ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM IN BRICS
BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment Jan 2022
Q 1. Discuss the training process of civil servants in India.
ANS: Prior to the attainment of independence, a coordinated and well-concerted plan of training of public services both at the Centre and in the provinces did not exist. They expected the employees to learn by experience.
However, the I.C.S. recruits used to be attached with the Oxford or Cambridge Universities for a year in order to attend a series of lectures on Indian history, Indian criminal law and procedure and some Indian language.
In the words of Bapat, “There was very little in the training they received during probation which had any bearing on the job they would have to do as members of the Indian Civil Service.” BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
With the dawn of independence, the Government of India decided to pay some attention to the problem of organisation and training of the civil services.
An Officers’ Shortage Committee was appointed in November, 1947 to go into the matter.
The Committee recommended for the establishment of a Directorate of Methods, Organisation and Training at the Centre with a view to supervise the training programme of the various departments.
It also recommended the establishment of a training school for I.A.S. In 1951, A.D. Gorwala also made a similar recommendation in his report on Public Administration.
He suggested the creation of such a Directorate with two branches—one for the Organisation and Methods and the other for Training.
Dr. Paul Appleby—a visiting American professor-also recommended the same in his report on Public Administration submitted to the Government of India in 1953.
Even Planning Commission remarked, “Next to recruitment, the training of personnel has considerable bearing on administrative efficiency…” The Commission also recommended the appointment of Director of Training for training programmes.
The Methods and Organisation Division was created and a Director of Training was also appointed. However, I.A.S. Training School had been established earlier in 1947.
This school was eventually converted into the National Academy of Administration (at Mussoorie) which imparts foundational training to all superior civil services and also professional training to I.A.S. personnel.BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
As already said since 1972 it is known as Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration set up at Mussoorie.
Besides some of the State Governments also have started training schools for training their fresh recruits.
The Home Ministry in 1956 suggested to all the State Governments to start Refresher Courses for officers of the All India Services and Central Services Class I and asked them to participate in the proposed scheme in order to break down service exclusiveness and to increase the utility of study and discussion of the subjects included in the syllabus for the Refresher Course.
A Refresher Course at the I.A.S. Staff College, Shimla, was started in 1957 for the I.A.S. officers with a standing of six to ten years.
A combined course of I.A.S. Training School, Delhi, commenced from July 1959. Thereafter, the Ministry of Home Affairs amalgamated the I.A.S. Training School at Delhi and L.A.S. Staff College, Shimla, and started a National Academy of Administration at Missouri on September 1, 1959.
There are about 20 national institutes set up by the Government of India to provide initial and in-service training to train varied services.
The actual programme of training new recruits to All-India and Central Services is at present being carried out by the Central Secretariat Training School for recruits to the Central Secretariat services and the National Academy of Administration for the L.A.S. probationers.
New entrants to other All-India and Central Services are imparted a five-month foundational course at the Academy and then are sent to the Training Institutions for their respective services. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Such a course develops among recruits to different services a feeling of belongingness to common public service and a broad common outlook.
After the completion of four months’ Foundational Course, the probationers of the services other than the I.A.S. are given institutional training in their respective training centers.
Since 1969, the Indian Government has started a new type of training, viz., and ‘sandwich’ course for the I.A.S.
The fresh recruits to the I.A.S. have to undergo two spells of training at the Academy with a gap of one year which is utilized for practical training in the States.
At the end of this training, he is to come to the Academy for a second spell of training. At this stage, the probationers discuss the administrative problems they were confronted with or they observed during the practical training in the State.
Training at this stage is more problem-oriented. The Academy also organises short-courses, seminars, conferences, etc., for senior officers of fifteen years’ standing.
Such courses are connected with the higher problems of government and deal with special subjects like social security, fiscal policy planning and inter-departmental coordination. Both the technical and administrative officers are invited to these courses.
Thus, the Academy takes up three types of courses, viz:
(a) A one-year course for the I.A.S. officers to cover the syllabus prescribed under the All-India Services Probationers’ Final Examination Rules:
(b) A six-week refresher course BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
(c) a combined course of five months’ duration for the All-India Services and the Central Services Class I for imparting training in foundational subjects.
