GOVERNANCE: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1 Discuss the governance indicators across six dimensions.
Ans:One of the best mechanisms to measure and manage governance be it national, state or at local level is to assess the way it functions.
It is generally said that “If you can’t measure it, you can’t manage it” which signifies the importance of performance measurement.
Performance measurement has turned out to be the best indicator and it has become a known fact that seldom the public sector could achieve Sustainable Development Goals without measuring the costs, deadlines, targets, quality of work, and citizen satisfaction.
However, in governance context, it becomes challenging for the public sector to measure performance due to inherent complexities like lack of adequate statistics to quantify, dearth of qualified personnel to carry out survey, etc.
In collaboration with World Bank, Kaufmann et.al (2010) made an attempt to quantify governance indicators by using the data of over 200 countries. Let us briefly discuss the indicators given below: BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
- Voice and Accountability:
Citizens’ Voice and Accountability are key governance indicators that point out the ability of the citizens to exercise their freedoms and articulate their priorities, and to hold concerned stakeholders responsible for their actions.
This is measured through citizen participation in democratic processes.
For example, in the case of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, social audit has been used as a governance tool to monitor the official records, quality of work, and to determine whether the allocated resources has been utilised effectively at the village level.
- Political Stability and Absence of Violence:
Political stability represents strong political institutions and predictable policies that foster economic stability, Consumer Price Index, social investments, and the capacity of the government to cope with financial risks of any magnitude.
With regard to Absence of Violence/Terrorism, it is related to the government’s preparedness to terror attacks and its ability to tackle mob violence.
- Government Effectiveness: BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
This refers to the perception of public service quality, such as, efficiency in resource mobilisation, access to clean drinking water, affordable health care and education, good infrastructure, food security, civil service integrity, etc.
- Regulatory Quality:
This is associated with monetary policies and regulatory framework that promote business enterprises(micro and macro), simplified tax laws, stimulation of competitive markets,subsidies, pruning of redundant rules, effective government to business interface etc. With the introduction of economic reforms in 1991, India could boost its productivity and strengthen its international trade and investment by improving on its economic, legal, and physical infrastructure.
- Rule of Law:
Rule of Law is the vital indicator which intends to maintain harmony in an open society where private sector and civil society jointly work with the government to resolve complex social problems.
With the engagement of various stakeholders in public service delivery, the State is expected to safeguard its citizens against arbitrary actions of the service providers and in enforcement of rights and remedies.
- Control of Corruption: BPAG 172 Solved Assignment
It refers to the capacity of the government in handling and preventing corrupt practices.
Post-globalisation,the ministries and departments have had persuaded organisations to automate processes that are vulnerable to corruption through Information and Communication Technology.
For example, the Unified Mobile Application for New-age Governance launched by the Government of India is a single platform intended to access a wide range of citizen-centric services across service providers without any manipulation.
Q 2 Analyse through examples the stakeholders’ involvement in governance.
Ans: Stakeholders involvement in governance:
George Frederickson had put forth five postulates on the role of public in the realm of public administration.
These encompass public as interest groups, consumers, represented voters, clients and citizens. According to this theory, public in general are viewed as passive recipients of benefits rather than active participants. BPAG 172 Free Assignment
Frederickson argues that a general theory of the public must be based on four requisite elements.
These include the Constitution, the enhanced notion of virtuous citizen, systems and procedures for responding to the collective and inchoate public, and benevolence or public service in the greater good.
The introduction of National Forest Policy in the year 1988 and the subsequent introduction of joint forest management in the year 1990 are the important milestones in the stakeholder participation in the programme.
It is implemented with the objective of reducing deforestation with the active participation of local communities along with forest department.
The afforestation programme links the local communities by identifying their economic interest in the forests.
This makes the local communities as stakeholders to protect and work towards sustainable use of forest. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment 2022
This includes the right to use of minor forest produce and sharing of timber harvest with forest department.
Minor forest produce include non timber items such as resins, fruits, seeds, honey, medicines, tobacco, betel leaves and bamboo.
If the villagers fail to cooperate, the revenue sharing may stop and the forest would be owned by the forest department.
There is no transfer or lease agreement with joint forest committees. The joint forest committees are formed at the village level. They are responsible for managing the forest resources.
The existing studies also prove that implementation of government programmes and policies within the framework of rules and regulations did not provide expected results.
The communities encounter difficulties in functioning in a top-down system. Instead, institutionalising a broad system that is bottom up based on their needs give fruitful results.
Coordination, shared values and personal commitments are more effective than adherence to rules and regulations. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Participation increases legitimacy and promotes coordination. Micro Plan is one of the techniques or tools used in the community based planning..
