IGNOU BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Helpfirst

BPAS 186

STRESS AND TIME MANAGEMENT

BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment A

1) Explain the meaning and significance of time management.

ANS: Time management means organizing our time efficiently. It refers to the ability to use our time well. If we have good time management skills, we are able to complete all of our projects in time, and to avoid wasting time when we could be using it for something worthwhile.

Time management refers to the practice of apportioning our time so that we get all of our tasks done. It is the process of thinking about what we need to achieve, and how much time we have to achieve it in.

Time management means scheduling an appropriate number of tasks at appropriate times, and leaving ourselves with enough time to complete those tasks to a high standard Time management involves, therefore, spending the right amount of time on the right things.

It is something we can do over relatively long or relatively short periods of time. Time management is the exercising of responsible and informed control over one’s time for example in a project.

Time management for anything in life requires wisdom and skill as well as the ability to lead oneself towards the achievement of set targets or goals. Good time management is not just about getting all of our work done. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

If we are good at managing our time, we can make sure that we use our leisure time as well as possible too.

It also means leaving ourselves enough time to relax and to spend time with our loved ones. Time management is a skill we should all develop.

Whether you want to turn up on time for all of your appointinents in the future, or whether you want to be able to learn a new language alongside your work schedule, there is no denying that time management is a very useful skill for people in all walks of life.

Benefits of time management Time management techniques guide people towards the intended goal which could be the vision or mission one sets for himself or herself.

Time management also oversees the running of things and will always provide creative control over the expected operations. It helps keep you in line with your mission and vision and prevents the wastage of time and resources.

Time management takes care of your scheduling and will always provide reasonable solutions whenever possible. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Time management also provides a link between the time set for one project and that of the next, preventing overlapping of activities which could lead to others going undone.

Time management is responsible for ensuring one’s appointments are met with a view to avoid disappointments of any It also stands to remind you of the things you had planned to do so that you end up solving preplanned issues.

Time management is also important as it keeps track of trends so that they maintain the standards of scheduling for sustainable existence in the agile market.

The importance of time management : Time management is very important if we want to get the most out of life, and this article provides you with key and compelling reasons for the importance of time management.

(1) fulfilling our dreams if we do not make time to do so. Good time management enables us to ensure that we have enough time to carry out all of our projects to perfection – if necessary by dividing them into sub projects which each have their own timescale for completion.BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

(2.) Relaxing: if we manage our time well, we will have plenty of time to relax. By contrast, a poorly managed schedule is a recipe for stress and unhappiness as all of those jobs pile up around us and we do not seem to have enough time to get them all done.

(3.) Making time for others: time management is not just about us and our goals – it is also about using our time to connect with those that we love.

You do not need to buy a person an expensive gift in order to demonstrate to them that you love and care for them: often, simply making time for that person can be a much more meaningful way of doing so.

(4.) Remembering that our time here is finite: do not reach the end of your life burdened with regrets about things that you wish you had done, or people that you wish you had spent more time with.

Good time management will enable you to use your one, finite life on this planet to the fullest of the full.

(5.) Remembering that we should not be trapped by time: someone who is good at managing their time is also aware that there is more to life than time management.

Spending just a minute with someone that we truly love can feel more worthwhile than spending an hour working or idling. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

This goes to show that, though time management is important, often it is the experiences that we have that are most important in our lives and the emotions that we feel ourselves and provoke in others as well as the good that we do on this earth, rather than the amount of time we have.

Purpose of time management:

There are many ways that time management can help us in our lives. The behind developing tiine management skills are as follows:

Saving money: using time efficiently makes our work more profitable. As the saying goes, ‘time is money, and in many contexts this is very literally true.

Meeting deadlines: time management is an essential skill if we want to meet our deadlines.

Achieving our goals: we can only achieve our goals if we have enough time to take all of the necessary steps towards them.BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Enjoying our leisure time: when we manage our time well, we find that we have plenty of time left over to relax.

Courtesy; it is courteous not to keep other people waiting whilst we try and finish other tasks

BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment
BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

2) Examine and suggest any five significant techniques of time management that can be adopted to achieve success.