Such courses aim at widening the outlook of the probationers and other trainees. They are general in nature and make a provision for the imparting of general education in liberal arts to the personnel recruited for posts of specialized nature.
This fills a big void which previously existed and is a step in the right direction.
Q 2. Describe the administrative reforms undertaken in China.
ANS: The past three decades of “economic politics” (Qiao 2003) saw another six administrative reforms (1982. 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003, and 2008), which © 2010 Southeast Conference of the Association for Asian Studies Administrative Reform in China 101 were significantly different from the three earlier reforms in terms of depth, scale, sophistication, and implication.
The country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the control of the Central Government.
China has 34 administrative local authorities, including 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities directly under the Central Government (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and Chongqing) and two special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau).
“Street offices”3 in urban areas and townships in rural areas constitute the grass-roots administration in China, and are becoming increasingly important in delivering social services – including human resources and social security services – to the public.
The evolution of labour administration in China can be divided into two stages following the establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) in 1949.
The first stage occurred between 1949 and 1978, the year when China launched its reform and opening-up policy. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The second stage runs from 1979 to the present. During the first stage, in November 1949, the Central Government established a Ministry of Labour, which played an important role in creating a labour administration framework and addressing the serious problem of unemployment inherited from the Guomindang Government as well as ensuring the people’s basic livelihoods.
The prevailing interpretation in the scholarly literature is that public sector reform in China during the period of marketization has been driven primarily by internal contextual factors rather than being under the sway of particular global reform models or theories such as New Public Management.
The aim of this article is to move beyond arguing from inference that “Chinese characteristics’ continue to be dominant and to inquire into the manner and extent of external influences on central government reform actors.
We assume a ‘multi-causal’ model in which both internal and external factors are present. From a survey of the literature on the reforms, we conclude that, while there are some ‘unique’ features, most of the themes (and even the results) of modern Chinese reforms are not unique and have parallels in Western countries.
Moreover, aside from the similarities in the content and substance of administrative reforms, the patterns and styles of reform in China and in the West in the past 20 years show marked similarities and parallels.
Thus, external reform ideas and influences are being diffused through reform processes. Further empirical and theoretical analysis is required to establish the more specific nature of scanning and dissemination, or other forms of diffusion;
the kind of learning that is taking place; and the impact that any imported models or templates actually have on reform proposals and outcomes in particular reform episodes.
Q 3 Highlight the parliamentary system of South Africa.
ANS: The Republic of South Africa is a parliamentary republic with three-tier system of government and an independent judiciary, operating in a parliamentary system.
Legislative authority is held by the Parliament of South Africa Executive authority is vested in the President of South Africa who is head of state and head of government, and his Cabinet. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The President is elected by the Parliament to serve a fixed term. South Africa’s government differs greatly from those of other Commonwealth nations.
The national, provincial and local levels of government all have legislative and executive authority in their own spheres, and are defined in the South African Constitution as “distinctive, interdependent and interrelated”.
Operating at both national and provincial levels (“spheres”) are advisory bodies drawn from South Africa’s traditional leaders. It is a stated intention in the Constitution that the country be run on a system of co-operative governance.
The national government is composed of three inter-connected branches: Legislative: Parliament, consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces
Executive: The President, who is both Head of State and Head of Government Judicial: The Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the High Court All bodies of the South African government are subject to the rule of the Constitution, which is the Supreme law in South Africa.
The Parliament of the Republic of South Africa is South Africa’s legislature; under the present Constitution of South Africa, the bicameral Parliament comprises a National Assembly and a National Council of Provinces.
The current twenty-seventh Parliament was first convened on 22 May 2019. From 1910 to 1994 members of Parliament were elected chiefly by the South African white From 1910 to 1994, members of Parliament were elected chiefly by the South African white minority.
The first elections with universal suffrage were held in 1994.
Q 4 Discuss the constitutional framework of Brazil.
ANS: Brazil’s independence was proclaimed on September 7th 1822, by the then Prince of constitutions beginning with the constitution of 1824.
