ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM AT UNION LEVEL
BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022
Q 1. Briefly discuss the central and provincial administrative structure of the Mughal administrative system.
Ans: Administrative structure of the Mughal administrative system: The mughal empire was divided into “Subas” which were further subdivided into “Sarkar”, “Pargana”, and”Gram”.
There were 15 Subas (provinces) durng_Akbar’s reigns, which later increased to 20 under the Auranzeb’s reign. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The Akbar introduced the Mansabdari system. The term “Mansab” indicates the rank of the holder. Mansabdari was both civil and military. During Mughal administration there were 3 methods of revenue collection i.e.Kankut, Ral, And Zabti.
Establishing a firm rule in Indian Subcontinent for nearly 200 years, the Mughals built an Empire with not only great political might but also a firm administrative setup that provided strength for a smooth functioning.
From the centralization of power to creating conducive conditions for economic and cultural growth, the Mughals looked at administrative matters with great seriousness and precision.
Enjoying absolute power, the Emperor of the Mughal Empire was always the central administrative authority.
A number of officers in the different governmental departments were appointed for the smooth functioning of transactions involving various affairs.
The state had four main departments and the four main officers of the central government were diwan; Mir bakhshi, Mir saman; and sadr.
The diwan (also called the Wazir or chief minister), held the primary position among them and looked after revenue and finance, but kept an overview of all matters of expenditure and related departments recording all imperial orders and assigning duties and expense to district faujdars.
Mir Bakshi handled the military pay and accounts and related duties. He not only was the Paymaster for all officers but also played role in recruitment of soldiers, listing of mansabdars and important officials.BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The imperial household was held by Khan-i-Saman. He dealt with matters relating to maintaining record and requirement of the state karkhanas, stores, order, interactions and internal relations.
The Sadr was the head of religious donations and contributions.
He also looked after education and imperialal ms. Sadr acted as the Chief Qazi before Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb divided these two offices and allotted two separate persons for these posts.
Occasionally a dignitary superior to the wazir and other ministers was also appointed called the vakil. Heacted as the deputy of the sultanate.
Akbar set the firm base for the provincial administration by fixing the territories of the provincial units and establishing a uniform administrative model subjected to a minor amendments to suit local circumstances.
Each province had a set of officials representing the branches of state activity, which made control over provinces more effective.BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The provincial administrative structure was the replica of that of the central government.
Sipah Salaror Nazim (the governor) well known by the name subahdar was appointed directly by the Emperor and was the main officer looking after civil and administrative responsibility of each Suba.
The Bakshi or the paymaster was the next provincial authority having duties of military establishment,salaries of Mansabdars and occasional duties like news writing for provinces.
In every Suba (province) was established the Dag Choki that conducted the intelligence and postal service.
The Waqai Navis and Waqai Nigars supplied direct reports to the King and Sawanih Nigars were the confidential report providers.
Provincial Sadr, Qazi etc performed the same duties within provinces as the central administration officials.
The faujdars (administrative head of district) and the kotwal (performing executive and ministerial duties). BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The items that can be legislated by the Union government, the state governments and jointly both by the union government and state government are mentioned in the lists known as List I – Union List, List IlState List and List III-Concurrent List.
1. The Union List:
The Union List consists of ninety-seven items. It is the longest of the three lists.
It includes items such as defence, armed forces, arms and ammunition, atomic energy, foreign affairs, war and peace, citizenship, extradition, railways, shipping and navigation, airways, posts and telegraphs, telephones, wireless and broadcasting, currency,
foreign trade, inter-state trade and commerce, banking, insurance, control of industries, regulation and development of mines, mineral and oil resources, elections, audit of Government Accounts, constitution and organization of Supreme Court,
High Courts and the Union Public Service Commission, Income-tax, Customs duties, export duties, Corporation tax, taxes on the capital value of assets, estate duties, terminal taxes, etc. Parliament has exclusive powers of legislation about items mentioned in this list.
Q 2. Critically analyze the division of powers under Indian Constitution.
Ans: Division of powers under Indian Constitution:
The basic provisions regarding the distribution of powers between the Central and Provincial (state) governments in the Indian Constitution are present in Part XI (Article 246) of the Constitution. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
This part is divided into two chapters – legislative relations and administrative relations. Indian Constitution has followed a system in which there are two lists of legislative powers, one for the Centre and the other for the State. The residue is left for the Centre.
This system is similar to the one in the Constitution of Canada. Following the Constitution of Australia, an additional list has been included in the Constitution of India, namely the Concurrent List.
The Constituent Assembly of India followed the system of division of power as was envisaged in the Government of India Act of 1935 regarding the provisions about divisions of power in India.
1. The State List:
The State List consists of sixty-six items. Some of the most important of these items are as follows – public order, police, administration of justice, prisons, local government, public health and sanitation, education, agriculture, animal husbandry, water supplies and irrigation,
land rights, forests, fisheries, moneylending, State Public Service Commission, land revenue, taxes on agricultural income, taxes on lands and buildings, estate duty, taxes on electricity, taxes on vehicles, taxes on luxuries, etc.