ANS: 1. Understand You’re Not Perfect One of the most difficult things for many people to accept is the fact that they’re not perfect. They think that because they are taking every precaution and planning for every possible scenario,

there’s no chance of anything going wrong. Unfortunately, anyone with this mindset will run into a serious reality check at one point or another.

Take a moment right now to realize it’s okay to make mistakes and be imperfect. Keep this mind as you strive to improve your time management skills, understanding that even the most thought out plans can change or fail.

These thoughts will open doors for you to improve when these times come, instead of feeling defeated by them.BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

2 Plan Out Each Day Even though plans change, it doesn’t mean you shouldn’t make plans at all. There are many ways you can do this to be successful, so it may take some time for you to determine what works best for you.

Many people find it helpful to take a few mimtes every night before bed and put together their agenda for the next day.

Take a step back from your list to decide the who, what, when, where, what, why, and how of any intricate responsibilities you have tomorrow.

Make sure you leave a few open spaces on your daily calendar as well. This will prepare your mind for the next day’s workload and also allow you to accept additional assignments, if necessary.

3 Prioritize Your Daily, Weekly, & Monthly Tasks Along with your planning sessions, you should identify the priorities for upcoming days, weeks, and even months.

Keeping tabs on future tasks will allow you to disperse your workload in a way that avoids making you overly busy or stressed. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

You’ll be able to establish a more structured routine for your daily goals and remain productive throughout the week.

One of the best ways to get started is by making a long list of every single task or duty you have in your job.

You can then spend some time breaking these down into daily, weekly, and monthly tasks. Once you know these details, it will be much easier to stay focused from day to day and complete everything on your to-do list

4 Use Time Management Tools And speaking of to-do lists, one of the best things you can do to manage your time more wisely is by using as many tools as necessary to support your position.

There are millions of computer programs and smartphone apps out there waiting to make your life easier with a simple download. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Even adding a single time management tool to your repertoire can save you hours of work each week.

A great example worth a look is Toggl Plan’s project management software, which allows you to create everything from checklists to timelines.

The daily, weekly, and annual overview features make it easy to plan ahead and shoot for success on every project.

You can even incorporate integrations and extensions of other tools you’re already using to improve your overall experience and boost efficiency.

5 Do Not Multitask Did you know that multitasking can lower your comprehension level and overall intelligence by more than 11%?

The effects of trying to complete more than one assignment at a time can bave staggering negative implications for both you and the people around you.

And for those who don’t think it’s that bad, just imagine making 11% less per year than you do currently. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Beyond your intelligence level, multitasking also inhibits performance with a 40% drop in productivity.

If you take a moment to think about this statistic, you’ll discover that you can accomplish twice as much in a workweek when you only work on one thing at a time.

Bear in mind, that things like listening to soft, relaxing music don’t typically count as multitasking as they can have productivity benefits when used correctly.

6 Determine Your Productive Times Are you a morning person, a night owl, or do you fall somewhere in between these molds? Oftentimes, these types of questions can help your time management strategies as you determine when you’re most productive during the day.

A morning person who is able to jump out of bed wide-eyed and bushy-tailed a minute before their alarm goes off will likely be able to accomplish more work in the earlier parts of the day.

Whereas a night owl might be moving a bit more slowly when they wake up and need some time to get into their usual work grind. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Those people are usually able to achieve a higher level of productivity in the afternoon.

BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment
BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment B

3) Describe the General Adaptation Syndrome with the help of a diagramme.

ANS: General adaptation syndrome, or GAS, is a term used to describe the body’s short-term and long-term reactions to stress.

Stage 1: Aların reaction (AR) The first stage of the general adaptation stage, the aların reaction, is the immediate reaction to a stressor. In the initial phase of stress, humans exhibit a “fight or flight” response, which prepares the body for physical activity.

However, this initial response can also decrease the effectiveness of the immune system, making persons more susceptible to illness during this pliase. Stage 2: Stage of resistance (SR)

Stage 2 might also be named the stage of adaptation, instead of the stage of resistance. During this phase, if the stress continues, the body adapts to the stressors it is exposed to. Changes at many levels take place in order to reduce the effect of the stressor.

