IGNOU BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment 2021-22- Help first

BPAS 184

LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT

BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment A

Q1 State the operating objectives of logistics.

Ans: Operating objectives of logistics:

The primary objective is to move the inventory effectively and efficiently to extend the desired level of customer service at the least cost.

In terms of logistics management, each firm must simultaneously achieve at least six different operational objectives.

These operational objectives, which are the primary determinants of logistical performance, include rapid response, minimum variance, minimum inventory, movement consolidation, quality, and life-cycle support.

1) Rapid Response: Rapid response is concerned with a firm’s ability to satisfy customer service requirements in a timely manner.

Information technology has increased the capability to schedule the logistics operations to the desirable time and then accomplish rapid delivery of required inventory.

The result is elimination of excessive inventories traditionally stocked in anticipation of customer requirements.

2) Minimum Variance: Variance is any unexpected event that disrupts system performance. A variance may result from any aspect of logistical operations.

Delays in the expected time of customer order, an unexpected disruption in manufacturing, goods arriving in a damaged condition to the customer’s location, or delivery to an incorrect location all result in a time disruption in operations that must be resolved.

Information technology in present times plays a key role in this area, to the extent that variances are minimized and logistical productivity is improved because of economical operations. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Thus, the basic objective of overall logistical performance is to minimize variance.

3) Minimum Inventory: Inventory as an asset has capital costs associated with it. The objective is to reduce and manage inventory to the lowest possible level while simultaneously achieving desired operating objectives.

The objective of minimum inventory involves asset commitment and inventory turnover. Asset commitment is the financial value of inventory developed throughout the logical system and inventory turnover is the rate of inventory usage over time.

The objective is to reduce the inventory without sacrificing customer satisfaction.

4) Movement Consolidation: One of the most significant logistical costs is transportation. Transportation cost is related to the type of product, size of shipment, and distance.

Many logistical systems that focus on premium service depend on high-speed and small-shipment transportation.

Premium transportation is typical of high cost. To reduce transportation costs, it is desirable to achieve movement consolidation.

Generally, the larger the overall shipment and the longer the distance it is transported, the lower is the transportation cost per unit.

5) Quality Improvement: Maximising customer satisfaction is the key objective of any company. A fifth logistical objective is to seek continuous quality improvement.

Total quality management (TQM) has become a major commitment throughout all facets of industry. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Overall commitment to TQM is one of the major forces contributing to the logistical renaissance. If a product becomes defective or if service promises are not kept, very little value is added by the logistics.

6) Life-Cycle support: The final logistical design objective is life-cycle support. Few items are sold without some guarantee that the product will perform as advertised over a specified period.

Product recall is a critical component resulting from increasingly rigid quality standards, product expiry date and responsibility for hazardous consequences.

We come across cases where a company does a product recall. In India, there have been cases of automobile companies recalling cars to ensure certain quality specifications.

Return logistics requirements also result from the increasing number of laws prohibiting disposal and encouraging recycling of beverage containers and packaging materials.

BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment
BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Logistics management is important for certain reasons-Elaborate.

Ans:Logistics management:

Logistics management plays a vital part in operating your supply chain. How smoothly your logistics work will make a huge impact on your supply chain as a whole.

With the correct logistics management in place, you can save time and money and deliver superior customer service. Logistics management is extremely important if your business is to be successful. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

It involves careful control of the goods both leaving your business premises and entering them, thus keeping your company running smoothly as a whole.

These are our top reasons to help perfect logistics management.

Logistics management is a supply chain management component that is used to meet customer demands through the planning, control and implementation of the effective movement and storage of related information, goods, and services from origin to destination.

It helps companies reduce expenses and enhance customer service.

Importance of logistics management:

Logistics management is extremely important for any enterprise is to be successful. It involves careful control of the goods both leaving the business premises and entering them, thus keeping the organization running smoothly as a whole.

Logistics management helps organizations seeking to use logistics as the key to gain competitive advantage. Logistics management involves numerous elements, including:

i) Choosing the most effective routes for transportation.

ii) Discovering the most competent delivery method.

iii) Using software and IT resources to proficiently handle related processes.

In logistics management, unwise decisions create multiple issues. For example, product deliveries that fail or are delayed lead to buyer dissatisfaction.

The damage of goods due to careless transportation is another potential issue. Poor logistics planning gradually increases expenses, and issues may arise from the implementation of ineffective logistics software. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Most of these problems occur due to improper decisions related to outsourcing, such as selecting the wrong vendor or carrying out delivery tasks without sufficient resources.

Good logistics management helps organisations deliver better service to their customers. Effective management of company’s logistics helps in improving delivery and offers better customer service to all those who buy the products.

While dealing directly with the customers to meet their demands, it is important to make sure that supplies or products are received on time and that products are sent to the customers as quickly as possible.