The selection of these items is based on local interest, and it envisages the possibility of the diversity of treatment with respect to different items in different States of the Union.
2. The Concurrent List:
The Concurrent List consists of forty-seven items. These are items with respect to which uniformity of legislation throughout the Union is desirable but not essential.
As such they are placed under the jurisdiction of both the Union and the States.
The list includes items such as marriage and divorce, transfer of property other than agricultural land, contracts, bankruptcy and insolvency, trustees and trusts, civil procedure, contempt of court, adulteration of foodstuffs, drugs and poisons, economic and social planning, trade unions, security, labour welfare, electricity, newspapers, books and printing presses, stamp duties, etc.
The Parliament of India and state legislatures have concurrent powers of legislation over the items included in this list. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Once Parliament enacts a law on an item in this list, the parliamentary law shall prevail over any state law on an item. There is, however, one exception to this general rule.
Q3. Examine central, provincial, and local administrative system in the period of Mauryan administrative system.
Ans: Central Administration system in the period of Mauryan administrative system: The King was the supreme and sovereign authority of the Mauryan administration.
He had the supreme executive, legislative, and judicial powers vested in him. He was responsible for the safety and security of his kingdom.
He laid down the general lines of policy that was to be followed by all officials. He appointed ministers and other officers of the royal administration.
In addition, the King was the supreme commander of the army and head of the entire military entire. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The Mauryan Empire (before Ashoka) was essentially a Hindu State. According to the Hindu concept, the supreme sovereign of the State was ‘Dharma’ or law and the King was to be its guardian. The King could never dare to defy the laws.
Provincial Administration system in the period of Mauryan administrative system:
The entire Empire was divided into two parts:
- The kingdom that was under the direct rule of the King.
- The vassal states.
The Mauryan territory that was directly ruled by the King was divided into a number of provinces called Janapadas
Ashoka had five provinces with capitals namely Taxila, Ujjain, Tosali, Suvarnagiri, and Pataliputra.
Each province was subdivided into a number of districts and each district was again subdivided into a number of units.
However, in addition to these centrally ruled Mauryan territories, there were vassal states. They enjoyed a great deal of autonomy.BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Local Administration system in the period of Mauryan administrative system:
The district administration was in the charge of ‘Rajukas’, whose position and functions are similar to today’s district collectors.
He was assisted by ‘Yuktas’ or subordinate officials. In the urban was, there was a Municipal Board with 30 members.
There were six committees with five Board members in each to manage the administration of cities. The six committees were:
1) Committee on Industrial Arts
2) Committee on Foreigners
3) Committee on Registration of Births and Deaths
4) Committee on Trade and Commerce
5) Committee on Supervision of Manufacturers
6) Committee on Collection of Excise and Customs Duties.
Q 4. Highlight the features of the office of Cabinet Secretary.
Ans: Features of the office of Cabinet Secretary:
The Cabinet Secretary is an administrative officer of the highest rank, selected for the office for his/her special qualities of tact, energy, initiative, and efficiency.
Being the head of the cabinet secretariat, he/she is entrusted with the function of securing coordination, as well as, timely and effective action by all departments in matters in, which the cabinet, as a whole or the PM is interested.
He should be a sufficiently senior officer so as to command the confidence and respect of all heads of departments.BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The following points highlight the roles, powers, and functions of the Cabinet Secretary. He/she/is the:
1) Chief Coordinator of central administration.
2) Chairperson of the senior selection board, which selects officials for the post of joint secretary in the central secretariat.
3) Selects the officers for the post of secretary and additional secretary in the central secretariat.
4) Chairperson of the committee of the Secretaries on administration, which is set up to resolve inter-ministerial disputes.
5) Presides over the conference of chief secretaries, which is held annually.
6) Chief advisor to the PM in all administration and policy matters.
7) Gives sanction to a minister before the latter decides to lodge prosecution against the publisher or auditor of newspaper in cases of defamation.
In this respect, a Cabinet Secretary can act on his own discretion, without even resorting to the advice of the Prime Minister. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
8) Advisor and conscience-keeper to all civil servants. He/She do help in the resolution of departmental difficulties.
As analyzed by Ramesh K.Arora and Rajni Goyal, “As a head of the civil services, the Cabinet Secretary ensures that morale of the civil servants remains high.”
9) Acts, as a link between the Prime Minister’s Office and various administrative agencies on one hand, and also between the civil services and the political system, on the other.
Q 5. Elaborate the constitutional provisions, composition, and functions of Union Public Service Commission.
Ans: Constitutional provisions of Union Public Service Commission:
Constitutional provisions governing the Public Service Commissions at the state level are given below: BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
1. Article 315 of the Constitution provides for the establishment of Public Service Commissions. It stipulates that there shall be a Public Service Commissions for the Union as well as a Public Service Commissions for each state.
2. Article 316 prescribes the composition of such Commissions. It also deliberates on the method of appointment of the Chairperson and members as well as their terms of office.