For example, if the stressor is starvation (possibly due to anorexia), the person might experienced a reduced desire for physical activity to conserve energy, and the absorption of nutrients from food might be maxiınized.BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Stage 3: Stage of exhaustion (SE) At this stage, the stress has continued for some time. The body’s resistance to the stress may gradually be reduced, or may collapse quickly.

Generally, this means the immune system, and the body’s ability to resist disease, may be almost totally eliminated.

Patients who experience long-term stress may succumb to heart attacks or severe infection due to their reduced immunity.

For example, a person with a stressful job may experience long-terin stress that might lead to high blood pressure and an eventual heart attack.

Stress, a useful reaction? The reader should note that Dr. Selye did not regard stress as a purely negative phenomenon; in fact, he frequently pointed out that stress is not only an inevitable part of life but results from intense joy or pleasure as well as fear or anxiety.

“Stress is not even necessarily bad for you; it is also the spice of life, for any emotion, any activity, causes stress.” BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Some later researchers have coined the term “eustress” or pleasant stress, to reflect the fact that such positive experiences as a job promotion, completing a degree or training program, marriage, travel, and many others are also stressful.

Selye also pointed out that human perception of and response to stress is highly individualized; a job or sport that one person finds anxiety-provoking or exhausting might be quite appealing and enjoyable to someone else.

Looking at one’s responses to specific stressors can contribute to better understanding of one’s particular physical, emotional, and mental resources and limits.

Causes And Syınptoms Stress is one cause of general adaptation syndrome. The results of relieved stress can manifest as fatigue, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty sleeping.

Persons may also as that are signs of stress. Persons experiencing unusual symptoms, such as hair loss, without another medical explanation might consider stress as the cause.

4) What are the main sources of workplace stress?

ANS: When you stress out at work it’s a lot harder to get things done. And that stress doesn’t necessarily stay behind at work.BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Many people allow the stress of work to flow over into their personal lives. This can cause anxiety, depression, and trouble sleeping among other things.

Being happy at work means being more productive. Take action to be happier and more productive by reading through some common sources of stress:

1 High Workload This can mean high volumes of work, unrealistic deadlines, and any other pressure that makes people feel rushed or overwhelmed. When you are stressed about all the work you have to do. you’re less likely to be productive.

Be open with management about your workload. Discuss a timeline and workload that you feel comfortable with and bring up unrealistic deadlines where appropriate.

2 Poor Management can leave employees feeling like they don’t have any support or direction. And how’s anyone supposed to get work done if their leaders aren’t leading?

Forty-six percent of employees rarely or never leave a meeting knowing what they’re supposed to do next. Communication will help. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Again, be transparent with management. Talk to your managers first directly and express how you feel. Then, if necessary, talk to other managers and let them weigh in on how you should handle your situation.

3 A Lack of Control Sometimes it feels like work is something you take control of. Sometimes it feels like some kind of mandatory servitude.

This lack of control can burn you down and make it feel like there’s little place to go from here. Know that you are always in control! Speaking up and taking action to improve work responsibilities looks really good to management.

If they don’t appreciate it, and if you truly know there are few opportunities left, take control and look for other work.

4 Not Enough Work Small workloads can sometimes make people feel like their skills aren’t being used like they should. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Maybe your bosses and supervisors don’t know what you’re capable of. Remind them of your talents and show them new projects you’ve come up with.

Look at the present problems the company is facing and provide creative solutions (even if it isn’t expected of you). Taking initiative could show them that you deserve more work

5 Micro-management Direction and leadership are good. Micro-managing is very bad. Management might think that peering over shoulders and scrutinizing reports is productive.

But really, it isn’t Keep track of moments when you feel like you’re being micro-managed. Reflect to see if there is unclear communication between you and management.

Maybe you’ll find out it’s just how your boss behaves (that isn’t an excuse, though). Let them know that it’s hindering work performance and putting you in a constantly uncomfortable position.

5) Distinguish between the Efficiency Approach and Effectiveness Approach to time Management.

