IGNOU BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment 2022- Helpfirst

BPAG 174


BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022

Assignment A

Q1 Discuss the meaning and nature of sustainable development.

Ans:Sustainable development

Sustainable development has an important role and place in the discourse on development. Sustainable development is the centre of debates and discussions among the development experts, environmentalists and national leaders of both developed and developing countries.

The United Nations and its agencies, as well as many international institutions, commissions, and world leaders, do recognize the significance of sustainable development.

Much before the Brundtland Report’s definition of sustainable development, in the early 1970s, the term sustainable development was coined by Barbara Ward, founder of the International Institute for Environment and Development in the early 1970s.

Sustainable development for her was largely about people, their economic and social well-being and aspirations for equity in their relationships with each other, in a context where environment-society imbalances could threaten economic and social stability.

The legacy of the concept of sustainable development is however attributed to the Brundtland Report or the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development entitled Our Common Future, which defines it as development that “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

Thus, it seeks to satisfy the compulsions of equity within the human generations and also between them. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

‘Sustainable development thus, is development that meets the needs of present and future generations.

Given the global and local effects of environmental decay, it is no surprise that sustainable development has become a catchword in development planning and resource management.

Nature of sustainable development:

Keeping in view what we leave or pass on to our children and grandchildren, we must think of the full range of physical and human capital, and natural resources that will determine their welfare.

Adopting the principle of sustainable development would necessarily require a fundamental change in thinking.

The data used for decision-making must reflect the true costs of resource depletion and pollution, as they affect future generations rather than just the short-term costs of profits of depleting income-producing resources.

When a country experiences rapid population growth or dramatic urbanisation, an increase in Gross National Product or GNP may hide or camouflage major development problems.

The same difficulty arises when the world demand for the raw resources from a country or a region rises to meet increasing global needs. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

In sum, until we are prepared to define sustainability in ways that take stock of both the external threat from food policies in the North and the internal threat from demographic pressure in the South, it will remain illusory.

Similarly, to cope with the growing problems of land pressures in India, it is necessary to check and control the population growth rate.

The sustainability aspect requires that environmental administrators aim at:

i) Maintaining ecosystem and related ecological processes, essential for the functioning of biosphere. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

ii) Sustaining biological diversity by ensuring the survival and promoting the conservation in their natural habitats of all species of flora and fauna.

iii) Observing the principle of optimum sustainable yield in the exploitation of living natural resources and ecosystems.

iv) Preventing or abating significant environmental pollution or harm.

v) Establishing adequate environmental protection standards.

vi) Undertaking or requiring prior assessments to ensure that major law, policies, projects, and technologies contribute to sustainable development.

vii) Making all relevant information public without delay in all cases of harmful or potentially harmful releases of pollutants, especially radioactive releases.

BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment
BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Q 2 Elucidate the relationship between food security and sustainable development.

Ans:Relationship between food security and sustainable development:

The unprecedented increase in population during the last half-century led to increasing food demand. BPAG 174 Free Solved AssignmentBPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

The productive capacity of cultivated systems has stagnated or even declined in the face of increased food demand from growing populations.

The shortage of cropland, together with falling productivity, is a significant factor contributing to global food shortages and associated human malnutrition and hunger across the world.

To meet growing demands, massive transformation of natural ecosystems is needed. The single greatest land use by humans has occurred for the singular purpose of obtaining more accessible, reliable, and productive sources of food.

Food production systems face global challenges. These include meeting the growing demand for food, reducing poverty and malnutrition, and achieving
environmental sustainability.

The high prevalence of starvation, hunger, and malnutrition across the world, particularly in developing countries is related to sustainability of global agriculture production.

Today, the world has around 852 million chronically hungry people. Feeding this growing population and reducing the prevalence of hunger adequately will only be possible if agricultural yields can be increased significantly.

The complex relationships between food security and sustainable development are influenced by the following issues: BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Green Revolution: Low productivity in the agricultural sector has a huge impact that extends beyond the agricultural sector to food security and improved nutrition of children.

Low productivity prevents households and countries from accumulating assets, diversifying their economies and making use of new technologies to move into higher value-added sectors. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Low agricultural productivity is one of the most important factors that contribute to food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa..

Loss of Biodiversity: For centuries, the agricultural base of developing countries were built upon the locally available natural resources, indigenous knowledge and traditional methods of agriculture production. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Traditional knowledge of resource conserving farming practices aimed at producing and harvesting different crop varieties, livestock and fisheries.

Basically, these practices are in harmony with the environment. However, over the years, a number of essential nutrients of the land have depleted due to large-scale introduction of single crop under mechanised agriculture practice.