Logistics management is important for the following reasons:

1) Cost Reduction and Profit Maximisation: The optimal way is to boost the revenue by improving logistics management. Logistics management results in cost reduction and profit maximisation, primarily due to: BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

i) Improved material handling
ii) Safe, speedy, and economical transportation
iii) Optimum number and convenient location of warehouses etc.

2) Efficient Flow of Manufacturing Operations: Inbound logistics help in the efficient flow of manufacturing operations, due to on-time delivery of materials, proper utilisation of materials and semi-finished goods in the production process and so on.

3) Competitive Edge: Logistics provide, maintain, and sharpen the competitive edge of an enterprise by:

i) Increasing sales through providing better customer service

ii) Arranging for rapid and reliable delivery

iii) Avoiding errors in order processing; and so on.

4) Effective Communication System: An efficient information system is a must for sound logistics management.

As such, logistics management helps in developing effective communication system for continuous interface with suppliers and rapid response to customer enquiries.

5) Sound Inventory Management: Sound inventory management is a byproduct of logistics management.

A major problem of production management, financial management etc., is to ensure sound inventory management, which is solved by logistics management.

                           Assignment B

Q 3 Discuss the types of material handling systems.

Ans:Types of material handling systems: The handling of material is either manual or automated. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Manual handling: Manual handling involves manual methods to move individual containers by lifting,lowering, filling, emptying, or carrying them.

Ergonomic improvements can be used to modify manual handling tasks to reduce injuries by reconfiguring the tasks and using equipment such as lift/tilt/turn tables etc., to reduce reaching and bending.

Manual handling can expose the workers to injuries especially handling heavy equipment.

Automated handling: Automated handling equipment can be used to reduce and sometimes replace the need to manually handle material.

Most of them require a human operator for tasks such as loading/unloading and driving. In a way it is semi automated.

Automated handling is increasing with advances in machine intelligence, and robotics.

All the material handling equipment in the facility is required to be a single unified system based on the following principles:

i) Planning: It encompasses a plan that includes suppliers, consultants, components of finance, engineering, management, and operations.

ii) Unitization: Assembling of goods as one compact load.

iii) Systems: Integration of handling and effective storage activities which is cost effective.

iv) Standardisation: Standardisation of material handling methods can enable the equipment and controls to perform various tasks than doing a specific one.

v) Space Utilisation: Ensuring effective utilisation of space and keeping the areas organised and clutter-free for the use of storage space within the facility.

vi) Environment: Designing for ensuring reusability and recyclability along with environmental friendliness. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

vii) Safety Principle: Providing safe methods of handling equipment and following safety codes.

Q 4 Describe the different transportation modes for movement of materials and products.

Ans: Different transportation modes for the movement of materials and products:

These most common five modes of transport are railways, roadways, airways, waterways, and pipelines.

Following is a brief account of each mode with reference to Indian conditions with relative merits and demerits.

I. Railways: Indian railway system has grown into Asia’s largest and the world’s fourth-largest. It has route length of 72,000-kilo meters by the end of 1990.

The daily run is 15,000-kilo meters with a running of 12,000 trains carrying 7 lakh tons of goods. The average cost per ton kilometer is 27 paise.

II. Roadways: Indian road network is one of the largest in the world. It has a total road length of 18 lakh kilometers of which 50 percent is surfaced.

Of this, national highways account for 35,000 kilometers account for the 50 percent of total traffic. On this road length, 9 lakh vehicles ply carrying goods.

III. Airways: We cannot boast of airways in India as we do in case of railways and roadways because, it is underdeveloped and underutilized.

It acts as a feeder or supporting transport means. Domestic capacity available is 115 lakh ton kilo meters but utilized only to the extent of 12 lakh ton-kilometers in 1990.

IV. Waterways: Waterways of the nation provide other alternative means of transport. Unfortunately, in India, waterways are not fully developed though she has a great potentiality. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Though India has 7,000 kilo meters of navigable river waterways, only 2,500 kilometrers are used.

Again, we have 4,800 kilo metres of canals of only 600 kilo metres are navigable but hardly 400 kilo meters are actually used.

V. Pipe-Lines: Pipe-lines are the specialized means of transportation designed to move the items like crude oil, petroleum, chemicals, coal, lime-stone, iron-ore, copper concentrates and gas.

India has made a late beginning in this regard unlike U.S.A., U.S.S.R. and Middle-East, and the development is undertaken only in case of oil refineries to move petrol and gas from sources to markets.

Q 5 Bring out the requirements of logistics information system.

Ans: Requirements of logistics information system:

Logistics Information System is a system of records and reports whether paper-based or electronic, used to aggregate, analyze, validate and display data from all levels of logistics system that can be used to make logistics decisions and manage the supply chain.

The effectiveness of the Logistics Information System is based on real-time accurate information enabling a reliable accurate forecast from the raw material suppliers to the ultimate consumer with a large geographical spread.