The 1824 Constitution gave the Emperor wide control over governing institutions, such as the legislature and provincial governments and lasted until 1889, when Pedro II was overthrown and the Republic of Brazil was formed. 1891 Constitution This first republican constitution was very similar to the United States Constitution.
It established a presidential system and male universal suffrage from the age of 21.
It contained provisions for separation of powers, checks and balances, a bicameral legislature, direct elections, and created a Federal Chamber.
The former provinces were declared States, giving these individual entities a strong presidential or gubernatorial character.BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
1934 – 1937 Constitutions In 1930, Getulio Vargas organized a military revolt and led a Coup de’ Etat. His government created a new Constitution in 1934.
A couple of years later, Vargas faced a counter-revolution, forcing him to stage a coup, after which he began a new constitutional process.
The resulting President, who was the supreme authority of the State, elected by indirect elections for a term of six years.
Article 187 of the Constitution required conducting a plebiscite in order to approve the text before it entered into force, but it was never held.
The President had powers to appoint the Governors of the provinces, who in turn appointed the mayors of cities. As this was a de facto rule, Vargas legislated by decree.
During this period all political parties were dissolved; the Congress was closed; and individual rights and guarantees were suspended.
The government had a great intervention in the economy, and the subsoil and waterfalls were nationalized. The 1937 Constitution allowed Vargas to proclaim a dictatorship called the New State (Estado Novo) and to remain in power for another decade.
The 1946 Constitution: BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The 1946 Constitution replaced the New State’s dictatorship of Getúlio Vargas after he was overthrown by his war minister. A representative democracy was established and a new President, Eurico Gaspar Dutra, was elected for five years.
A constituent assembly drafted a more balanced and liberal Constitution which re-established basic individual rights and the separation of powers.
The document also maintained an important role of the state in the nation’s economy and reflected the influence of the U.S. Constitution with respect to federalism.
The 1967-1969 Constitutions In the following years, the 1946 Constitution suffered many amendments through Institutional Acts which severely compromised the document’s spirit and eliminated its democratic character.
It was replaced by a new constitution in 1967. This document was again changed through a constitutional reform in 1969. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Both constitutions were characterized by centralized power in the executive, in particular in the President, as they sought to institutionalize the military regime.
The presidential term of office was increased from four to five years, and the President was given more power to decree laws related to taxation, creation of public employment, and the determination of salaries for civil servants.
Institutional acts were used by military leaders to remove opposition members from the Congress.
The transition to the 1988 Constitution In the 1970s, the military regime faced popular uprisings and dissatisfaction as economic progress began to slow.
The transition from authoritarian rule to democracy started in 1974 when President Ernesto Geisel and his Chief of Cabinet, General Golbery de Couto e Silva conducted a gradual process of political opening or liberalization—which was characterized by small advances that limited the establishment of a full democracy.
The first important measure was the organization of free congressional elections in 1974.
In 1982 the military allowed direct elections for state governors and gradually increased federal transfers to municipal governments. a new law on political parties led to an opening of political life.BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In 1985, the government approved the convocation of the National Constituent Assembly (Assembléia Nacional Constituinte–ANC) to draft a new constitution.
For the 1988 Constitution drafting process, the 559-member Assembly adopted a “from scratch” participatory methodology and organized public hearings.
After twenty months of deliberation, the ANC produced the 1988 “citizen constitution.” This text required each state to rewrite its constitution and each municipality to elaborate its Organic Law.
Q 5 Explain the features of budgeting in Russia.
ANS: The Federal budget of Russia (Russian: DenepajuHbIÉ 610IKET Poccun) is the leading element of the budget system of Russia.
The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia.
That the federal budget is the primary means of redistribution of national income and gross domestic product through it mobilized the financial resources necessary to regulate the country’s economic development, social policy and the strengthening of the national defense.
The share of federal budget accounts for a significant portion of the distribution process, which is the allocation of funds between sectors of the economy, manufacturing and industrial areas, regions of the country. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The right of the Russian Federation for an independent federal budget is enshrined by Article 71 of the Russian Constitution and the Budget Code of Russia that regulates the details of its formation and execution.