Depletion of Livestock and Fisheries: Livestock production has important implications for ecosystems and ecosystem services, as it is the single largest user of land either directly through grazing or indirectly through consumption of fodder and feed grains.

The global importance of livestock and their products is increasing as consumer demand expands with population growth, rising incomes, and urbanisation.

This rapid worldwide growth in demand for food of animal origin, with its accompanying effects on human health, livelihoods, and environment brings the issue of sustainable development to the forefront.

Desertification: Desertification is one of the greatest environmental and development problems of the 21st century.

Desertification, as detrimental process brings about a gradual and an unnoticed reduction in the productive capacity of land over a period of years.

The end point of this deteriorating and ecologically unsustainable process would lead to the formation of a complete wasteland incapable of producing anything useful for the community BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Climate Change: Climate change has been identified as a ‘threat multiplier’ in global security, as it poses a threat to human security, particularly in societies that already lack significant progress in developmental sectors.

Climate change worsens the living conditions of farmers, fishermen and forest-dependent people who are already vulnerable and food insecure.

More frequent and intense, extreme weather will have adverse immediate impacts on food production, infrastructure for food distribution, livelihood assets and opportunities in both rural and urban areas.

Assignment B

Q3 Briefly discuss the environmental components of sustainable development.

Ans: Environmental components of sustainable development:

The environmental components of sustainable development are as following:

i) Interconnectedness of the System: Traditionally we use numbers to show progress: “Employment rose 0.8 percent in January”, or, “The economy grew by 2% last year”, “Air pollution has declined by 0.2 percent”, “Dowry death has increased by 1.3%”, etc.

However, the traditional numbers only show changes in one part of the community without showing the various links between the community’s economy, society, and environment.

It is as if a community was made of three separate parts:

(i) an economic part,
(ii) a social part, and BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment
(iii) an environmental part. In this view, the parts do not overlap.

ii) The Path of Sustainable Development: Sustainability implies irreversibility in the process of development. It necessitates the maintenance of the level of wellbeing so that it improves, and, at the least, never allows a decline over time.

Thus, sustainable development has three interdependent and mutually reinforcing pillars:
(i) economic development,

(ii) social development, and

(iii) environmental protection. It does not focus solely on environmental issues. We should differentiate between green development and sustainable development.

The proponents of green development prioritize environmental sustainability over economic and cultural considerations. But cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature.

iii) Intergenerational Approach: Sustainable development improves the economy without undermining the social or environmental imperatives.

Sustainable development focuses on improving our lives without continually increasing the amount of energy and material goods that we consume.

A sustainable community does not consume resources energy and raw materials faster than the regenerative capacity of the natural systems. We are currently living unsustainable lives.

Q 4 Discuss the features of Earth Summit 1992.

Ans:Features of Earth Summit 1992:

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from June 3 to June 14, 1992.

In this conference, about 178 governments participated, including the heads of 118 States or Governments. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

The Commission on Sustainable Development was created in December 1992 to ensure effective follow-up of UNCED, to monitor and report on implementation of the agreements at the local, national, regional and international levels.

Bringing together nearly 200 government representatives and a large number of NGOs, the Earth Summit gave rise to the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, a key document reaffirming an international commitment to the principles of sustainable development.

Further to this meeting, international institutions were set up to realize the commitments made by the nations in attendance.

Five Agreements Signed during the Conference:
Five agreements were signed during the conference. These are listed as follows:

1 The Framework Convention on Climate Change that introduced measures designed to reduce the threat of global warming.

2 The Convention on Biological Diversity which put forward proposals aimed at preserving. The Earth’s biological diversity through the protection of species and ecosystems.

3 Agenda 21 – this was an action plan, aimed at introducing sustainable development, which it is hoped would guide government policies throughout the world over the forthcoming decades.

4 The Rio Declaration includes 27 principles which was believed would guide action on development and the environment.

5 Finally, the Forest Principles emphasizing the right of states to exploit their own forest resources while advocating general principles of sustainable forest management.

Q 5 Describe the characteristics of green technologies.

Ans:Characteristics of green technologies:BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Green technology (also known as environmental technology, clean technology or greentech) is the application of environmental monitoring, green chemistry, environmental science, and various technological processes for environmental protection.

This term is also used for sustainable energy production technologies such as wind turbines, bioreactors, recycling, photovoltaics, etc. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Also, environmental technology may be related to electronic devices and gadgets that promote the sustainable resources management.

Green technology includes different technological processes to protect the environment or to revive and repair already damaged ecosystems.

In general, all green technologies can be divided into two very broad groups: technologies that deal with global warming and sustainable technologies.

There are many examples of environmental technology application (in different fields), and some of them are:

Recycling: Includes solid waste management, waste incineration technology, different types of wastewater treatments, and other eco-friendly waste recycling technologies.