The 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts provided Constitutional guarantee to the villagers and urban dwellers to utilise available local resources for the implementation of development programmes.
Thus, panchayats and municipalities are considered as development institutions at the grassroots level.
The micro-planning process facilitates gram sabha members to arrive at their action agenda engaging government, elected representatives and other key actors in the process of village development.
The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation is an example of collaborative venture between central government and Delhi government.
It has apart from these two other stakeholders, the external funding agency Japanese International Cooperation Agency, consultants, contractors and other agencies.
The success of agreements reached among the stakeholders and the efficiency can be considered as stakeholder satisfaction for all those involved in the collaborative venture.
Globally also there are several practices of engagement of stakeholders in several areas.
In Quebec, Canada, public, private and not for profit actors discuss and decide on management of water resources at the basin level and jointly design the river basin management plans.
There are several engagement mechanisms indicating clearly the responsibilities ranging from information sharing and empowerment to the autonomy of actors in taking informed decisions in water resources management.BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Q 3 Discuss the theories of development.
Ans:Theories of development:
In the history of psychology, there have been many different fields of interest. Human development,especially, has been one of the interesting fields of study for many psychologists.
Freud, Erikson, and Piaget are all great theorists with similar, but different, ideas of human development.
Their theories on human development had human beings passing through different stages as aging.
Although the three theorists have common relations that they developed their ideas and theory stages for human development through the lifespan, each theory represents own uniqueness on what these stages were and what they focus on and where they relate human development too.
Freud is known as the father of psychology. According to Freud, he believed that human development was fueled by inner forces.
He believed our sexual being was the most powerful of all inner forces throughout human development. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
That being said, Freud linked everything with sex. Thus, nowadays, Freud’s theory on human development is labeled the psychosexual stages of development.
Erikson developed his theory inspired by Freud. Not only Erickson focused on child development, but he also added stages for the adult years.
He focused on identity rather than sexuality, unlike Freud.
Piaget also believed in developmental theory like Freud and Erikson. Her stages are recognized as the cognitive stages.
These stages are based on what the child can do. That being said, Piaget’s theory is focused on the learning and development of the child.
According to Piaget, a child passes through four stages as growing up.
Although both Piaget and Freud were interested in the child’s abilities and senses, Piaget did not relate the stages with sexual desires unlike Freud was. Piaget believes the four stages of development which is known as the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage.
Q 4 Examine the factors responsible for changing role of bureaucracy.
Ans:Factors responsible for changing role of bureaucracy.
Bureaucracy is the backbone of Indian administrative system. Its complexion is changing with the change in the socio-cultural and economic scenario.
The governance scenario around is changing under the rubric of New Public Management (NPM) and good governance reforms where more emphasis is on making bureaucracy more transparent, efficient and accountable. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
The responsibilities, the regulatory and service functions of bureaucracy are on increase. It is expected to play the role of knowledge manager to meet the contemporary governance challenges.
The role of bureaucracy varies at different levels. At the top level in governance structure, tasks of bureaucracy relate to policy formulation and devising appropriate implementation strategies.
The bureaucracy at the middle level is to discharge tasks of supervising, coordinating, networking and communicating and overseeing the implementation and execution.
It requires a blend of administrative, technical, and human skills. At the cutting edge level, the bureaucracy has to be proactive, innovative and entrepreneurial to deliver the services.
In nutshell, the shift or change in the role of bureaucracy in light of the emerging governance challenges can be understood under the following factors:
i.Fast pace of globalisation.
ii. Rapid advancement of communication technology and problems relating to cybercrime and threats due to social media.BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
iii. Advances in technology and mass-scale digitisation of government operations.
iv. New tools of governance.
v. Inclusive policies with a more sense of accountability and responsibility towards the excluded sections of society.
vi. Participatory and engaged governance i.e., engaging the civil society for better governance since citizens are the most important assets in governance.
vii. Building new skills and capacities.
Q 5 Write a note in brief on the forms of governance.
Ans: Forms of governance:
In the preceding sections, we have examined the different interpretations and conceptual uses of governance.
Similarly, there are various forms of governance more important among which are political, economic and social.
1 Political: Due to the global political and economic shifts, the nation states’ capacity to govern has been limited. There is a general feeling that there is a ‘hollowing out of the State.
This has resulted in shifting of the power outwards to international financial markets, to global companies to be able to move capital and other resources from one site of investment to another, and to supranational entities such as the World Bank or European Union.
Power has also percolated downwards to the sub-national level of regions and cities.
As a result of these changes, a series of reforms have taken place resulting in a reduction in the size of the machinery of government and its fragmentation.