In 2016, the Russian budget deficit reached $21 Bln. It was expected to rise to $21.7 billion in the year. 2016 budget revenues were estimated to be 13.7 trillion rubles (200 billion US dollars) or 17 5% of GDP while spending is planned to be 16 trillion rubles (roughly 233 billion)  or 20.5% of GDP. The budget deficit is thus 2.35 trillion rubles (33 billion dollars) or 3% of GDP
The federal budget is considered by the State Duma in three readings (amendments to the Code). At first reading, the basic parameters of the budget are adopted.
According to the Budget Code, during the first reading of the State Duma has the right to increase revenues and the federal budget deficit, if these changes are not the endorsement of the government.
The State Duma can reject the draft budget. In this case, a conciliation commission in conjunction with the government.
In the second reading of the State Duma approves the budget section by section, and the third is on the budget law as a whole.
Following the adoption of the State Duma the federal budget, the law goes to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, and then signed into law by the President.
Q 6 Discuss the constitutional court of Russian Federation.
ANS: The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Its objective is only to protect the Constitution in Russian constitutional law this function is known as “constitutional control” or “constitutional supervision”) and deal with a few kinds of disputes where it has original jurisdiction, whereas the highest court of appeal is the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation.
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation consists of 19 judges, one being the Chairman (currently – Valery Zorkin) and another one being Deputy Chairman.
The Chairman is responsible for the allocation of cases to chambers, has considerable powers in the matters of appointment, and makes the initial recommendation for disciplinary measures, in particular dismissal.
Certain powers of the Constitutional Court are enumerated in the Constitution of Russia.
The Constitutional Court declares laws, presidential and governmental decrees and laws of federal subjects unconstitutional if it finds that they are contrary to the Constitution (i.e. they violate certain rights and freedoms of citizens enumerated in and protected by the Constitution).
In such instances, that particular law becomes unenforceable, and governmental agencies are barred from implementing it.
Also, before an international treaty is ratified by the State Duma, the constitutionality of the treaty may be observed by the Constitutional Court (clarification needed] The Constitutional Court is not entitled to judge the constitutionality of laws on its own law may be submitted to the Constitutional Court by the President of Russia, ent of Russia, the State Duma,
the Federation Council of Russia, one-fifth of State Duma or the Federation Council, the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation, the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, or a legislative body of a Federal subject.
Any federal court may request the Constitutional Court to judge on the constitutionality of a law if the law is to be implemented in a case, and a judge of the federal court is in doubt about whether the law is contrary to the Constitution.
Also, any private citizen may submit in the Constitutional Court a claim challenging constitutionality of a particular law if that law was implemented in a particular case and thus violated rights of that citizen. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Another power of the Constitutional Court is to resolve disputes concerning competence of governmental agencies.
Whenever the President of Russia is impeached, the Constitutional Court renders a resolution concerning complying with the due order of indictment.
Q 7 Explain the judicial remedies in India for the citizens.
ANS: TYPES OF JUDICIAL REMEDIES
.Specific restitution of property DAMAGES
After the tort is committed damages is the most important remedy for the plaintiff. Because the complainant should be paid in full for the damage incurred by the other party and also restore the position of the plaintiff this may be done by a payment of money.
In the leading case of SCOTT V SHEPHERD, A defendant made of gunpowder hurled a lighted squib from the street to the store where large crowds of citizens were gathering the squash lit up around yates wills hurled the quid around the street to avert harm to himself and yates next to Ryal lands the squib.
Ryal took the squib and hurled it to another marketplace in order to prevent his own products from getting damaged. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The squib lit the complainant plaintiff eyes were injured by the lighted squib combustible matter.
The complainant has lost his eye usage plaintiff sued the defendant for trespass and assault on the lighted squib for throwing casting and tossing. The jury rendered a plea verdict in favour of the applicant.
TYPES OF DAMAGES:-
. NOMINAL DAMAGES :
Nominal damages are those damages where the plaintiff proves that the defendant has committed a tort against the plaintiff but there is no damage suffered by the plaintiff.