Renewable (alternative) energy technology: Energy production from renewable natural resources such as sun, water, wood, wind and so on.

Water purification: In addition to water purification technologies, various activities and environmental campaigns have been organized to help purify water around the world.

Air purification: It refers to green technologies and cultivation of plants to remove Co, and keep air fresh. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Sewage treatment: Green technology similar to water purification.

Environmental remediation: The removal of contaminants or pollutants for the general environment protection.

Energy conservation: The utilization of electrical devices that use smaller amounts of energy; this leads to the decrease of electricity consumption which causes less consumption of fossil fuels.

BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment
BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Assignment C

Q 6 What is green accounts approach?

Ans:Green accounts approach:

Green accounting is a type of accounting that attempts to include factor environmental costs into the financial results of operations.

The major purpose of green accounting is to help businesses understand and manage the potential quid pro quo between traditional economics goals and environmental goals.

Green national accounting extends conventional national product measures to provide better indicators of economic welfare, as well as indicators of the degree to which welfare levels can be sustained. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

A big part of the greening of national accounts concerns issues related to the environment.

The Green accounting system is a type of accounting that attempts to factor environmental costs into the financial results of operations.

It has been argued that gross domestic product ignores the environment and therefore policymakers need a revised model that incorporates green accounting.

Q 7 Comment on the concept of development.


Development is a process that creates growth, progress, positive change or the addition of physical, economic, environmental, social and demographic components.

The identification of these traps enables relating to political – economic – social conditions in a country in an attempt to advance development.BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Development means “improvement in country’s economic and social conditions”.

More specially, it refers to improvements in way of managing an area’s natural and human resources. In order to create wealth and improve people’s lives.

Development is basically an economic concept that has positive connotations; it involves the application of certain economic and technical measures to utilize available resources to instigate economic growth and improve people’s quality of life.

There are 5 basic types of development. Physical, intellectual, social, emotional, and moral.

Q 8 Make a list of the goals of sustainable development.

Ans:Goals of sustainable development: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015, provides a shared blueprint for peace and prosperity for people and the planet, now and into the future.

At its heart are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which are an urgent call for action by all countries developed and developing in a global partnership.

The 17 sustainable development goals to transform our world:
GOAL 1: No Poverty, BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment
GOAL 2: Zero Hunger,
GOAL 3: Good Health and Well-being,
GOAL 4: Quality Education
GOAL 5: Gender Equality,
GOAL 6: Clean Water and Sanitation,
GOAL 7: Affordable and Clean Energy
GOAL 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth,
GOAL 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure,
GOAL 10: Reduced Inequality,
GOAL 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities,
GOAL 12: Responsible Consumption and Production,
GOAL 13: Climate Action,
GOAL 14: Life Below Water,
GOAL 15: Life on Land,
GOAL 16: Peace and Justice Strong Institutions,
GOAL 17: Partnerships to achieve the Goal

Q 9 What do you mean by global commons?

Ans:Global commons: Global commons are the common governance by international community over the areas or regions which are located outside the sovereign jurisdiction of any one state or authority.BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

The global commons includes those parts of the Earth’s surface beyond national jurisdictions notably the open ocean and the living resources found there or held in common notably the atmosphere. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Today, the Internet, World Wide Web and resulting cyberspace are often referred to as global commons.

All life on Earth depends on clean air and water, biodiversity, and healthy forests, land, oceans and a stable climate.

These global commons-the ecosystems, biomes and processes that regulate the stability and resilience of the Earth system-are the very foundation of our global economy and modern society.

The result can be overexploitation overfishing, overgrazing, excessive extraction of groundwater, and overuse of the commons are examples.

The defining and protection of the commons cause considerable problems within the boundaries of countries. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Q 10 Examine the term ‘sustainable choices’.

Ans:Sustainable choices: BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

The sustainable choice symbol is applied to products with a proven level of sustainability. Products marked with the symbol have been selected based on Nordea’s rigorous ESG criteria.

Each product provides more information about the sustainability credentials under the heading ‘Sustainability’.

Nordea has been a sustainable banking pioneer for over a decade and offers an attractive portfolio of sustainable financial products.

The offering includes sustainable financial/lending products, funds, and pension products, and it is continuously being expanded to meet customer, investor, and regulatory demands.

Sustainability is a preferred option for a growing number of customers. Approximately 30% of total assets managed by Nordea Asset Management are in strictly ESG-themed funds, and this proportion is rising rapidly. BPAG 174 Free Solved Assignment

Sustainability is often represented diagrammatically. There are three pillars of sustainability economic viability, environmental protection, and social equity.


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