ANS: Efficiency means whatever you produce or perform; it should be done in a perfect way. Although, Effectiveness has a broader approach, which means the extent to which the actual results have been achieved to fulfill the desired outcome i.e. doing accurate things.

These are the metric used to gauge the performance of an employee in an organization. Efficiency and Effectiveness are the two words which are most commonly juxtaposed by the people; they are used in place of each other, however they are different.

While efficiency is the state of attaining the maximum productivity, with least effort spent, effectiveness is the extent to which something is successful in providing the desired result.

The points, given below describe the substantial differences between efficiency and effectiveness:BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

The ability to produce maximum output with limited resources is known as Efficiency. The level of the neamess of the actual result with planned result is Effectiveness.

Efficiency is to do the things perfect’ while Effectiveness is ‘to do perfect things’. Efficiency has a short run perspective.

Conversely, the long run is the point of view of Effectiveness. Efficiency is yield-oriented. Unlike Effectiveness, which is result oriented.

Efficiency is to be maintained at the time of strategy implementation, whereas strategy formulation requires Effectiveness.

Efficiency is measured in operations of the organisation, but Effectiveness of strategies is measured which are made by the organisation. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Efficiency is the outcome of actual output upon given the number of inputs. On the other liand, Effectiveness has a relationship with means and ends.

Conclusion

Efficiency and Effectiveness both have a prominent place in the business environment which must be maintained by the organisation because its success lies on them.

Efficiency has an introspective approach, i.e. it measures the performance of operations, processes, workers, cost, time, etc. inside the organisation.

It has a clear focus on reducing the expenditure or wastage or eliminating unnecessary costs to achieve the output with a stated number of inputs.

In the case of Effectiveness, it has an extroverted approach, that highlight the relationship of the business organisation with the rest of the world to attain a competitive position in the market, i.e. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

6) What are the five stages of burnout?

ANS: 1. HONEYMOON PHASE When we undertake a new task, we often start by experiencing high job satisfaction, commitment, energy, and creativity.

This is especially true of a new job role, or the beginnings of a business venture. In this first phase of burnout, you may begin to experience predicted stresses of the initiative you’re undertaking,

so it’s important to start implementing positive coping strategies, such as taking practical steps to support your wellbeing alongside your professional ventures.

ONSET OF STRESS The second stage of burnout begins with an awareness of some days being more difficult than others.

You may find your optimism waning, as well as notice common stress symptoms affecting you physically, mentally, or emotionally BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

CHRONIC STRESS The third stage of burnout is chronic stress. This is a marked change in your stress levels, going from motivation, to experiencing stress on an incredibly frequent basis.

You may also experience more intense symptoms than those of stage two.

BURNOUT Entering stage four is burnout itself, where symptoms become critical. Continuing as normal is often not possible in this state as it becomes increasingly difficult to cope.

We all have our own unique limits of tolerance, and it’s key that you seek intervention at this stage (for clinical issues, please refer to our partner Thrive Your Life).

HABITUAL BURNOUT The final stage of burnout is habitual burnout. This means that the symptoms of burnout are so embedded in your life that you are likely to experience a significant ongoing mental, physical or emotional problem, as opposed to occasionally experiencing stress or burnout. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

7) Does work orientation affect the performance of employees? If yes, how?

ANS: Researchers have found that successful new employee orientation programs help new employees become familiar with their organizational environment Findings from two field studies support the proposition that the way individuals define their role, or their role orientation, is a powerful influence on their behaviour, resulting in more or less effective job performance.

The first study showed that, within a relatively self-managing context, flexible role orientation predicted supervisory assessments of overall job performance, as well as a change in job performance.

The second study showed flexible role orientation predicted job performance in high autonomy jobs but not low autonomy jobs.

In both studies, role orientation predicted performance more strongly than other work attitudes, including job satisfaction, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and job aspiration. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Collectively, the findings suggest that the development of a more flexible role orientation represents a relatively unexplored avenue for enhancing employee performance, particularly in self- managing contexts.

As such, further research on the process of shaping and promoting employees’ role orientation is recommended.