If the civil right of the plaintiff has been violated but no harm has occurred thereby injuria sine damno) the appreciation of his mistake the statute grants him negligible damages, in the case of Ashby V White,
the returning officer wrongfully disallowed a registered elector to the voter in a general election, but it was noted that the elector had not suffered any defect and that the candidate for which he wished to vote has secured the election for which the defendant has been held responsible.
. CONTEMPTUOUS DAMAGES:– They are awarded once the court considers the claimant’s action through technically thriving was while not benefit and will not have been brought. The claimant may be at risk of any expenses that the winning party usually get.
. GENERAL DAMAGES:– this damage is the sort of damage that should be incurred by the tort. Which is actionable per se and so there is no reason to say e.g. loss of credibility in a libel suit. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
. SPECIAL DAMAGES:- the terms used by the claimant negligence which must be shown as a part of the cause of acts in torts. where damage is said to be the gift of the action e.g. negligence, slander, a nuisance.
COMPENSATORY AGGRAVATED AND EXEMPLARY DAMAGES:
In this court may notice to check whether there is a specific tort committed or not then its take decision. It purposes of committing tort is to harm the proper feeling of dignity and pride of the plaintiff than the aggravated damages may be awarded.
It is one type of damages for the compensating the other party these damages given when their greater injury happens.
The incorrect and escalated harm is referred to as aggravated injury. The idea is not to punish the wrongdoer in granting such damages, therefore are “compensatory” in nature rather than punitive.
Where the damages received outweigh the property harm incurred by the complainant in order to avoid such conduct in the future, the damages shall be defined as “exemplary, punitive or vindictive”.
In the matter of Bhim Singh v state of J&K  there was wrongful detention in the case of Bhim Singh a member of the legislative assembly was arrested and detained to prevent him from attending the assembly session then it was challenged in supreme court through a writ petition but at the judgement time, Bhim Singh had been set free.
There was now no need to order that he be set at liberty but the supreme court considered it to be an appropriate case for awarding exemplary damages amounting to Rs 50,000 to Bhim Singh which the state gov. has to pay within 2 months whilegranting compensation
INJUNCTIONS : BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
An injunction is a type of order which is given by the court for doing of some act or preventing conduct or continuity of any act the court has the right to concede or refused this remedy. The injunction is various kind
It is an injunction which continues until a specific time a temporary injunction is generally granted before the case has been heard on merit it is only provisional only court have power for this
It is an injunction which shall be the order issued after the appeals have been concluded case since the argument has been made that the permanent injunction is meant to eventually resolve the conflict between the parties.
A perpetual injunction is a final order and is issued after the full consideration of the case.
SPECIFIC RESTITUTION OF PROPERTY :
This remedy is a third type of judicial remedies and this remedy is for restore the plaintiff position the court may grant or order a return of the particular property to the complainant after it has been unlawfully dispossessed of its moveable or immovable property.
Q 8 Highlight institutional framework and planning process in south africa
ANS: South Africa has commenced the institutionalization of national planning in government, a process that will result in the creation of a functional and integrated national planning system in the South African government. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The first step in this process was achieved in April 2015 when the National Planning Commission (NPC) released a Discussion document titled: ‘Reforming the South African Government Planning System (the ‘Discussion document’).
The Discussion document provided a common entry point for a policy discussion among stakeholders on the approach of the South African government towards establishing a national planning system.
Consultations on the document included engagements with the nine (9) provinces of the country, a major workshop with key stakeholders held in November 2016 followed by engagement with select national departments and metro municipalities.
The current arrangements for planning in government remain unsuited to the task of long-term planning for the development of the country.
This is because of the significant fragmentation in roles and powers across the three spheres of government.
This fragmentation has resulted in government policies and programmes achieving sub-optimal outcomes relative to the resources spent by the state in preparing and implementing them.
Spatial planning is a key instrument for achieving the development objectives of South Africa. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In order for these objectives to be met, spatial planning and spatial transformation will become an integral part of long-term planning by the government.
Spatial Planning will be implemented to ensure efficiency in the investment made by different sectors of the economy.
Development benefits from such an approach be realized if the investment decisions of different actors are coordinated.
Additionally, spatial planning creates environmental benefits through greater energy efficiency through densification and reductions in commuting distances.