2 Economic: A central theme in the governance literature is the idea that markets, hierarchies and networks form alternative strategies of coordination.
Different modes of governance, including those based on markets, hierarchies and network, are likely to coexist, with different institutional combinations in specific nations, but with networks becoming increasingly significant.BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
The neo-liberal political/economic regime of the 1980s and 1990s partly dismantled the conception of the State as a direct service provider.
The introduction of market mechanisms has led to a more fragmented and dispersed pattern of service delivery and regulation that required new forms of coordination.
3 Social: Another form of analysis of governance is responding to complexity, diversity and dynamic changes in society. Kooiman and Van Vliet, link governance to the need for an interactive form of governing.
The purpose of governance in our societies can be described as coping with the problems but also the opportunities of complex, diverse and fragmented societies.
Q 6 Discuss the conceptual framework of information and communication technology
Ans: Conceptual framework of information and communication technology:
Information and communication technology is a general term that takes into account any communication device or application that includes broadcasting technologies such as radio and television, computer, satellite systems, network hardware and software, the Internet, cell/ mobile phones, and other communication mediums.
It also encompasses the various services and applications that go with these systems such as videoconferencing, teleconferencing, distance learning and online learning and so on.
Wikipedia defines it to be an extended synonym for information technology but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
In other words, information and communication technology consists of information technology as well as telecommunication, broadcast media.
Q 7 State the key elements of citizen’s charter.
Ans: Key elements of citizen’s charter: Following are the key elements of citizen’s charter:
1 Quality: a sustained new programme for improving the quality of public services
2 Choice: Choice wherever possible between competing providers is the best spur to quality improvement. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
3 Standard: The citizen must be told what service standards are and be able to act where service is unacceptable.
4 Value: The citizen as a taxpayer has a right to expect that public services must give value for money within a tax bill the nation can afford.
5 Accountability: By holding both individuals and organisations responsible for performance in keeping with the specified standards and also ensuring that lapses if any are dealt with firmly and in an exemplary manner.
6 Transparency: Not only should make service providers available relevant information to the public but also provide easy access to such information, especially and procedures and redressal of grievances.
Q 7 What do you understand by financial decentralisation?
Ans:Financial decentralisation: The Central Government is increasingly finding difficulty to meet all of the numerous competing needs of their various constituencies at the regional and local levels. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
Its therefore attempting to build local capacity by delegating responsibilities downwards to their regional governments and local governments.
At the same time, the local governments are also demanding more functional and financial autonomy. As a result two things have happened:
i) Firstly, Central Government is looking towards local and regional government to assist them on devising economic development strategies.
ii) Secondly, regional and local political leaders are demanding more autonomy and want the taxation powers that commensurate with their expenditure responsibility.
Financial decentralisation is not only the allocation of resources by the Centre to the regional and local governments but also generation of resources by the regional and local governments.
Q 9 Explain sustainable development goals.
Ans:Sustainable development goals: In 2000, the Millennium Summit was held in New York, which resulted in the UN Millennium Declaration.
The Millennium Declaration resulted in a set of targets to be achieved by 2015 that included environmental sustainability, the eradication of extreme poverty and equality for women, now known as the Millennium Development Goals.
In 2000, 189 countries agreed under the umbrella of the United Nations on the Millennium Development Goals by signing the Millennium Declaration.
According to the UN Declaration, the Millennium Development Goals were to be achieved in a timeline of 15 years and, thus, they expired in 2015.
The Millennium Development Goals were composed by eight goals: seven social goals and one environmental goal (ensuring environmental sustainability).
The Millennium Development Goals reflected, indeed, the idea at that time that health and education were crucial drivers of development, thus sustainability and development were to be achieved by goals mostly focused on the improvement of individuals’ conditions.
The era of the Millennium Development Goals which mobilized attention on addressing the challenges of extreme poverty, hunger, illiteracy and disease came to an end in 2015.
Q 10 Bring out the challenges to inclusive and participative governance.
Ans:Challenges to inclusive and participative governance.
1 Gender Imbalance: With 50% reservation in local bodies, yet, women are not able to realize their political empowerment. BPAG 172 Free Solved Assignment
The constitutional arrangement enables all women irrespective of caste, class, education, and income to participate, however, the patriarchal attitude, lack of political and administrative understanding restrict them from performing development functions.
2 Lack of Citizen Awareness: There have been a whole lot of participative and inclusive structures in the country for women and marginalized sections, however, lack of awareness on government schemes inhibits their economic and social participation.
3 Lack of Adequate Capacity Building Training: People at the local level are still inadequate in terms of capacity building.
For example, to develop an integrated plan for the district, a joined-up dialogue and involvement are yet to scale up in several districts of India.
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