Employee motivation is the key factor to boost up the function of an organization. In the globalization phase, every company needs to sustain in the fiercely competitive market.

Employees are main factors to manifest the business goals into reality. Therefore, in today’s world every motivated.

In that context some of the management theories have been practicing by them. Business function or their performance in the market can be evaluated by assessing the level of motivation of employees.

Motivation can play a lead role to get the professional milestone in each financial year in less effort manner BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

8) Explain the model of Allostatic Load.

ANS: Due to the recent pandemic, stress is at an all-time high for many couples. According to Dr. Gabor Maté, “three factors that universally lead to stress are uncertainty, lack of information, and the loss of control.”

Prolonged exposure to these stressors, generated from COVID-19 and other circumstances, can result in allostatic load.

Allostatic load refers to the wear and tear on the body that accumulates when we are exposed to repeated or chronic stressors.

These stressors can be internal, external, or both. While allostasis has been traditionally examined in individuals, it undoubtedly impacts couples.

According to Bruce S. McEwan, PhD, “Whereas allostasis refers to the process of adaptation to challenges,

‘allostatic load’ refers to the price the body pays for being forced to adapt to adverse psychosocial or physical situations, and it represents either the presence of too much allostasis or the inefficient operation of the allostasis response systems,

which must be turned on and then turned off again after the stressful situation is over.”

When we experience stress or perceived threats for an extended period of time, sometimes our sympathetic nervous system, which directs our involuntary stress responses through hormones that control arousal and leart rate, BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

gets stuck and our parasympathetic nervous system, which cues our bodies to relax after a threat has passed, doesn’t have the chance to start.

Anything that functions on overdrive without a break is susceptible to damage, including our bodies. Long-term gradual damage is the price we pay for bodies under continual stress.

9) Highlight the benefits and features of e-Office.

ANS: The eOffice aims to support Governance by ushering in more effective and transparent inter and Intra-Government processes. The vision of e-Office is to achieve a simplified, responsive, effective and transparent working of all Government Offices.

The Open Architecture on which e-office has been built, makes it a reusable framework and a standard reusable product amenable to replication across the Governments, at the Central, State and District levels. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

The product brings together the independent functions and systems under a single framework.

Benefits of e-Office: Enhance transparency – files can be tracked, and their status is known to all at all times Increase accountability – the responsibility of quality and speed of decision making is easier to monitor.

Assure data security and data integrity. Provide a platform for re-inventing and re-engineering the Government.

Promote innovation by releasing staff energy and time from unproductive procedures. Transform the Government’s work culture and ethics.

Promote greater collaboration in the workplace and effective knowledge management.

Features of e-office:

• Tour Approval Workflow
• Status of tour requests & tours conducted

• Online settlement of tour claims
• Leave Application BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

• Leave Approval
• Joining Report

• Leave balance and leave history
. Reduces workload of administrative staff

10) What are the benefits of conducting a stress audit?

ANS: “To be totally without stress is to be dead.” – Hans Selye A certain amount of stress is needed for us to function effectively.

Stress is very much a part of the human condition. We all face disappointments, setbacks, losses and pain.

But to live a rich and meaningful life, we must learn to deal in a constructive way with life’s challenges. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

Stress evolved as our body’s reaction to harmful and threatening situations. Perceived dangers subject us to a rush of hormones and brain chemicals that trigger a “fight or flight” response – a feature that undoubtedly helped our ancestors react to physical threats such as saber-toothed tigers.

Nowadays, while positive stress can help keep us focused and alert, negative stress takes over when we face continuous challenges without reprieve.

Manifestations of stress vary enormously among individuals. For instance, adolescents, new parents, working parents, single parents and the newly retired all face stressors that are related to life transitions.

Certain occupations (i.e. C-suite, education, health and social care, public administration and defence) tend to involve a high burden of stress.

The stress audit below can help you evaluate the extent to which stress is affecting you, both physiologically and psychologically. BPAS 186 Free Solved Assignment

If the majority of your responses are affirmative, it is highly advisable to take some form of action to prevent stress from negatively affecting your body and mind.

BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

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