3. We have already explained that with a view to ensuring objectivity and impartiality in recruitment, this task has been entrusted to a Commission and it has been accorded a Constitutional status.
4. What will be the scope of duties and functions of the Public Service Commissions? What will be the overall sweep of their role as recruiting agencies?
Composition of Union Public Service Commission:
The number of members, which a state PSC may have, is not fixed. The Constitution stipulates that this shall be determined by the Governor of the concerned state.
At least, half of the members of a Commission are persons with a minimum of ten years of experience under the Central or a State Government. The Members are appointed for a term of six years or until the age of sixty-two years.
Functions of Union Public Service Commission:
As recruiting agencies, the principal function of the state Public Service Commissions is to conduct examinations for appointment to the civil services.
However, certain other duties arise from this and Commission is enjoined to discharge them. These include: BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
i) To tender advice to the state government on a matter so referred to it by the Governor.
ii) To exercise such additional functions as may be provided for by an act of the Legislature, these may be with respect to the State Civil Service, or the services of a local authority or other corporate bodies.
Q 6. Write a short note on Montague-Chelmsford Reforms 1919.
Ans: Montague-Chelmsford Reforms 1919:
In 1918, Edwin Montagu, the Secretary of State, and Lord Chelmsford, the Viceroy, produced their scheme of constitutional reforms, known as the Montagu-Chelmsford (or Mont-Ford) Reforms, which led to the enactment of the Government of India Act of 1919.
Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms came into force in 1921. The sole purpose of this Act was to ensure Indians of their representation in the Government.
The Act introduced reforms at the Central as well as Provincial levels of Government.
The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
The reforms take their name from Edwin Samuel Montagu, the Secretary of State for India during the latter parts of World War I and Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India between 1916 and 1921. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The reforms were outlined in the Montagu-Chelmsford Report prepared in 1918
and formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.
Q 7. List out the special powers of Rajya Sabha.
Ans: Special powers of Rajya Sabha: It has every right to seek information on all matters which are exclusively in the domain of Lok Sabha.
It has no power to pass a vote of no-confidence in the Council of Ministers. It also does not have much influence on the matters of Money Bill.
However, the Constitution grants certain special powers to the Rajya Sabha. As the sole representative of the States, the Rajya Sabha enjoys two exclusive powers which are of considerable importance. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
First, under Article 249, the Rajya Sabha has the power to pass a resolution by a majority of not less than two-thirds of members present and voting, declaring that it is ‘necessary or expedient in the national interest’.
The matter in such resolution should belong to the State List. The law passed on the matter in the resolution shall be valid for one year.
The second, Article 312 also provides special power to the Rajya Sabha to pass a resolution on another matter, i.e. to create one or more All India Services.
Like the resolution to be passed under Article 249, under Article 312 also,
the resolution should be passed by two-thirds of members present and voting in the House.
Q 8. What do you mean by Judicial Activism?
Ans: Judicial Activism:
Judicial activism is gaining prominence in the present days. In the form of Public Interest Litigation, citizens are getting access to justice.
Judiciary has become the centre of controversy, in the recent past, on account of the sudden rise in the level of judicial intervention. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
The area of judicial intervention has been steadily expanding through the device of public interest itigation.
The judiciary has shed its pro-status-quo approach and taken upon itself the duty to enforce the basic rights of the poor and vulnerable sections of society, by progressive interpretation and positive action.
In the words of Justice Krishna lyer, “by way of judicial activism, the judiciary is trying to reach where either the government has failed or has been indifferent”.
Q 9. Discuss the composition of Finance Commission.
Ans: Composition of Finance Commission:
Finance Commission has a chairman and four other members who shall be appointed by the president of India. The first chairman of the Finance Commission was K.C Neogy.
The 15th Finance Commission is headed by former revenue secretary and former Rajya Sabha member, N.K Singh. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
Qualification of Members of Finance Commission:
The parliament has set the qualifications for the members to be appointed for Finance Commission
- The chairman of the Finance Commission must be a person having experience in public affairs.
- Four other members of the Finance Commission should be selected from the following
I. A person should be a judge of a high court or qualified to be appointed as one.
II. A person who possesses specialised knowledge of finance and accounts of the government. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
III. A person who has extensive experience in administration and financial matters.
Q 10. Describe the functions of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India.
Ans: Functions of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India:
Functions of Telecom Regulatory Authority of India are mainly:
1. To recommend the need for and timing of introduction of new service providers and terms and conditions of the license to a service provider.
2. To ensure technical compatibility and interconnect between different service providers and regulate their revenue-sharing arrangements.
3. To ensure compliance with terms of license and revaluation of the same for non-compliance.
4. To lay down and ensure a time period for providing long-distance and local distance circuits.
5. To facilitate competition and promote efficiency in operations to promote the growth of telecom services. BPAC 133 Free Solved Assignment
6. To protect consumers’ interest, monitor quality of services, inspect equipment used in networks and make recommendations about such equipment.
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BANC 134 Free Solved Assignment July 2021 & Jan 2022