughts, intentions, actions, and reactions of criminals and all who participate in criminal behavior.

Criminal psychology is related to the field of criminal anthropology. The study goes deeply into what makes someone commit a crime, but also the reactions after the crime.

Criminal psychologists have many roles within the court systems, these include being called up as witnesses in court cases to help the jury understand the mind of the criminal.

Some types of psychiatry also deal with aspects of criminal behavior.

Q11. Sensory deprivation

Ans Sensory deprivation or perceptual isolation is the deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses.

Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing, while more complex devices can also cut off the sense of smell, touch, taste, thermoception (heat-sense), and the ability to know which way is down.

Sensory deprivation has been used in various alternative medicines and in psychological experiments (eg. with an isolation tank). BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Short-term sessions of sensory deprivation are described as relaxing and conducive to meditation; however, extended or forced sensory deprivation can result in extreme anxiety, hallucinations, bizarre thoughts, temporary senselessness, and depression.

Q12. Short Term Memory

Ans Short-term memory (or “primary” or “active memory”) is the capacity for holding, but not manipulating, a small amount of information in the mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time.

For example, short-term memory can be used to remember a phone number that has just been recited.

The duration of short-term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds.

A commonly cited capacity of items to remember is The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two (also called Miller’s Law, despite Miller calling the figure “little more than a joke” (Miller, 1989, page 401)).

Cowan (2001) suggests that a more realistic figure is 4+1 items). In contrast, long-term memory holds information indefinitely

Q13. Fechner’s Law

Ans The Weber-Fechner laws are two related hypotheses in the field of psychophysics, known as Weber’s law and Fechner’s law.

Both laws relate to human perception, more specifically the relationship between the actual change in a physical stimulus and the perceived change. This includes stimuli to all senses: vision, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Q14. Dimensions of Colour

Ans The perception of color is often described by referring to three dimensions of the color experiences: hue, saturation, and brightness.

Hue refers to the color quality of the light and corresponds to the color names that we use, such as orange, purple, green, indigo, yellow, cyan, aquamarine, etc.

In fact, hue is the quality of color. Quality is a value that changes, but it does not make the value larger or smaller.

When hue or color changes, it does not make sense to say that red has more or less hue than green. This is because the color is a quality, not an amount.

Q15. Basic and Applied fields of Psychology

Ans Applied psychology is the use of psychological methods and findings of scientific psychology to solve practical problems of human and animal behavior and experience.

Mental health, organizational psychology, business management, education, health, product design, ergonomics, and law are just a few of the areas that have been influenced by the application of psychological principles and findings.

Some of the areas of applied psychology include clinical psychology, counseling psychology, evolutionary psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, legal psychology, neuropsychology, occupational health psychology,

human factors, forensic psychology, engineering psychology, school psychology, sports psychology, traffic psychology, community psychology, and medical psychology

Q 16. Visual acuity

Ans. Visual acuity (VA) commonly refers to the clarity of vision, but technically rates an examinee’s ability to recognize small details with precision.

Visual acuity is dependent on optical and neural factors, i.e.

(1) the sharpness of the retinal image within the eye,

(2) the health and functioning of the retina, and

(3) the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain.

Q17. Perceptual constancy

Ans Perceptual constancy also called object constancy, or constancy phenomenon is the tendency of animals and humans to see familiar objects as having standard shape, size, color, or location regardless of changes in the angle of perspective, distance, or lighting.

The impression tends to conform to the object as it is or is assumed to be, rather than to the actual stimulus. BPC 1 Free Solved Assignment

Perceptual constancy is responsible for the ability to identify objects under various conditions, which seem to be “taken into account” during a process of mental reconstitution of the known image.

For example, snow appears white in the low illumination of moonlight, as well as in sunlight 800,000 times as bright.

Perceptual constancy is reduced by limited experience with the object and by decreasing the number of environmental cues that aid in the identification of the object.

Q 18. Mnemonics

Ans Mnemonics make use of elaborative encoding, retrieval cues, and imagery as specific tools to encode information in a way that allows for efficient storage and retrieval.

Mnemonics aid original information in becoming associated with something more accessible or meaningful which, in turn, provides better retention of the information.

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