Spatial planning will be guided by the normative principles established by the NDP, particularly spatial quality, sustainability, spatial resilience, spatial efficiency and spatial justice.
The Framework for Strategic Plans and Annual Performance Plans (FSAPPs) was introduced to enable government to improve departmental performance towards the achievement of results, obtain more reliable performance information and to support learning and improvement within the public service.BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The framework sought to improve the quality of strategic and annual performance planning, to strengthen accountability of public institutions as well as improve policy delivery.
FSAPP is being reviewed to provide enhanced principles for short and medium term planning in departments, align various institutional plans to government long and medium term planning goals of the NDP, and to provide guidance on institutional processes annual and strategic plans.
Q 9 Write a note on local governance in Brazil.
ANS: Brazil is a federal country with a presidential system which it has had for over a hundred years since it became a republic.
The federal government has always been the leading actor in the federation throughout both authoritarian and democratic regimes.
Throughout its history and until the 1990s, Brazil has had a history of economic boom and bust and its development has been hampered by high inflation, excessive indebtedness, political turmoil and two long periods of authoritarian rule.
The federal system has also experienced periods of centralization followed by decentralization. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Brazil is a highly centralized system, in which local units have very little authority. Each of Brazil’s 26 states has its own constitution and popularly elected legislature and governor.
The states are divided into 5,507 municipalities, which are, in turn, divided into districts. Each municipality has its own elected council and mayor.
The state and municipal legislative bodies are subordinate to the federal government.
Municipal authorities are responsible for the construction and maintenance of roads, the creation and upkeep of public parks and museums, and for the program of primary education.
As districts increase in population, they, in turn, become municipalities. The large municipalities are important political units and may rival the state in political power.
The largest city in each municipality serves as the capital, and usually the largest city in the largest municipality serves as the state capital.
The Federal District government in Brasília is appointed by the president with Senate approval. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
In 1960, after Brasília became the new capital, the former Federal District, comprising Rio de Janeiro and the 1,165 sq km (450 sq mi) surrounding it, became the state of Guanabara. Eventually this state was amalgamated into the state of Rio de Janeiro.
From 1979 on, a few previously unincorporated territories became states.
Q 10 Examine the role of civil society in India.
ANS: A well-functioning civil society is a boon for today’s multi-stakeholder-led paradigm of good governance.
Good governance refers to inclusive consensus-oriented mule-bound administration that is responsive to citizens’ pressing needs. By virtue of its expertise and goodwill, NGOs can help government improve quality of governance.
Civil society groups perform advocacy role by highlighting specific demands of the interest groups they represent.
Lobbying with government and legislators on such issues increases the chances of their concerns finding place in upcoming laws and executive decisions.
Pro-active participation of women’s rights groups has forced govt to rethink on many policies. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
The rights of trafficked children have been highlighted by groups like Bachpan Bachao Andolan, whose founded Kailash Satyarthi received Nobel Prize for his efforts.
LGBT groups have won rights of transgender in India via SC’s progressive judgments. Minority groups whose voices may drown in majoritarian rhetoric can effectively gain due limelight if represented by able interest groups at highest level of governance.
This assures equity, a vital parameter of good governance. Civil society is an important means to keep proper checks and balances on state who exercises power with public resources at its disposal.
In many cases, activism has forced govt to backtrack on its hastily conceived legislations like the Land Acquisition Bill.
Also, when politicians try to misuse the electoral provisions, NGOs such as Association of Democratic Reforms (ADR), PUCL, etc have optimally utilized PIL and judiciary route to control them. BPAE 143 Free Solved Assignment
Because of these efforts only, an electoral candidate has to disclose his assets, educational qualifications, past convictions (if any) – helping voters make an informed choice.
Elections being the start of a democratic cycle have been reformed by strident efforts of such NGOs and pro-active mass media.
In internal functioning of administration, thanks to reforms like RTI by Mazdoor Kisan Shakti Sangathan (MKSS) of Rajasthan, an element of transparency and accountability has been brought.
Many scams and diversions have been exposed by this progressive legislation that completes 10 years of enactment this year.
BPAE 141 SOLVED FREE ASSIGNMENT 2022