There are three types of information systems that serve different organisational levels. These are operational level systems, management-level systems, and strategic-level systems.

Converting logistics data to information, representing it in a manner useful for decision making and interfacing the information with decision-assisting methods are at the core of LIS. There are certain requirements which are:

i) Organisation decisions: It relates to the decisions to be made at each level of organisation. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

While designing information system, it must be ensured that the concerned person is entitled to get required information needed for decision making.

ii) System requirement: After arriving at the decision on collecting information, next requirement is identification of source of information, the volume and quality of information.

A suitable channel of communication will have to be designed to satisfy various requirements.

iii) Control requirements: Based on guidelines given by the management, Logistics Information System system should be able to aid in decision making, minimising delays, and increasing efficiency.

Control is required to ensure that no errors are made.

iv) System input and output data: To satisfy the demand of a customer, several activities are undertaken by organisation which need proper coordination.

Action reports are made for the purpose of undertaking activities based on generated information. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment
BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment C

Q 6 There are several factors that impact logistics environment- Explain.

Ans: Factors that impact logistics environment:

The logistics transportation emits high greenhouse gas emission rates. Transport and the road traffic in particular produce fine particles that pollute the outside air.

These particles are not only dangerous and carcinogenic to humans, but they are also toxic to ecosystems.

Green logistics, also known as environmental logistics, refers to the sustainable policies and measures focusing on lowering the impact logistics has on the environment.

This includes the configuration of processes, structures, systems, and equipment used in the transportation, distribution, and warehousing of goods.

In the context of logistics, the prime concern tends to be pollution, or the impact of vehicle emissions into the atmosphere, onto the road or into the water. Vehicle emissions generally relate to burning fossil fuels and the gaseous and particulate emissions from the engines.

Q 7 Discuss the steps in procurement cycle.

Ans: Steps in procurement cycle:

The procurement cycle (or procurement process) is the transition of events that make up the process of procuring goods. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

An efficient procurement process is critical to the financial efficiency of any business as it aids in paying the right price for goods and services, minimises delivery times, and helps you choose the best partners to work with your business.

Whether you’re initiating a new process from scratch, or you feel that you need to reassess existing procurement procedures, below are seven crucial steps in the procurement life cycle.

1 Identify required goods or services.

2 Consider a list of suppliers.

3 Negotiate contract terms with selected suppliers.

4 Finalize the purchase order.

5 Receive invoice and process payment.

6 Delivery and audit.

7 Maintain accurate invoices for future audits.

8 Identify the gaps that influence customer expectations.

Ans: Gaps that influence customer expectations:

The customer gap is the difference between customer expectations and customer perceptions. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

The customer gap is the most important gap and in an ideal world the customer’s expectation would be almost identical to the customer’s perception.

When what the customer receives doesn’t measure up to what they expected to get from you, it can lead to reduced sales and a bad reputation.

It may reflect on the quality of your product or highlight poor service from your team. Either way, it shows that your brand cares very little about your customers.

And who really wants to do business with a company that gives little to no thought about its customers?

Improving customer satisfaction ultimately hinges on a company being able to close the gap between what customers expect and what a company actually provides.

Q 9 List the benefits of outsourcing logistics management activities.

Ans: Benefits of outsourcing logistics management activities:

Logistics Outsourcing can be defined as the strategic use of outside parties (business independency) to perform activities traditionally handled by internal staff and resources.

Allyn allocates resources to your company in order to manage your supply chain. The main role of logistics in supply chain management is primarily to increase the overall value of each delivery, which is identified by customer satisfaction.

This means that the reduction and optimization of labour resources must be tied in with keeping up a certain level of quality customer service.

Efficient logistics management has following benefits:

1 Improving customer experience, BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

2 Optimizing operational costs.

3 Boosting profitability.

4 Better intermodal operations.

5 Greater delivery productivity and efficiency.

6 Intelligent route planning.

7 Logistics management helps to provide fast and quality service.

Q 10 Bring out the challenges to effective logistics management.

Ans: Challenges to effective logistics management: Looking at the economy globally, there is a huge need for good logistics. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

She is the Chief Assistant in Commerce and contributes to business growth. Logistics managers face many challenges throughout the supply chain on a daily basis:

i) Reduction of transport costs: Transportation costs are a major item in logistics. All freight forwarders and agents try to negotiate the most optimal amounts for the transportation of the particular cargo.

ii) Processing a large amount of information: Generating timely and accurate documentation makes it difficult for logistics professionals because the process involves many figures, data and compliance with legal deadlines.

iii) Compliance with regulations: Some clients have no idea how much logistics managers need to know the regulations and laws.

iv) Streamline operations: The future of logistics is focused on improving technology automating possible logistics processes. BPAS 184 Free Solved Assignment

Different software solutions will help improve the performance of different industries, resulting in speed, efficiency and customer satisfaction.

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